How adaptogens influence cognitive-mental performance: an integrative review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i10.32635

Keywords:

Phytochemicals; Cognition; Physiological stress.

Abstract

Given the high demand for optimizing personal performance in various aspects of social life, and in view of the prevalent stress situations in modern life, adaptogens, a term coined in 1943 by the Russians, were perfected. The aim of this study is to analyze these “toning” substances that increased physical performance in soldiers during World War II, and which acquired a new approach in the following years, taking a significant role in improving cognitive-mental performance. To this end, the study, an integrative literature review, will be based on the scientific platforms Scientific Electronic Library Online - SCIELO, Google Scholar, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) - PubMed and ScienceDirect. It is expected to find a correlation between the use of adaptogens in improving the response to stressful events, ultimately promoting cognitive-mental performance. Studies show that adaptogens have positive actions on memory, cognitive function and neuroprotection; also demonstrate anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress effect. Among the diseases, there is evidence that adaptogens may have benefit in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Ashwagandha, especially, is highlighted in studies. A limitation of the present work is that most recent studies obtained as results were also presented in the form of a literature review, making it clear that there is a need for new scientific evidence. Even so, the results support new research related to the understanding of the therapeutic properties of adaptogens, focusing mainly on clinical studies.

References

Abedon, B., Auddy, B., Hazra, J., Mitra, A., & Ghosal, S. (2008). A standardized Withania somnifera extract significantly reduces stressrelated parameters in chronically stressed humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. JANA, 11.

Aguiar, S., Borowski, T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research, 16 (4), 313- 326.

Ahirwar, S., Tembhre, M., Gour, S., Namdeo, A. (2012). Anticholinesterase efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against the brain regions of rat. Asian J Exp Sci. 26, 65-70.

Ahmad, M., Saleem, S., Ahmad, A. S., Ansari, M. A., Yousuf, S., Hoda, M. N., Islam., F. (2005). Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera on 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinsonism in rats. Human & experimental toxicology, 24 (3), 137–147.

Alzoubi, K. H., Al Hilo, A. S., Al-Balas, Q. A., El-Salem, K., El-Elimat, T., & Alali, F. Q. (2019). Withania somnifera root powder protects againist post-traumatic stress disorder-induced memory impairment. Molecular Biology Reports, 46(5), 4709-4715.

Ambrosio, G., Wirth, D., Joseph, J. F., Mazzarino, M., de la Torre, X., Botrè, F., & Parr, M. K. (2020). How reliable is dietary supplement labelling? - Experiences from the analysis of ecdysterone supplements. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 177, 112877.

Amin, H., Sharma, R. (2015). Nootropic efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsa and Ayurvedic drug therapy: Acomparative clinical exposition. International Journal of Yoga. 8 (2), 109.

Andrade, C., Aswath, A., Chaturvedi, S. K., Srinivasa, M., & Raguram, R. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera. Indian journal of psychiatry, 42 (3), 295–301.

Anghelescu, I. G., Edwards, D., Seifritz, E., & Kasper, S. (2018). Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: a review. International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice, 22(4), 242-252.

Angst, J. (1992). How recurrent and predictable is depressive illness. Long-term treatment of depression, 1-13.

Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. (1998). Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 64(1), 91-93.

Arroll, B., Macgillivray, S., Ogston, S., Reid, I., Sullivan, F., Williams, B., & Crombie, I. (2005). Efficacy and tolerability of tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs compared with placebo for treatment of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis. Annals of family medicine, 3(5), 449–456.

Bagchi, P., Anuradha, M., Kar, A. (2017). Ayur-Informatics: establishing an Ayurvedic medication for Parkinson’s disorder. Int J Adv Chem Eng Biol Sci. 4, 21–25.

Balick, M. J., & Lee, R. (2002). Maca: from traditional food crop to energy and libido stimulant. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 8(2), 96.

Banjari, I., Marˇcek, T., Tomi ́c, S., Waisundara, V.Y. (2018). Forestalling the epidemics of Parkinson’s disease through plant-based remedies. Frontiers in nutrition. 5, 95.

Baroni, L., Sarni, A. R., & Zuliani, C. (2021). Plant foods rich in antioxidants and human cognition: A systematic review. Antioxidants, 10(5), 714.

