Roles of terpenoid Astragaloside IV in altered states of the nervous system: an updated review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i6.28861

Keywords:

Medicinal plants; Astragaloside IV; Central Nervous System; Neurodegeneration; Neuroprotection; Teaching.

Abstract

Compounds of natural origin have been used by the human species in the treatment of various diseases since the most remote times, with many active principles being isolated in recent years. One of these compounds, Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), obtained from the root extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a plant native to southwestern Asia, has been particularly studied, possessing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties. In this sense, the aforementioned substance has become a component used in several models of Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. In light of this, the present review aimed to describe the roles of this substance in models of altered states of the CNS, focusing on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases, stroke and traumatic brain injury, debilitating conditions that result in a severe impact on both socioeconomic and health care systems. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions of AS-IV were characterized in both in vitro and in vivo models in the distinct pathologies investigated, indicating that this substance emerges as an important element for the treatment of altered states of the CNS.

References

Adesso, S., Russo, R., Quaroni, A., Autore, G. & Marzocco, S. (2018). Astragalus membranaceus extract attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells via NF-κB activation and Nrf2 response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(3), 800. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030800.

Akhondzadeh, S. & Abbasi, S. H. (2006). Herbal medicine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 21, 113-118. doi: 10.1177/153331750602100211.

Alzheimer’s Association (2015). Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 11, 332-384. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.02.003.

Amoateng, P., Quansah, E., Karikari, T. K., Asase, A., Osei-Safo, D., Kukuia, K. K. E., Amponsah, I. K. & Nyarko, A. N. (2018). Medicinal plants used in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders in Ghana. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018, 8590381. doi: 10.1155/2018/8590381.

Apostolova, L. G. (2016). Alzheimer disease. Continuum (Minneapolis Minn.) 22 (2 Dementia), 419-434. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000307.

Armstrong, M. J. & Okun, M. S. (2020). Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease: A review. JAMA 323, 548-560. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.22360.

Ball, N., Teo, W.-P., Chandra, S. & Chapman, J. (2019). Parkinson’s disease and the Environment. Frontiers in Neurology 10, 218. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00218.

Blauwendraat, C., Nalls, M. A. & Singleton, A. B. (2020). The genetic architecture of Parkinson’s disease. The Lancet Neurology 19, 170-178. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30287-X.

Breijyeh, Z. & Karaman, R. (2020). Comprehensive review on Alzheimer’s disease: Causes and treatment. Molecules 25, 5789. doi:10.3390/molecules25245789.

Casarin, S. T., Porto, A. R., Gabatz, R. I. B., Bonow, C. A., Ribeiro, J. P. & Mota, M. S. (2020). Tipos de revisão de literatura: considerações das editoras do Journal of Nursing and Health. Journal of Nursing and Health 10 (n.esp.), e20104031. doi:10.15210/JONAH.V10I5.19924.

Cichon, N., Saluk-Bijak, J., Gorniak, L., Przyslo, L. & Bijak, M. (2020). Flavonoids as a natural enhancer of neuroplasticity - An overview of the mechanism of neurorestorative action. Antioxidants (Basel) 9(11), 1035. doi: 10.3390/antiox9111035.

Chan, W. S., Durairajan, S. S., Lu, J. H., Wang, Y., Xie, L. X., Kum, W. F., Koo, I., Yung, K. K. & Li, M (2009). Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell culture. Neurochemistry International 55, 414-422. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2009.04.012.

Chang, C. P., Liu, Y. F., Lin, H. J., Hsu, C. C., Cheng, B. C., Liu, W. P., Lin, M. T., Hsu, S. F., Chang, L. S. & Lin, K. C. (2016). Beneficial effect of Astragaloside on Alzheimer’s disease condition using cultured primary cortical cells under beta-amyloid exposure. Molecular Neurobiology 53, 7329-7340. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9623-2.

Chaudhary, L. B., Rana, T. S. & Anand, K. K. (2008). Current status of the systematics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) with special reference to the Himalayan species in India. Taiwania 53, 338–355. doi: 10.6165/tai.2008.53(4).338.

