Drug delivery systems in oral and transdermal hormone therapies





Drug Delivery Systems; Transdermal System; Transdermal patch.


The purpose of any drug delivery system is to deliver appropriate therapeutic amounts of drugs to the body in order to achieve and maintain the desired concentration of the administered substance. The aim of this work to analyze innovations in drug delivery systems by oral and transdermal route by the pharmaceutical industry. It is integrative review of literature, analyzing studies in some databases such as in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with the descriptors: drug delivery systems, pharmaceutical industry, hormones, oral and transdermal. The papers selected for the study range from 2000 to 2021, excluding duplicate studies and those that were not related to the topic. The research initially identified 5360 studies, being 5336 of those papers excluded after the application of exclusion criteria. A greater number of studies with the descriptor hormones was observed, substantially greater in the range from 2006 to 2011. There was a greater predominance of transdermals than oral in which concerns selected studies. This information reinforces, therefore, the great advantage of treatments with these types of systems, as they improve the patient's therapy bringing an adequate cure or palliative. In addition, it is also noted that a greater incentive is needed to study these systems orally, providing new insulin therapies, for example, orally, bringing more adherence, without the routine stings.

Author Biographies

Davi Azevedo Ferreira, Federal University of Campina Grande

Federal University of Campina Grande, Education and Health Center, Academic Health Unit, 58175-000, Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.

Ângelo Gabriel Caminha de Sousa, Federal University of Campina Grande

Federal University of Campina Grande, Education and Health Center, Academic Health Unit, 58175-000, Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.

José Guilherme da Silva Santos, Federal University of Campina Grande

Federal University of Campina Grande, Education and Health Center, Academic Health Unit, 58175-000, Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.

Lara Luzia do Vale Alves, Federal University of Campina Grande

Federal University of Campina Grande, Education and Health Center, Academic Health Unit, 58175-000, Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil.

Toshiyuki Nagashima Júnior, Federal University of Campina Grande

Professo at Federal University of Campina Grande, Education and Health Center,58175-000, Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil. He is currently an ad hoc consultant of the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science - São Paulo


Abramson, A Caffarel-Salvador, E Soares, V Minahan, D Tian, R. Y & Lu, X (2019). A luminal unfolding microneedle injector for oral delivery of macromolecules. Nature Medicine, 25(10), 1512-1518.

Alyautdin, R Khalin, I Nafeeza, MI Haron, M. H., & Kuznetsov, D. (2014). Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 9, 795-811.

Ching-ng, L & Gupta, M (2020). Transdermal drug delivery systems in diabetes management: A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(1): 13-25.

Chorilli, M., Brizante, A. C., Rodrigues, C. A., & Salgado, H. R. N. (2007). Aspectos gerais em sistemas transdérmicos de liberação de fármacos. Rev. Bras. Farm, 88(1), 7-13.

Doostmohammadi, M Ameri, A Mohammadinejad, R Dehghannoudeh, N Banat, I. N Ohadi, M et al (2019). Hydrogels for peptide hormones delivery: Therapeutic and tissue engineering applications. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 13, 3405-3418.

Hanbali, O. A. A..., Khan, H. M. S., Sarfraz, M., Arafat, M., Liaz, S., & Hameed, A (2019). Transdermal patches: Design and current approaches to painless drug delivery. Acta Pharm, 69 (2), 197-215.

Jain, D Panda, A. K & Majumdar, D. K (2005). Eudragit S100 Entrapped Insulin Microspheres for Oral Delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech, 6(1), 100-107.

Lammers, T (2013). Smart Drug Delivery Systems: Back to the Future vs. Clinical Reality. Int J Pharm, 454(1), 527-529.

Marwah, H Garg, T Goyal, A. K & Rath, G (2014). Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery. Drug Deliv, 23(2), 564-578.

Massaro, M Cavallaro, G Colletti, CG D’Azzo, G Guernelli, S Lazzara, G et al (2018). Halloysite nanotubes for efficient loading, stabilization and controlled release of insulin. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 524, 156-164.

Morishita, M Goto, T Nakamura, K Lowman, A. M Takayama, K & Peppas, N. A (2006). Novel oral insulin delivery systems based on complexation polymer hydrogels: Single and multiple administration studies in type 1 and 2 diabetic rats. J Control Release, 110(3), 587-594.

Morishita, M Lowman, A. M Takayama, K Nagai, T & Peppas, N. A (2002). Elucidation of the mechanism of incorporation of insulin in controlled release systems based on complexation polymers. J Control Release, 81(1-2), 25-32.

Rajabalaya, R Musa, M. N., Kifli, N & David, S. R (2017). Oral and transdermal drug delivery systems: role of lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 11, 393-406.

Regenthal, R Voskanian, M Baumann, F Teichert, J Brätter, C Aigner, A et al (2018). Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a transdermal anastrozole-in-adhesive formulation. Drug Design. Development and Therapy, 12, 3653-3664.

Rodriguez-devora, J. I., Ambure, S Shi, Z. D., Yuan, Y., & Sun, W (2012). Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems. Ther Deliv, 1(3), 125–139.

Santini, J Richards, A Scheidt, R Cima, M Langer, R (2000). Microchips as controlled drug-delivery devices. Angew. Chem, 39(14), 2397-2407.

Santos, N. S., & Castanho, M. A. R. B. (2002). Lipossomas: a bala mágica acertou? Química Nova, 25(6b), 1181-1185.

Shah, P Goodyear, B Dholaria, N Puri, V & Michniak-Kohn, B (2021). Nanostructured Non-Ionic Surfactant Carrier-Based Gel for Topical Delivery of Desoximetasone. Int. J. Mol. Sci, 22, 1-25.

Silva, J. A Apolinário, A. C., Souza, M. S. R., Damasceno, B. P. G. L., & Medeiros, A. C. D (2010). Administração cutânea de fármacos: desafios e estratégias para o desenvolvimento de formulações transdérmicas. Rev. Ciênc. Farm. Básica Apl, 31(3), 125-131.

Sousa, T Silva, M. D., & Carvalho, R. C (2010). Revisão integrativa: o que é e como fazer. Einstein, 8(1), 102-106.

Takeuchi, I Kobayashi, S Hida, Y & Makino, K (2017). Estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improving low bone mineral density of cancellous bone caused by osteoporosis: Application of enhanced charged nanoparticles with iontophoresis. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 155, 35-40.

Villanova, J. C. O., Oréfice, R. L., & Cunha, A. S. (2010). Aplicações Farmacêuticas de Polímeros. Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia, 20(1), 51-64.

Wilczewska, A Z., Niemirowicz, K., Markiewicz, K. H & Car, H (2012). Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Pharmacological Reports, 64, 1020-1037.

Yun, Y. H., Lee, B. K., & Park, K (2015). Controlled Drug Delivery: Historical perspective for the next generation. J Control Release, 219, 2–7.

Zhang, L., & Mao S (2017). Application of quality by design in the current drug development. As. J. Pharm. Sci, 12, 1-8.




How to Cite

FERREIRA, D. A.; SOUSA, Ângelo G. C. de .; SANTOS, J. G. da S. .; ALVES, L. L. do V. .; NAGASHIMA JÚNIOR, T. Drug delivery systems in oral and transdermal hormone therapies. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 6, p. e2411628700, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i6.28700. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/28700. Acesso em: 18 may. 2022.



Health Sciences