Barrett, S. C., Strother, J. L. (1978). Taxonomy and natural history of Bacopa (Scrophulariaceae) in California. Systematic Botany. 3, 408-419.

Basani, Mounika & Malothu, Ramesh & Sinha, Rakesh & Murthy, Vasudeva. (2021). Electroencephalogram Correlates the Role of Ashwagandha in Sleep and Memory Promoting Effect. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 55 (1). 184-189.

Basu, N. K., Lamsal, P. P. (1947). Investigations on Indian medicinal plants; Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Q J Pharm Pharmacol. 20, 135.

Bell, L., Whyte, A., Duysburgh, C., Marzorati, M., Van den Abbeele, P., Le Cozannet, R., Fança-Berthon, P., Fromentin, E., & Williams, C. (2021). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigating the acute and chronic benefits of American Ginseng (Cereboost®) on mood and cognition in healthy young adults, including in vitro investigation of gut microbiota changes as a possible mechanism of action. European journal of nutrition, 61 (1), 413–428.

Bhatnagar, M., Goel, I., Roy, T., Shukla, S. D., Khurana, S. (2017). Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson’s model of mice. PloS one, 12 (5), e0177254.

Bhattacharya, A., Ghosal, S., & Bhattacharya, S. K. (2001). Anti-oxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in chronic footshock stress-induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 74(1), 1-6.

Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, A., Kumar, A., Ghosal, S. (2000). Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Phytother Res. 14, 174-9.

Bopana, N., Saxena, S. (2007). Asparagus racemosus - ethnopharmacological evaluations and conservation needs. J. Ethnopharmacol. 110, 1- 15.

Burda, A. N., Baldwin, J., Cravatta, J., Heetland, J., Jacobs, K., Merfeld, H., ... & Zollman, R. (2021). Effects of exercise on tests measuring attention and executive function in younger and older adults. Clinical Archives of Communication Disorders, 6(1), 18-27.

Calabrese, C., Gregory, W. L., Leo, M., Kraemer, D., Bone, K, Oken, B. (2008). Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. J of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 14 (6), 707-713.

Castro, B. D. (2020). Cognitive enhancement and the production of subjectivity modes: a study on the use of nootropics according to a Brazilian blog. Saúde e Sociedade, 29.

Chan, W. S., Durairajan, S. S. K., Lu, J. H., Wang, Y., Xie, L. X., Kum, W. F., ... Li, M. (2009). Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell culture. Neurochemistry International, 55 (6), 414–422.

Chandrika, U. G., Peramune, A. A. S., Kumara, P. (2015) Chapter Four - Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits. Academic Press.

Chengappa, K. N., Bowie, C. R., Schlicht, P. J., Fleet, D., Brar, J. S., & Jindal, R. (2013). Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of Withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 74 (11), 1076–1083.

Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Joshi, K. (2017). Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine, 22 (1), 96–106.

Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., Bose, S. (2017). Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) root extract in improving memory and cognitive functions. Journal of dietary supplements, 14 (6), 599–612.

Das, A., Shanker, G., Nath, C., Pal, R., Singh, S., Singh, H. (2002). A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba: Anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities. Pharmacol Biochem Behaviour. 73, 893-900.

de Rus Jacquet, A., Subedi, R., Ghimire, S.K., Rochet, J.-C. (2014). Nepalese traditional medicine and symptoms related to Parkinson׳ s disease and other disorders: patterns of the usage of plant resources along the Himalayan altitudinal range. J. Ethnopharmacol. 153, 178–189.

de Souza, D. H. A. V., Maciel, E. M. N., da Silva, L. J. S., Santos, M. G. C., & Araújo, P. M. R. (2021). Nootrópicos na era dos extremos: drogas da inteligência e pressão social. Brazilian Journal of Health Review, 4(2), 6640-6646.

de Souza, G. A., de Marqui, S. V., Matias, J. N., Guiguer, E. L., & Barbalho, S. M. (2020). Effects of Ginkgo biloba on diseases related to oxidative stress. Planta medica, 86(06), 376-386.

Dey, A., Chatterjee, S. S., & Kumar, V. (2018). Triethylene glycol-like effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) root extract devoid of withanolides in stressed mice. Ayu, 39(4), 230.