Chen, F., Yang, D., Cheng, X.-Y., Yang, H., Yang, X.-H., Liu H.-T., Wang, R., Zheng, P., Yao, Y. & Li, J. (2021). Astragaloside IV ameliorates cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in an oligomeric Aβ induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model via inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase expression. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 44(11), 1688-1696. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b21-00381.

Chen, J., Guan, Z., Wang, L., Song, G., Ma, B. & Wang, Y. (2014). Meta-analysis: Overweight, obesity, and Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Endocrinology 2014, e203930. doi: 10.1155/2014/203930.

Chio, C. C., Lin, M. T., Chang, C. P. & Lin, H. J. (2016). A positive correlation exists between neurotrauma and TGF-β1-containing microglia in rats. European Journal of Clinical Investigations 46, 1063-1069. doi: 10.1111/eci.12693.

Cho, W. C. S. & Leung, K. N. (2007). In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113, 132-141. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.05.020.

Costa, I. M., Freire, M. A. M., Cavalcanti, J. R. L. P., Araújo, D. P., Norrara, B., Rosa, I. M. M. M., Azevedo, E. P., Rego, A. C. M., Filho I. A. & Guzen, F. P. (2019). Supplementation with Curcuma longa reverses neurotoxic and behavioral damage in models of Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Current Neuropharmacology 17, 406-421. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666180117112610.

Costa, I. M., Lima, F. O. V., Fernandes, L. C. B., Norrara, B., Neta, F. I., Alves, R. D., Cavalcanti, J. R. L. P., Lucena, E. E. S., Cavalcante, J. S., Rego, A. C. M., Filho, I. A., Queiroz, D. B., Freire, M. A. M. & Guzen, F. P. (2019). Astragaloside IV supplementation promotes a neuroprotective effect in experimental models of neurological disorders: A systematic review. Current Neuropharmacology 17, 648-665. doi: 10.2174/1570159X16666180911123341.

Custodio, A. D., Morais-Filho, A. B., Gomes, A. T. N., Lobato, I. A. F., Cavalcanti, J.R.L.P., Falcao, D. & Freire, M. A. M. (2021). Epidemiological characterization of stroke cases under rehabilitation on the Brazilian Unified Health System in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Health Sciences Journal,11, 70-77. doi: 10.21876/rcshci.v11i4.1163.

Dev, P. & Pathak, A. (2021). Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants and natural bioactive compounds. In: Biopharmacological Activities of Medicinal Plants and Bioactive Compounds. Nova Science Publishers.

Dewan, M. C., Rattani, A., Gupta, S., Baticulon, R. E., Hung, Y. C., Punchak, M., Agrawal, A., Adeleye, A. O., Shrime, M. G., Rubiano, A. M., Rosenfeld, J. V. & Park, K. B. (2018). Estimating the global incidence of traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurjery 1, 1-18. doi: 10.3171/2017.10.JNS17352.

Drouin, E. & Drouin, G. (2017). The first report of Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology 16, 687. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30258-2.

Fauci, A. S., Kasper, D. L., Longo, D. L., Braunwald, E., Hauser, S. L., Jameson, J. L. & Loscalzo, J. (2008). Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. vol. 2. McGraw-Hill. Medical Publishing Division New York.

Feigin, V.L., Forouzanfar, M. H., Krishnamurthi, R., Mensah, G. A., Connor, M., Bennett, D. A., Moran, A. E., Sacco, R. L., Anderson, L., Truelsen, T., O’Donnell, M., Venketasubramanian, N., Barker-Collo, S., Lawes, C. M., Wang, W., Shinohara, Y., Witt, E., Ezzati, M., Naghavi, M. & Murray, C. (2014). Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010. Lancet 383, 245-254. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(13)61953-4.

Freire, M. A. M. (2006). Santiago Ramón Y Cajal - O pai da neurociência moderna. Neurociências 3, 146-147. https://uploads.aasdap.org.br/pages/scientific-publications/2007_opai.pdf

Freire, M. A. M. (2012). Pathophysiology of neurodegeneration following traumatic brain injury. West Indian Medical Journal 61, 751-755. doi: 10.7727/wimj.2012.003.

Freire, M. A. M. & Falcao, D. (2020). Inflammatory response, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress following Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Recent Developments in Neurodegeneration. Nova Science Publishers.

