Influence of width on pull-out capacity of a L-shaped plate anchor in cohesive-frictional soil




Experimental pull-out analysis; Shallow foundations; Plate anchors; Bearing capacity; Footing size.


This work experimentally presented the effect of soil compaction, the footing size (l) and overload on the pull-out capacity of L-shaped anchor laid in sandy clayey soil from load displacements curves obtained in tests of static pull-out. The inclined load, arising from the configuration of guyed towers, develops horizontal and vertical response of the anchor and most of the articles until now focused on the study of anchor seated in a horizontal or vertical position, in addition to not verifying the influence of length/width and its three-dimensional effect. Thirteen experimental pullout tests were performed with progressive weight increases until the soil rupture, noting the respective displacements in L-shaped anchor with four different lengths: 20 cm, 15 cm, 10 cm and 5 cm. Analyzing tension versus footing size (l) behaviour, it was verified that load capacity does not present a constant linear increasing variation. For anchors with short length, the mobilized tension increases considerably as the contact area decreases, probably developing a puncture failure in soil. From the length equal to 10 cm, the behaviour begins to follow the assumption by Terzaghi (1943) with linear growth of pull-out capacity. This work finally presents a theoretical values of shape factors Nc, Nq and Nγ , influenced by the applied load and the soil compaction.


Aoki, N., Cintra, J. C. A., & Vianna, A. P. F. (2007). Influence of Footing Size and Matric Suction on the Behavior of Shallow Foundations in Collapsible Soil. Soils and Rocks: International Journal of Geotechical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 30(3), pp. 127-137.

Bhattacharya, P., & Kumar, J. (2014). Pullout capacity of inclined plate anchors embedded in sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 51, 1635-1370.

Chin, F. K. (1970). Estimation of the Ultimate Load of Piles from Tests Not Carried to Failure. Proceedings of Second Southeast Asian Conference on Soil Engineering, Singapore, 11-15 June 1970, pp. 81-92.

Choudhary, A. K., & Dash, S. K. (2016). Load-carrying mechanism of vertical plate anchors in sand. International Journal of Geomechanics, 17(5): 04016116.

Das, B. M. (1990). Earth anchors. Developments in Geotechnical Engeneering. Elsevier, Amsterdam – Oxford – New York – Tokyo.

De Beer, E. E. (1965a). Bearing capacity and settlement of foundations. Syposium on Bearing Capacity ans Settlement os Foindations. Heald at Duck University, Duham, pp. 15-34.

Evans, T. M., & Zhang, N. (2019). Three-dimensional simulations of plate anchor pullout in granular materials. International Journal of Geomechanics, 19(4): 04019004.

Giampa, J. R., Bradshaw, A. S., Gerkus, H., Gilbert, R. B., Gavi, K. G., & Sivakumar, V. (2018). The effect of shape on the pull-out capacity of shallow plate anchors in sand. Géotechnique, 17, pp. 1-9.

Hanna, A., Foriero, A., & Ayadat, T. (2014). Pullout capacity of inclined shallow single anchor plate in sand. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 45(1): 110-120.

Hu, S., Zhao, L., Tan, Y., Yang, F., Wang, Z., & Zhao, Z. (2021). Variation analysis of uplift bearing characteristics of strip anchor plate in nonhomogeneous materials. International Journal of Geomechanics, 21(4): 04021037.

Ilamparuthi, K., Dickin, E. A., & Muthukrisnaiah, K. (2002). Experimental investigation of the uplift behaviour of circular plate anchors embedded in sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39, pp. 648-664.

Ilamparuthi, K., & Muthukrisnaiah, K. (1999). Anchor in sand bed: delineation of rupture surface. Ocean Engineering, 26, pp. 1249-1273.

Jadid, R.; Abedin, Z., Shahriar, A. R., & Arif, Z. U. (2018). Analytical model for pullout capacity of a vertical concrete anchor block embedded at shallow depth in cohesionless soil. International Journal of Geomechanics, 18 (7): 06018017.

Liang, W., Zhao, J., Wu, H., & Soga, K. (2021). Multiscale modeling os anchor pullout in sand. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 147(9): 04021091.

Liu, J. P. E., Liu, M., & Zhu, Z. (2002). Sand deformation around an uplift plate anchor. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 138(6), pp. 728-737.

Marifield, R. S., Sloan, S. W., & Yu, H. S. (2001). Stability of plate anchors in undrained clay. Géotechinique, 51(2), pp. 141-153.

Niroumand, H., Kassim, K. A., & Nazir, R. (2013). The influence of soil reinforcement on the uplift response of symmetrical anchor plate embedded in sand. Measurement, 46, pp. 2608-2629.

Rowe R. K., & Davis, E. H. (1982a). The behaviour os anchor plates in clay. Géotechnique, 32(1), pp. 9-23.

Rowe R. K., & Davis, E. H. (1982b). The behaviour os anchor plates in sand. Géotechnique, 32(1), pp. 25-41.

Singh, V., Maitra, S., & Chatterjee, S. (2017). Generalized design approach for inclined strip anchors in clay. International Journal of Geomechanics, 17(6): 04016148.

Terzaghi, K. (1943). Teorical Soil Mechanics. Editora Jonh Willey e Sons, 1ª edição, Nova Yorque.



How to Cite

GROSSI, C. C. de M. .; BUSSOLIN, L. N. .; REIS, J. H. C. dos . Influence of width on pull-out capacity of a L-shaped plate anchor in cohesive-frictional soil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 9, p. e26911931671, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i9.31671. Disponível em: Acesso em: 13 aug. 2022.