Dhanasekaran, M., Tharakan, B., Holcomb, L. A., Hitt, A. R., Young, K. A., Manyam, B. V. (2007). Neuroprotective mechanisms of ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monnieri. Phytotherapy Res. 21, 965-969.

Dimpfel, W., Mariage, P-A., Panossian, A. G. (2021) Effects of Red and White Ginseng Preparations on Electrical Activity of the Brain in Elderly Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Three-Armed Cross-Over Study. Pharmaceuticals. 14 (3),182.

Drozdov, O., Chorna, V. (2003) Changes in the content of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the frontal cortex of rats during conditioned active avoidance training. Neurophysiology. 35, 98-101.

Egorov, YuN, Baburin, E. F. (1966). On the influence of the Eleutherococcus on the human nervous system. In: Eleutherococcus and Other Adaptogens Among the Far Eastern Plants. 7, 167–172. Vladivostok, USSR, [Article in Russian].

Flagg, A. J. (2021) Traditional and Current Use of Ginseng. Nursing Clinics of North America, 56, 1, 109-121.

Franco, R. R., de Almeida Takata, L., Chagas, K., Justino, A. B., Saraiva, A. L., Goulart, L. R., ... & da Silva, C. R. (2021). A 20- hydroxyecdysone-enriched fraction from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) pedersen roots alleviates stress, anxiety, and depression in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 267, 113599.

Geetha, P. S., Kanchana, S., Pasupathi, E., Murugan, M., & Rohini, C. (2021). A review on putative mechanism of action of nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Pharma Innovation. 10 (5), 672-681.

Gerontakos, S., Taylor, A., Avdeeva, A. Y., Shikova, V. A., Pozharitskaya, O. N., Casteleijn, D., Wardle, J., & Shikov, A. N. (2021). Findings of Russian literature on the clinical application of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.): A narrative review. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 278, 114274.

Goyal, M. (2018). Rasayana in perspective of the present scenario. Ayu. 39, 63. Gray, N.W., Brimijoin, S. (2003). Amyloid-beta increases acetylcholinesterase expression in neuroblastoma cells by reducing enzyme degradation. Journal Neurochem. 86, 470-478.

Gupta, P., Khatoon, S., Tandon, P. K., Rai, V. (2014) Effect of cadmium on growth, bacoside A, and bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a memory enhancing herb. Scientific World Journal, 824586.

Gupta, S., & Saxena, A. (2017). Histological study of action of alcohol on hippocampal region of brain and use of” Mandukaparni” as a brain rejuvenator. Alcohol.

Haavik, J., & Toska, K. (1998). Tyrosine hydroxylase and Parkinson’s disease. Molecular Neurobiology, 16 (3), 285–309.

Hasselmo, M. E., Sarter, M. (2011). Modes and models of forebrain cholinergic neuromodulation of cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology. 36 (1), 52–73.

He, M. T., Lee, A. Y., Kim, J. H., Park, C. H., Shin, Y. S., & Cho, E. J. (2019). Protective role of Cordyceps militaris in Aβ1–42-induced Alzheimer’s disease in vivo. Food science and biotechnology, 28(3), 865-872.

Hu, J., Luo, C.X., Chu, W.H., Shan, Y.A., Qian, Z.-M., Zhu, G., Yu, Y.B., Feng, H. (2012). 20-Hydroxyecdysone protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury by scavenging free radicals and modulating NF-κB and JNK pathways. PLoS One 7 (12), e50764.

Hunyadi, A., Herke, I., Lengyel, K., Báthori, M., Kele, Z., Simon, A., Tóth, G., Szendrei, K. (2016). Ecdysteroid-containing food supplements from Cyanotis arachnoidea on the European market: Evidence for spinach product counterfeiting. Scientific reports. 6, 37322.

Jagdish, P., Reena, C., Pooja, S., Maheep, B. (2015). In vivo Investigation of antiamnesic effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract in scopolamine induced amnesic mice. Int J Herbal Med. 3, 20–24.

Jain, S., Shukla, S. D., Sharma, K., & Bhatnagar, M. (2001). Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub‐regions of female albino rat. Phytotherapy research, 15(6), 544-548.

Jędrejko, K.J.; Lazur, J.; Muszyńska, B. (2021). Cordyceps militaris: An Overview of Its Chemical Constituents in Relation to Biological Activity. Foods, 10, 2634.