Freire M. A. M. & Santos J. R. (2010). Parkinson's disease: general features, effects of levodopa treatment and future directions. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 4, 146. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2010.00146.

Gao, Q., Li, J., Cheung, J. K. H., Duan, J., Ding, A., Cheung, A. W. H., Zhao, K., Li, W. Z., Dong, T. T. & Tsim, K. W. K. (2007). Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae. Chinese Medicine 2, 12. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-2-12.

Ge, B., Li, S. & Li, F. (2020). Astragaloside-IV regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in a murine model of Parkinson’s disease via the lincRNA-p21/CHOP pathway. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 115, 104478. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104478.

Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. (2019). Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurology 18, 56-87. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30415-0.

Gong, A. G. W., Duan, R., Wang, H. Y., Kong, X. P., Dong, T. T. X., Tsim, K. W. K. & Chan, K. (2018). Evaluation of the pharmaceutical properties and value of Astragali radix. Medicines 5, 46. doi: 10.3390/medicines5020046.

Haiyan, H., Rensong, Y., Guoqin, J., Xueli, Z., Huaying, X., & Yanwu, X. (2016). Effect of Astragaloside IV on neural stem cell transplantation in Alzheimer’s disease rat models. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016, 3106980. doi:10.1155/2016/3106980.

Hajiaghaee, R. & Akhondzadeh, S. (2018). Herbal medicine in the treatment of schizophrenia: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants 17, 67. https://jmp.ir/article-1-2259-en.pdf.

Halliday, G. M. & Stevens, C. H. (2011). Glia: Initiators and progressors of pathology in Parkinson’s disease: Glia in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders 26, 6-17. doi: 10.1002/mds.23455.

Hirsch, L., Jette, N., Frolkis, A., Steeves, T. & Pringsheim, T. (2016). The incidence of Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroepidemiology 46, 292-300. doi: 10.1159/000445751.

Hsieh, C.-L., Lao, L., Lin, Y.-W. & Litscher, G. (2014). Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 175152. doi: 10.1155/2014/175152.

Iovino, L., Tremblay, M. E. & Civiero, L. (2020). Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in Parkinson’s disease: The role of glial cells. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 144, 151-164. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2020.07.011.

Jiang, J.-Y, Gao, G.-Y., Feng, J.-F., Mao, Q., Chen, L.-G., Yang, X.-F., Liu, J.-F., Wang, Y.-H., Qiu B.-H. & Huang, X.-J. (2019). Traumatic brain injury in China. Lancet Neurology 18, 286-295. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30469-1.

Kang, X., Su, S., Hong, W., Geng, W. & Tang, H. (2021). Research progress on the ability of Astragaloside IV to protect the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Frontiers in Neuroscience 15, 755902. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.755902.

Katan, M.& Luft, A. (2018). Global burden of stroke. Seminars in Neurology 38, 208-211. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1649503.

Kheiri, G., Dolatshahi, M., Rahmani, F. & Rezaei, N. (2018). Role of p38/MAPKs in Alzheimer’s disease: implications for amyloid beta toxicity targeted therapy. Reviews in the Neurosciences 30, 9-30. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2018-0008.

Kim, C., Ha, H., Kim, J. S., Kim, Y. T., Kwon, S. C. & Park, S. W. (2003). Induction of growth hormone by the roots of Astragalus membranaceus in pituitary cell culture. Archives of Pharmacological Research 26, 34-39. doi: 10.1007/BF03179928.

Kim, Y. B., Thwe, A. A., Li, X., Tuan, P. A., Lee, S., Lee, J. W., Arasu, M. V., Al-Dhabi, N. A. & Park, S. U. (2014). Accumulation of astragalosides and related gene expression in different organs of astragalus membranaceus BGE. var mongholicus (BGE). Molecules, 19, 10922–10935. doi: 10.3390/molecules190810922.

Kunz, A., Dirnagl, U. & Merghenthaler, P. (2010). Acute pathophysiological processes after ischaemic and traumatic brain injury. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 24, 495-509. doi: 10.1016/j.bpa.2010.10.001.

Kuter, K. Z., Cenci, M. A. & Carta, A. R. (2020). The role of glia in Parkinson’s disease: Emerging concepts and therapeutic applications. Progress in Brain Research 252, 131-168. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.02.004.

Kwon, H. -J, Hwang, J., Lee, S. -K. & Park Y. -D. (2013). Astragaloside content in the periderm, cortex, and xylem of Astragalus membranaceus root. Journal of Natural Medicines 67, 850-855. doi: 10.1007/s11418-013-0741-8.

Li, C. X., Li, L., Lou, J., Yang, W. X., Lei, T. W., Li, Y. H., Liu, J., Cheng, M. L. & Huang, L. H. (1998). The protective effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescription, Han-Dan-Gan-Le, on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 26, 325-332. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X98000361.

Li, H., Wang, P., Huang, F., Jin, J., Wu, H., Zhang, B., Wang, Z., Shi, H. & Wu X. (2018). Astragaloside IV protects blood-brain barrier integrity from LPS-induced disruption via activating Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 340, 58-66. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.12.019.

Li, J., Ma, X., Wang, Y., Chen, C., Hu, M., Wang, L., Fu, J., Shi, G., Zhang, D. & Zhang, T. (2018). Methyl salicylate lactoside protects neurons ameliorating cognitive disorder through inhibiting amyloid beta-induced neuroinflammatory response in Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 10, 85. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00085.

Li, L., Hou, X., Xu, R., Liu, C. & Tu, M. (2017a). Research review on the pharmacological effects of Astragaloside IV. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 31, 17-36. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12232.

Li, M., Li, H., Fang, F., Deng, X. & Ma, S. (2017b). Astragaloside IV attenuates cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice via anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Neuroscience Letters 639, 114-119. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.12.046.

Lin, J., Pan, X., Huang, C., Gu, M., Chen, X., Zheng, X., Shao, Z., Hu, S., Wang, B., Lin, H., Wu, Y., Tian, N., Wu, Y., Gao, W., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X. & Wang, X. (2020). Dual regulation of microglia and neurons by Astragaloside IV-mediated mTORC1 suppression promotes functional recovery after acute spinal cord injury. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 24, 671-685. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.14776.

Liu, X., Wang, W., Song, G., Wei, X., Zeng, Y., Han, P., Wang, D., Shao, M., Wu, J., Sun, H., Xiong, G. & Li, S. (2017). Astragaloside IV ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by modulating the mitochondrial quality control network. PlosOne, 12(8), e0182558. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182558.

Liu, X., Zhang, J., Wang, S., Qiu, J. & Yu, C. (2017). Astragaloside IV attenuates the H2O2-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells by inhibiting α-synuclein expression via the p38 MAPK pathway. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 40, 1772-1780. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3157.

Lu, M. C., Yao, C. H., Wang, S. H., Lai, Y. L., Tsai, C. C. & Chen, Y. S. (2010). Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of Trauma 68, 434-440. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31819adb38.

Ma, X. Q., Shi, Q., Duan, J. A., Dong, T. T. X. & Tsim, K. W. K. (2002). Chemical analysis of Radix Astragali (Huangqi) in China: A comparison with its adulterants and seasonal variations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 4861-4866. doi: 10.1021/jf0202279.

Ma, Y. & Xioung, L. (2019). Astragaloside IV ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis of Aβ25 35 treated PC12 cells by inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular Medicine Reports 19, 2005-2012. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.9855.

Maleki, S. J., Crespo, J. F. & Cabanillas, B. (2019). Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids. Food Chemistry 299, 125124. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125124.

Marras, C., Canning, C. G. & Goldman, S. M. (2019). Environment, lifestyle, and Parkinson’s disease: Implications for prevention in the next decade. Movement Disorders 34, 801-811. doi: 10.1002/mds.27720.

Morales, I., Guzman-Martinez, L., Cerda-Trancoso, C., Farias, G. A. & Maccioni, R. B. (2014). Neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. A rational framework for the search of novel therapeutic approaches. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 8, 112. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00112.

Moses, T., Papadopoulou, K. K. & Osbourn, A. (2014). Metabolic and functional diversity of saponins, biosynthetic intermediates and semi-synthetic derivatives. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 49, 439-462. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2014.953628.