Jeong, J-W., Jin, C-Y., Kim, G-Y., Lee, J-D., Park, C. Kim, G-D., Kim, W-J., Jung, W-K., Seo, S. K., Choi, I-W., Choi, Y. H. (2010). Antiinflammatory effects of cordycepin via suppression of inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells. International Immunopharmacology. 10, 12, 1580-1586.

Joshi, V. K., Joshi, A., Dhiman, K. S. (2017). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, development and perspectives. J of ethnopharmacology, 197, 32–38.

Kasckow, J. W., Baker, D., & Geracioti Jr, T. D. (2001). Corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Peptides, 22(5), 845-851.

Kashyap, P., Muthusamy, K., Niranjan, M., Trikha, S., & Kumar, S. (2020). Sarsasapogenin: A steroidal saponin from Asparagus racemosus as multi target directed ligand in Alzheimer’s disease. Steroids, 153, 108529.

Kennedy, D. O. (2019). Phytochemicals for improving aspects of cognitive function and psychological state potentially relevant to sports performance. Sports Medicine, 49(1), 39-58.

Khan, B., Ahmad, S. F., Bani, S., Kaul, A., Suri, K. A., Satti, N. K., ... & Qazi, G. N. (2006). Augmentation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and Th-1 cytokines by Withania somnifera in stressed mice. International immunopharmacology, 6(9), 1394-1403.

Khyati, S., Anup, T.B. (2013). A randomized double blind placebo controlled study of Ashwagandha on generalized anxiety disorder. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 4 (5), 1-38.

Kim J.S. (2016). Investigation of phenolic, favonoid, and vitamin contents in diferent parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer). Prevent Nutr Food Sci. 21 (3), 263.

Kim, Y. O., Kim, H. J., Abu-Taweel, G. M., Oh, J., & Sung, G. H. (2019). Neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps militaris on ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairments. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 26(7), 1352-1357.

Konar, A., Shah, N., Singh, R., Saxena, N., Kaul, S. C., Wadhwa, R. (2011). Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component with none on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells. PLoS One. 6, e27265.

Kulkarni, R., Girish, K. J., & Kumar, A. (2012). Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update. Pharmacognosy reviews, 6(12), 147–153.

Kulshreshtha, D. K., Rastogi, R. P. (1973). Bacogenin-A1. A novel dammarane triterpene sapogenin from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry. 12, 887-892.

Kumar, A., Kulkarni, S. K. (2016). Effect of BR-16A (Mentat) a polyherbal formulation on drug-induced catalepsy in mice. Indian J ExpBiol, 44 (1), 45-48.

Kumar, S., Mondal, A. C. (2016). Neuroprotective, Neurotrophic and Anti-oxidative Role of Bacopa monnieri on CUS Induced Model of Depression in Rat. Neurochem Res, 41(11), 3083–3094.

Lalert, L., Kruevaisayawan, H., Amatyakul, P., Ingkaninan, K., Khongsombat, O. (2018). Neuroprotective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract via the enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and estrogen receptor in ovariectomized rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 225, 336– 341.

Lawal, O. M., Wakel, F., Dekker, M. (2021). Consumption of fresh Centella asiatica improves short term alertness and contentedness in healthy females, Journal of Functional Foods. 77, 104337.

Lee, B., Park, J., Park, J., Shin, H. J., Kwon, S., Yeom, M., ... & Hahm, D. H. (2011). Cordyceps militaris improves neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells and reverses memory impairment in rats. Food Science and Biotechnology, 20(6), 1599-1608.

Lemerond, T., Panossian, A.G. (2020). Panax ginseng Meyer Herbal Preparation HRG80 for Preventing and Mitigating Stress-Induced Failure of Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects. J. Altern Complement Integr. Med. 6, 100.

Limpeanchob, N., Jaipan, S., Rattanakaruna, S., Phrompittayarat, W., Ingkaninan, K. (2008). Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri on beta-amyloid-induced cell death in primary cortical culture. Journal Ethnopharmacol. 30 (120), 112-117.

Lopresti, A. L., Drummond, P. D., & Smith, S. J. (2019). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study examining the hormonal and vitality effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in aging, overweight males. American Journal of Men's Health, 13(2), 1557988319835985.