Nalls, M. A., Blauwendraat, C., Vallerga, C. L., Heilbron, K., Bandres-Ciga, S., Chang, D., Tan, M., Kia, D. A., Noyce, A. J., Xue, A., Bras, J., Young, E., von Coelln, R., Simón-Sánchez, J., Schulte, C., Sharma, M., Krohn, L., Pihlstrøm, L., Siitonen, A., Iwaki, H., Leonard, H., Faghri, F., Gibbs, J. R., Hernandez, D. G., Scholz, S. W., Botia, J. A., Martinez, M., Corvol, J. C., Lesage, S., Jankovic, J., Shulman, L. M., Sutherland, M., Tienari, P., Majamaa, K., Toft, M., Andreassen, O. A., Bangale, T., Brice, A., Yang, J., Gan-Or, Z., Gasser, T., Heutink, P., Shulman, J. M., Wood, N. W., Hinds, D. A., Hardym J. A., Morris, H. R., Gratten, J., Visscher, P. M., Graham, R. R., Singleton, A. B. 23andMe Research Team, System Genomics of Parkinson's Disease Consortium, International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium. (2019). Identification of novel risk loci, causal insights, and heritable risk for Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The Lancet Neurology 18, 1091-1102. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30320-5.

Ortiz-Prado, E., Mascialino, G., Paz, C., Rodriguez-Lorenzana, A., Gómez-Barreno, L., Simbaña-Rivera, K., Diaz, A.M., Coral Almeida, M. & Espinosa, P. S. (2020). A nationwide study of incidence and mortality due to traumatic brain injury in Ecuador (2004-2016). Neuroepidemiology 54, 33-44. doi: 10.1159/000502580.

Pan, Y. F., Jia, X. T., Song, E. F. & Peng, X. Z. (2018). Astragaloside protects against Abeta1-42-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 33(1), 29-37. doi: 10.24920/11802.

Parkinson, J. (2002). An essay on the shaking palsy. 1817. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 14(2), 223-236; discussion 222. doi: 10.1176/jnp.14.2.223.

Patten, D. A., Germain, M., Kelly, M. A. & Slack, R. S. (2010). Reactive oxygen species: stuck in the middle of neurodegeneration. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 20, S357-S367. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-100498.

Perl, D. P. (2010). Neuropathology of Alzheimer’s Disease. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 77(1), 32-42. doi: 10.1002/msj.20157.

Popernack, M.L., Gray, N. & Reuter-Rice, K. (2015). Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury in children: Complications and rehabilitation strategies. Journal of Pediatric Health Care 29, e1-e7. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2014.09.003.

Qu, Y. Z., Li, M., Zhao, Y. L., Zhao, Z. W., Wei, X. Y., Liu, J. P., Gao, L. & Gao, G. D. (2009). Astragaloside IV attenuates cerebral ischemia–reperfusion-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 606, 137-141. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.01.022.

Rother, E. T. (2007). Revisão sistemática x revisão narrativa. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem 20 (2). doi: 10.1590/S0103-21002007000200001.

Sacco, R. L. (1997). Risk factors, outcomes, and stroke subtypes for ischemic stroke. Neurology 49, S39-44. doi: 10.1212/wnl.49.5_suppl_4.s39.

Sarris, J. (2018). Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review. Phytotherapy Research, 32(7), 1147-1162. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6055.

Sastre, M., Klockgether, T., & Heneka, M. T. (2006). Contribution of inflammatory processes to Alzheimer’s disease: molecular mechanisms. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 24, 167-176. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2005.11.014.

Seshadri, S., Beiser, A., Kelly-Hayes, M., Kase, C. S., Au, R., Kannel, W. B. & Wolf, P. A. (2006). The lifetime risk of stroke: estimates from the Framingham Study. Stroke 37, 345-350. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000199613.38911.b2.

Shang, L., Qu, Z., Sun, L., Wang, Y., Liu, F., Wang, S., Gao, H. & Jiang, F. (2011). Astragaloside IV inhibits adenovirus replication and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 63, 688-694. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01258.x.

Shi, X.-J., Fan, F.-C., Liu, H., Ai, Y.-W., Liu, Q.-S., Jiao, Y.-G. & Cheng, Y. (2021). Traditional Chinese Medicine decoction combined with antipsychotic for chronic schizophrenia treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Pharmacology 11, 616088. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.616088.

Silva, A. B. G, Pestana, B. C, Hirahata, F. A. A, Horta, F. B. S. & Oliveira, E. S. B. E. (2021). Parkinson’s Disease: literature review. Brazilian Journal of Development 7, 47677-47698. doi: 10.34117/bjdv.v7i5.29678.

Somogyi, P., Tamás, G., Lujan, R. & Buhl, E. H. (1998). Salient features of synaptic organisation in the cerebral cortex. Brain Research Reviews 26,113-135. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0173(97)00061-1.

Spencer, J. P. E., Vafeiadou, K., Williams, R. J. & Vanzour, D. (2012). Neuroinflammation: Modulation by flavonoids and mechanisms of action. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 33, 83-97. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2011.10.016.

Stojkovska, I., Krainc, D. & Mazzulli, J. R. (2018). Molecular mechanisms of alpha-synuclein and GBA1 in Parkinson’s disease. Cell and Tissue Research 373, 51-60. doi: 10.1007/s00441-017-2704-y.

Suk, K. (2005). Regulation of neuroinflammation by herbal medicine and its implications for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurosignals, 14, 23-33. doi: 10.1159/000085383.

Sun, L., Han, R., Guo, F., Chen, H., Wang, W., Chen, Z., Liu, W., Sun, X. & Gao, C. (2020). Antagonistic effects of IL-17 and Astragaloside IV on cortical neurogenesis and cognitive behavior after stroke in adult mice through Akt/GSK-3β pathway. Cell Death Discovery 6, 74. doi: 10.1038/s41420-020-00298-8.

Sun, L., Zhang, H., Wang, W., Chen, Z., Wang, S., Li, J., Li, G., Gao, C. & Sun, X. (2020). Astragaloside IV exerts cognitive benefits and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in stroke mice by downregulating interleukin-17 expression via Wnt pathway. Frontiers in Pharmacology 211, 421. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00421.

Sun, Q., Jia, N., Wang, W., Jin, H., Xu, J. & Hu, H. (2014). Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. PLoS One 9, e98866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098866.

Takizawa, C., Thompson, P. L., van Walsem, A., Faure, C. & Maier, W. C. (2015). Epidemiological and economic burden of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic literature review of data across Europe and the United States of America. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 43, 1271-1284. doi: 10.3233/JAD-141134.

Turin, T. C., Okamura, T., Afzal, A. R., Rumana, N., Watanabe, M., Higashiyama, A., Nakao, Y., Nakai, M., Takegami, M., Nishimura, K., Kokubo, Y., Okayama, A. & Miyamoto, Y. (2016). Hypertension and lifetime risk of stroke. Journal of Hypertension 34, 116-122. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000753.

Uddin, M. J. & Zidorn, C. (2020). Traditional herbal medicines against CNS disorders from Bangladesh. Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 10, 377-410. doi: 10.1007/s13659-020-00269-7.

Ullah, A., Munir, S., Badshah, S. L., Khan, N., Ghani, L., Poulson, B. G., Emwas, A. H. & Jaremko, M. (2020). Important flavonoids and their role as a therapeutic agent. Molecules 25(22), 5243. doi: 10.3390/molecules25225243.

Wang, H. L., Zhou, Q. H., Xu, M. B., Zhou, X. L. & Zheng, G.Q. (2017). Astragaloside IV for experimental focal cerebral ischemia: Preclinical evidence and possible mechanisms. Oxidative Medicine and Cell Longevity 2017, 8424326. doi: 10.1155/2017/8424326.

Wang, X., Gao, F., Xu, W., Cao, Y., Wang, J. & Zhu, G. (2021). Deciphering the effects of Astragaloside IV on AD-like phenotypes: A systematic and experimental investigation. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2021, 1020614. doi: 10.1155/2021/1020614.

Wang, X., Xu, W., Chen, H., Li, W., Li, W. & Zhu, G. (2020). Astragaloside IV prevents Abeta(1-42) oligomers-induced memory impairment and hippocampal cell apoptosis by promoting PPARgamma/BDNF signaling pathway. Brain Research 1747, 147041. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147041.

Woodruff, T. M., Thundyil, J., Tang, S. C., Sobey, C. G., Taylor, S. M. & Arumugam, T. V. (2011). Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke. Molecular Neurodegeneration 6, 11. doi: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-11.