Lopresti, A. L., Smith, S. J. (2021). Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) for the treatment and enhancement of mental and physical conditions: A systematic review of human trials. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 28.

Lopresti, A. L., Smith, S. J., Ali, S., Metse, A. P., Kalns, J., & Drummond, P. D. (2021). Effects of a Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacognize®) on stress, fatigue, quality of life and sleep in adults with self-reported poor sleep: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J. of Functional Foods, 85, 104671.

Lopresti, A. L., Smith, S. J., Malvi, H., & Kodgule, R. (2019). An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medicine, 98 (37), e17186.

Majumdar, S., Gupta, S., Prajapati, S. K., Krishnamurthy, S. (2021). Neuro-nutraceutical potential of Asparagus racemosus: A review, Neurochemistry International. 145, 105013.

Manchanda, S., Mishra, R., Singh, R., Kaur, T., & Kaur, G. (2017). Aqueous Leaf Extract of Withania somnifera as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Sleep-deprived Rats: a Mechanistic Study. Molecular neurobiology, 54 (4), 3050–3061.

Marques, L.C., Galvão, S.M.P., Espínola, E., Dias, R.F., Mattei, R., Oliveira, M.G.M., de Araújo Carlini, E.L. (2004). Psychopharmacological assessment of Pfaffia glomerata roots (extract BNT‐08) in rodents. Phytotherapy Research. 18(7), 566-572.

Masliah, E., Mallory, M., Deerinck, T., Deteresa, R., Lamont, S., Miller, A., Ellisman, M. (1993). Reevaluation of the structural organization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 52 (6), 619-632.

Meena, J., Ojha, R., Muruganandam, A., Krishnamurthy, S. (2011). Asparagus racemosus competitively inhibits in vitro the acetylcholine and monoamine metabolizing enzymes. Neurosci. Lett. 503, 6–9.

Mishra, J. N., & Verma, N. K. (2017). Asparagus racemosus: Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities—A review. Eur. J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci, 4, 207-213.

Moniharapon, D. D., Ukratalo, A. M., Hendrajid, Z., & Ramadhany, M. R. (2020, February). Biolarvicide of Herba Ethanol Extract of Phyllanthus niruri L on Aedes aegypti Mosquito Larva Vector Of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Disease (DHF). In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1463, No. 1, p. 012026). IOP Publishing.

Mukherjee, P. K., Banerjee, S., Biswas, S., Das, B., Kar, A., Katiyar, C. K. (2021). Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal - Modern perspectives of an ancient Rasayana from Ayurveda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 264, 0378-8741.

Neale, C., Camfield, D., Reay, J., Stough, C., Scholey, A. (2013). Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: A review and comparison of effect sizes. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 75(3), 728–737.

Nemetchek, M. D., Stierle, A. A., Stierle, D. B., & Lurie, D. I. (2017). The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. J Ethnopharmacol, 197, 92–100.

Nimbhorkar, R., Rasane, P., & Singh, J. (2021). Caffeine alternatives: Searching a herbal solution.

Ny, V., Houška, M., Pavela, R., & Tříska, J. (2021). Potential benefits of incorporating Astragalus membranaceus into the diet of people undergoing disease treatment: An overview. Journal of Functional Foods, 77, 104339.

Ojha, R., Sahu, A. N., Muruganandam, A. V., Singh, G. K., & Krishnamurthy, S. (2010). Asparagus recemosus enhances memory and protects against amnesia in rodent models. Brain and cognition, 74(1), 1-9.

Orhan, I. E. (2012). Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From traditional medicine to modern medicine with neuroprotective potential. EvidenceBased Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 946259.

Oshima, Y., Sato, K., Hikino, H. (1987). Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of quinquefolans A, B, and C, glycans of Panax quinquefolium roots. J Nat Prod. 50 (2), 188–190.

Panossian, A. (2017). Understanding adaptogenic activity: specificity of the pharmacological action of adaptogens and other phytochemicals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1401(1), 49-64.

Pansare, T. A., Pranita, D., & Archana, B. (2018). Review on medhya (intellect promoting) action of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILD) MIERS].