Wu, T., Wang, J., Wang, C., Hallett, M., Zang, Y., Wu, X. & Chan, P. (2012). Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson’s disease patients. Neuroscience Letters 524, 55-59. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.07.012.

Xia, L., Guo, D. & Chen, B. (2017). Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV on Parkinson disease models of mice and primary astrocytes. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 14, 5569-5575. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5238.

Xia, M.-L., Xie, X.-H., Ding, J.-H., Du, R.-H. & Hu, G. (2020). Astragaloside IV inhibits astrocyte senescence: implication in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neuroinflammation 17, 105. doi: 10.1186/s12974-020-01791-8.

Xiao, X. Q., Wang, R. & Tang, X. C. (2000). Huperzine A and tacrine attenuate β-amyloid peptide-induced oxidative injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research 61, 564-569. doi: 10.1002/1097-4547(20000901)61:5<564::AID-JNR11>3.0.CO;2-X.

Xu, Z., Yang, D., Huang, X. & Huang, H. (2021). Astragaloside IV protects 6-hydroxydopamine-induced SH-SY5Y cell model of Parkinson’s disease via activating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Frontiers in Neuroscience 15, doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.631501.

Yang, C., Mo, Y., Xu, E., Wen, H., Wei, R., Li, S., Zheng, J., Li, W., Le, B., Chen, Y., Pan, H., Huang, S., Wang, S. & Wang, Q. (2019). Astragaloside IV ameliorates motor deficits and dopaminergic neuron degeneration via inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a Parkinson’s disease mouse model. International Immunopharmacology 75, 105651. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.05.036.

Yang, J., Shao. C., Li, W., Wan, H., He, Y. & Yang J. (2021). Protective effects of Astragaloside IV against oxidative injury and apoptosis in cultured astrocytes by regulating Nrf2/JNK signaling. Experimental Brain Research 239, 1827-1840. doi: 10.1007/s00221-021-06096-7.

Yang, J., Wang, H.-X., Zhang, Y.-J., Yang, Y.-H., Lu, M.-L., Zhang, J., Li, S.-T, Zhang, S.-P. & Li, G. (2013). Astragaloside IV attenuates inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting TLR4/NF-кB signaling pathway in isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150, 1062-1070. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.017.

Yang, S. T., Lin, J. W., Chiu, B. Y., Hsu, Y. C., Chang, C. P. & Chang, C. K. (2014). Astragaloside improves outcomes of traumatic brain injury in rats by reducing microglia activation. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 42, 1357-1370. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X14500852.

Zee-Cheng, R. K. (1992). Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy,

potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 14, 725-736. PMID: 1294861.

Zhang, J., Wu, C., Gao, L., Du, G. & Qin, X. (2020). Astragaloside IV derived from Astragalus membranaceus: A research review on the pharmacological effects. Advances in Pharmacology 87, 89-112. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2019.08.002.

Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Jin, X. F., Zhou, X. H., Dong, X. H., Yu, W. T. & Gao, W. J. (2019). The role of Astragaloside IV against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: Suppression of apoptosis via promotion of P62-LC3-autophagy. Molecules 29, 1838. doi: 10.3390/molecules24091838.

Zhang, Z. G., Wu, L., Wang, J. L., Yang, J. D., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Li, L. H., Xia, Y., Yao, L. B., Qin, H. Z. & Gao, G. D. (2012). Astragaloside IV prevents MPP+-induced SH-SY5Y cell death via the inhibition of Bax-mediated pathways and ROS production. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 364, 209-216. doi: 10.1007/s11010-011-1219-1.

Zhou, Y. & Danbolt, N. C., (2014). Glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the healthy brain. Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 799-817. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1180-8.

Published

22/04/2022

How to Cite

FREIRE, M. A. M.; ROCHA, G. S. .; COSTA, I. M. .; OLIVEIRA, L. C. .; GUZEN, F. P. .; CAVALCANTI, J. R. L. P. . Roles of terpenoid Astragaloside IV in altered states of the nervous system: an updated review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 6, p. e11711628861, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i6.28861. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/28861. Acesso em: 11 aug. 2022.

Issue

Section

Review Article