Paul, S., Chakraborty, S., Anand, U., Dey, S., Nandy, S., Ghorai, M., Saha, S. C., Patil, M. T., Kandimalla, R., Proćków, J., & Dey, A. (2021). Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha): A comprehensive review on ethnopharmacology, pharmacotherapeutics, biomedicinal and toxicological aspects. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 143, 112175.

Pingali, U., Pilli, R., & Fatima, N. (2014). Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants. Pharmacognosy research, 6 (1), 12–18.

Pompeo, D. A., Rossi, L. A., & Galvão, C. M. (2009). Revisão integrativa: etapa inicial do processo de validação de diagnóstico de enfermagem. Acta paulista de enfermagem, 22, 434-438.

Pratte, M.A., Nanavati, K.B., Young, V., Morley, C.P. (2014). An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). 20 (12), 901–908.

Provino, R. (2010). The role of adaptogens in stress management. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism. 22 (2), 41–49.

Pu, W. L., Zhang, M. Y., Bai, R. Y., Sun, L. K., Li, W. H., Yu, Y. L., ... & Li, T. X. (2020). Anti-inflammatory effects of Rhodiola rosea L.: A review. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 121, 109552.

Raghav, S., Singh, H., Dalai, P. K., Srivastava, J.S., Asthana, O.P. (2006). Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. Indian J Psychiatry. 48, 238-242.

Rai, D., Bhatia, G., Palit, G., Pal, R., Singh, S., Singh, H.K. (2003). Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi). Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 75 (4), 823-830.

Rastogi, S., Katara, A., Pandey, M. M., Arora, S., Singh, R. R. B., & Rawat, A. K. S. (2013). Physical stability and HPLC analysis of Indian kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) fortified milk. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.

Rauf, K., Subhan, F., Abbas, M., Haq, I. U., Ali, G., & Ayaz, M. (2012). Effect of acute and sub chronic use of Bacopa monnieri on dopamine and serotonin turnover in mice whole brain. Afr J Pharm Pharmaco, 6(39), 2767–2774.

Reagan‐Shaw, S., Nihal, M., & Ahmad, N. (2008). Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. The FASEB journal, 22(3), 659- 661.

Roodenrys, S., Booth, D., Bulzomi, S., Phipps, A., Micallef, C., Smoker, J. (2002). Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory. Neuropsycho pharmacology. 27, 279-281.

Russo, A., Borrelli, F. (2005). Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine. 12, 305-317.

Sabaragamuwa, R., Perera, C. O., & Fedrizzi, B. (2018). Centella asiatica (Gotu kola) as a neuroprotectant and its potential role in healthy ageing. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 79, 88–97.

Sairam, K., Priyambada, S., Aryya, N. C., & Goel, R. K. (2003). Gastroduodenal ulcer protective activity of Asparagus racemosus: an experimental, biochemical and histological study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 86(1), 1-10.

Salve, J., Pate, S., Debnath, K., & Langade, D. (2019). Adaptogenic and anxiolytic effects of ashwagandha root extract in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. Cureus, 11(12).

Sandler, M., Clow, A., Watkins, P.J. and Fibiol, V.G. (1988), Tribulin - an endocoid marker for anxiety in man. Stress Med., 4: 215-219.

Schezhin, A.K., Zinkovich, V.I., Galanova, L.K., 1981. Eleutherococcus in prophylaxis of influenza, hypertension and heart ischemia of AvtoVAZ drivers. In: New Data on Eleutherococcus and Other Adaptogens, pp. 93–94. Vladivostok, USSR, [Article in Russian].

Schliebs, R., Liebmann, A., Bhattacharya, S. K., Kumar, A., Ghosal, S., Bigl, V. (1997). Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neuroche internati, 30 (2), 181–190.

Scholey, A., Ossoukhova, A., Owen, L., Ibarra, A., Pipingas, A., He, K., Roller, M., Stough, C. (2010). Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Psychopharmacology. 212 (3), 345–356.

Schreiber, R., Brocco, M., Audinot, V. Gobert, A., Veiga, S., Millan, M. J. (1995). (1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4 iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane)-induced head-Twitches in the rat are mediated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A receptors: modulation by novel 5-HT2A antagonists, D1 antagonists and 5-HT1A agonists. J. Pharmacol.Exp. Therapeut. 273, 101-112.

Sheikh, N., Ahmad, A., Siripurapu, K. B., Kuchibhotla, V. K., Singh, S., & Palit, G. (2007). Effect of Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 111(3), 671–676.

Shin, K., Guo, H., Cha, Y., Ban, Y-H., Seo, D. W., Choi, Y., Kim, T-S., Lee, S-P., Kim, J-C., Choi, E-K. (2016). Cereboost TM, an American ginseng extract, improves cognitive function via up-regulation of choline acetyltransferase expression and neuroprotection. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 78, 53–58.

Sidorova, Y.S., Shipelin, V.A., Petrov, N.A. Zorin, S.N. Mazo, V.K. (2021). Adaptogenic Properties of a Phytoecdysteroid-Rich Extract from the Leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. Plants. 10, 2555.

Singh, D., & Chaudhuri, P. K. (2018). A review on phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 118, 367-382.

Singh, G. K., Garabadu, D., Muruganandam, A. V., Joshi, V. K., & Krishnamurthy, S. (2009). Antidepressant activity of Asparagus racemosus in rodent models. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 91(3), 283-290.

Singh, H.K., Dhawan, B.N. (1997) Neuropsycho pharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi). Indian J Pharmacol, 29, 359-365.

Singh, R., Geetanjali, (2016). Asparagus racemosus: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential. Nat. Prod. Res. 30, 1896–1908.

Singh, R., Jana, P.Kumar, R. S., Kumar, R., Kumar, V. (2021). “Aswagandha (Withania somnifera)”, Journal of Science and Technology. 06 (04), 93-98.

Sloley, B. D., Pang, P., Huang, B-H., Ba, F., Li, F. L., Benishin, C. G., Greenshaw, A. J., Shan, J. J. (1999). American ginseng extract reduces scopolamine-induced amnesia in a spatial learning task. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 24 (5), 442.

Sohal, R. S., Orr, W. C. (2012). The redox stress hypothesis of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 52, 539-555.

Song, M-Y., Kim, B-S., Kim, H. (2014). Infuence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women. J Ginseng Res. 38 (2),106–115.

Souza, M. T. D., Silva, M. D. D., & Carvalho, R. D. (2010). Revisão integrativa: o que é e como fazer. Einstein (São Paulo), 8, 102-106.

Srivastava Srivastava, A.P., Pandey, A., Khanna, V. K., Pant, A. B. (2020). Phytomedicine: A potential Alternative Medicine in Controlling Neurological Disorders. New Look to Phytomedicine.

Stahl, S. M. (2000). Essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Cambridge university press.

Stansbury, J., Saunders, P., & Winston, D. (2012). Supporting adrenal function with adaptogenic herbs. Journal of Restorative Medicine, 1(1), 76-82.

Stough, C., Lloyd, J., Clarke, J., Downey, L. A., Hutchison, C. W., Rodgers, T., Nathan, P. J. (2001). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology. 156, 481-484.

Sudhakaran, M. V. (2017) Botanical Pharmacognosy of Centella asiatica (Linn.). Urban Phcog J. 9(4):546-58.

Sun, Q., Jia, N., Wang, W., Jin, H., Xu, J., & Hu, H. (2014). Protective effects of Astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. PLoS One, 9(6), 1–10.

Swaroop, A., Bagchi, M., Moriyama, H., & Bagchi, D. (2017). Salient features for designing a functional beverage formulation to boost energy. In Sustained energy for enhanced human functions and activity (pp. 411-419). Academic Press.

Thal, D. R., Griffin, W. S., de Vos, R. A., & Ghebremedhin, E. (2008). Cerebral amyloid angiopathy and its relationship to Alzheimer's disease. Acta neuropathologica, 115(6), 599–609.

Tsujiyama, S., Ujihara, H., Ishihara, K., Sasa, M. (1995). Potentiation of GABA-induced inhibition by 20-hydroxyecdysone, a neurosteroid, in cultured rat cortical neurons. The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. 68(1), 133-136.

Udani, J. K. (2013). Effects of SuperUlam on supporting concentration and mood: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 238454.

Uddin, M.S., Al Mamun, A., Kabir, M.T., Jakaria, M., Mathew, B., Barreto, G.E., Ashraf, G.M. (2019). Nootropic and anti-Alzheimer’s actions of medicinal plants: molecular insight into therapeutic potential to alleviate Alzheimer’s neuropathology. Mol. Neurobiol. 56, 4925–4944.

Upadhyay, S. D., Lodha, S., Ahmad, Y., Kohli, S., & Sharma, R. K. (2021). A Review on Medhya Rasayanas: A Brain Bracer. Pharmacognosy Communications, 11(4).

Veena, R. K., Carmel, E. J., Ramya, H., Ajith, T. A., Wasser, S. P., & Janardhanan, K. K. (2020). Caterpillar medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), mycelia attenuates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and upregulates Krebs cycle dehydrogenases activity and ATP level in rat brain. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 22(6).

Vollala, V.R., Upadhya, S., Nayak, S. (2011) Learning and memoryenhancing effect of Bacopa monniera in neonatal rats. Bratislavske lekarske listy. 112 (12), 663-669.

Vuksan, V., Sievenpiper, J. L., Koo, V. Y., Francis, T., Beljan-Zdravkovic, U., Xu, Z., Vidgen, E. (2000). American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 160 (7), 1009–1013.

Vuksan, V., Sievenpiper, J. L., Wong, J., Xu, Z., Beljan-Zdravkovic, U., Arnason, J.T., Assinewe, V., Stavro, M. P., Jenkins, A. L., Leiter, L. A. (2001). American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 73 (4), 753–758.

Vuksan, V., Stavro, M. P., Sievenpiper, J. L., Koo, V. Y., Wong, E., Beljan-Zdravkovic, U., Francis, T., Jenkins, A. L., Leiter, L. A., Josse, R. G. (2000). American ginseng improves glycemia in individuals with normal glucose tolerance: efect of dose and time escalation. J Am Coll Nutr. 19 (6), 738–744.

Wang, C-Z., Yu, C., Wen, X-D., Chen, L., Zhang, C-F., Calway, T., Qiu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., Anderson, S. (2016). American ginseng attenuates colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice: Impact on gut microbiota and metabolomics. Cancer Prev Res. 9 (10), 803–811.

Wang, W., Wang, T., Feng, W.-Y., Wang, Z.-Y., Cheng, M.-S., Wang, Y.-J. (2014). Ecdysterone protects gerbil brain from temporal global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via preventing neuron apoptosis and deactivating astrocytes and microglia cells. Neuroscience research. 81, 21-29.

Xia, X., Zhang, Q., Liu, R., Wang, Z., Tang, N., Liu, F., Huang, G., Jiang, X., Gui, G., Wang, L. (2014). Effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone on improving memory deficits in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rat. European journal of pharmacology. 740, 45-52.

Yang, P., Zhou, Y., Xia, Q., Yao, L., & Chang, X. (2019). Astragaloside IV regulates the PI3K/Akt/HO-1 signaling pathway and inhibits H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury induced by Hypoxia-Reoxygenation. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 42(5), 721–727.

Yuan, G., An, L., Sun, Y., Xu, G., & Du, P. (2018). Improvement of Learning and Memory Induced by Cordyceps Polypeptide Treatment and the Underlying Mechanism. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018.

Zhang, G., Fang, H., Li, Y., Xu, J., Zhang, D., Sun, Y., ... Zhang, H. (2019). Neuroprotective effect of Astragalus polysacharin on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. 25, 135–141.

Zhang, Y., Kong, W. N., & Chai, X. Q. (2018). Compound of icariin, astragalus and puerarin mitigates iron overload in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer’s disease mice. Neural Regeneration Research, 13 (4), 731–736.

Zheng, F., Luo, Y., Wang, H. (2009) Regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor-mediated transcription of the immediate early gene Arc by intracellular calcium and calmodulin. Journal Neurosci Res. 87, 380-392.

Zu, X., Zhang, M., Li, W., Xie, H., Lin, Z., Yang, N., ... & Zhang, W. (2017). Antidepressant-like effect of Bacopaside I in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress by modulating the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function and activating BDNF signaling pathway. Neurochemical Research, 42(11), 3233-3244.

Published

27/07/2022

How to Cite

ZAGO, Ângela .; NEGRO DELLACQUA, M. . How adaptogens influence cognitive-mental performance: an integrative review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 10, p. e204111032635, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i10.32635. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/32635. Acesso em: 2 oct. 2022.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences