Exceptional preservation of nonmineralized biomaterials in Cenozoic fossils of the Mammalia clade

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i14.36739

Keywords:

Taphonomy; Ancient DNA; Paleogenomics; Ancient proteins; Paleoproteomics.

Abstract

The members of the Mammalia class experienced high ecological, morphological and taxonomic diversification during the Cenozoic Era. With technological advances in molecular paleontology in recent decades, many claims for the exceptional preservation of nonmineralized biomaterials have been made for this clade. However, these data are scattered in the literature and have associated such reports with unique and rare events. This study presents a review of the literature published in the last six decades, aiming to investigate the frequency with which vestigial of nonmineralized biomaterials are found in Mammalia fossils. The results identified 79 published studies describing endogenous biocomponents in Metatheria and Theria members. Of these, protein fragments were more frequent in sedimentary deposits (33.3%), and ancient DNA sequences were more frequent in depositional environments more favorable to exceptional preservation (53.1%), such as ice and cave deposits. The data on organic material for mammalian fossils are geographically and taxonomically comprehensive, with the superordinates Laurasiatheria and Afrotheria presenting the largest number of reports. With the emergence and improvement of new techniques for the recovery of organic material, it is believed that paleomolecular information for fossil mammals should increase, in addition to broadening the understanding of taphonomic factors related to exceptional preservation.

References

Alves, E. F., & Machado, M. F. (2020). Perspectivas atuais sobre tecidos moles não mineralizados em fósseis de dinossauros não avianos. Terrae Didatica, 16, e020028. https://doi.org/10.20396/td.v16i0.8659539

Alves, E. F. (2020). 15 anos da Paleontologia molecular. Khronos, (9), 241-244. https://doi.org/10.11606/khronos.v0i9.172317

Alves, E. F., & Machado, M. F. (2021a). Frequência de preservação de biomateriais não mineralizados no registro fóssil de répteis mesozoicos: uma abordagem sobre pterossauros e répteis marinhos. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(5), 44797-44821. https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n5-076

Alves, E. F., & Machado, M. F. (2021b). Proposta de Plano de Aula sobre Paleontologia Molecular para inserção em disciplina de Paleontologia de cursos de graduação em Ciências Biológicas. Pesquisa e Ensino em Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, 5, e1695. http://dx.doi.org/10.29215/pecen.v5i0.1695

Alves, E. F., & Machado, M. F. (2021c). Preservação excepcional de biomateriais não mineralizados em fósseis do clado Avialae. Anuário do Instituto de Geociências, 44, 37908. https://doi.org/10.11137/1982-3908_2021_44_37908

Alves, E. F. (2022). Introdução à Paleontologia Molecular: um guia básico para estudantes e professores universitários. Maringá: Edição do Autor.

Amemiya, C. T., Alföldi, J., Lee, A. P., Fan, S., Philippe, H., MacCallum, I., Braasch, I., Manousaki, T., Schneider, I., Rohner, N., Organ, C., Chalopin, D., Smith, J. J., Robinson, M., Dorrington, R. A.,Gerdol, M., Aken, B., Biscotti, M. A., Barucca, M., Baurain, D., Berlin, A. M., Blatch, G. L., Buonocore, F., Burmester, T., Campbell, M. S., Canapa, A., Cannon, J. P., Christoffels, A., De Moro, G., Edkins, A. L., Fan, L., Fausto, A. M., Feiner, N., Forconi, M., Gamieldien, J., Gnerre, S., Gnirke, A., Goldstone, J. V., Haerty, W., Hahn, M. E., Hesse, U., Hoffmann, S., Johnson, J., Karchner, S. I., Kuraku, S., Lara, M., Levin, J. Z., Litman, G. W., Mauceli, E., Miyake, T., Mueller, M. G., Nelson, D. R., Nitsche, A., Olmo, E., Ota, T., Pallavicini, A., Panji, S., Picone, B., Ponting, C. P., Prohaska, S. J., Przybylski, D., Saha, N. R.., Ravi, V., Ribeiro, F. J., Sauka-Spengler, P., Scapigliati, G., Searle, S. M. J., Sharpe, T., Simakov, O., Stadler, P. F., Stegeman, J. J.,Sumiyama, K., Tabbaa, D., Tafer, H., Turner-Maier, J., Heusden, P., White, S., Williams, L., Yandell, M., Brinkmann, H., Volff, J., Tabin, C. J., Shubin, N., Schartl, M., Jaffe, D. B., Postlethwait, J. H., Ventakesh, B., Di Palma, F., Lander, E. S., Meyer, A., & Lindblad-Toh, K. (2013). The African coelacanth genome provides in-sights into tetrapod evolution. Nature, 496(7445), 311-316. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12027

Archibald, J. D. (2003). Timing and biogeography of the eutherian radiation: fossils and molecules compared. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28(2), 350-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00034-4

Asara, J. M., Schweitzer, M. H., Freimark, L. M., Phillips, M., & Cantley, L. C. (2007). Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry. Science, 316(5822), 280-285. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1137614

Bailleul, A. M., Zheng, W., Horner, J. R., Hall, B. K., Holliday, C. M., & Schweitzer, M. H.. (2020). Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage. National Science Review,7(4),815-822. https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwz206

Bailleul, A. M. (2021). Fossilized cell nuclei are not that rare: Review of the histological evidence in the Phanerozoic. Earth-Science Reviews, 216, 103599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2021.103599

Bailleul, A. M., & Li, Z. (2021). DNA staining in fossil cells beyond the Quaternary: Reassessment of the evidence and prospects for an improved understanding of DNA preservation in deep time. Earth-Science Reviews, 216, 103600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2021.103600

Barnes, I., Shapiro, B., Lister, A., Kuznetsova, T., Sher, A., Guthrie, D., & Thomas, M. G. (2007). Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Current Biology, 17(12), 1072-1075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.05.035

Beck, R. M., & Baillie, C. (2018). Improvements in the fossil record may largely resolve current conflicts between morphological and molecular estimates of mammal phylogeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285(1893), 20181632. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1632

Benevento, G. L., Benson, R. B., & Friedman, M. (2019). Patterns of mammalian jaw ecomorphological disparity during the Mesozoic/Cenozoic transition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286(1902), 20190347. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0347

Benton, M. J. (1997). Vertebrate Paleontology. London: Chapman & Hall, 306.

Bettoni, J. C. (2019). Criopreservação: uma ferramenta para conservação de recursos genéticos de videira. Agropecuária Catarinense, 32(2), 92-97. https://doi.org/10.22491/RAC.2019.v32n2.14

Bi, S., Zheng, X., Wang, X., Cignetti, N. E., Yang, S., & Wible, J. R. (2018). An Early Cretaceous eutherian and the placental–marsupial dichotomy. Nature, 558(7710), 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0210-3

Bocherens, H., Pacaud, G., Lazarev, P. A., & Mariotti, A. (1996). Stable isotope abundances (13C, 15N) in collagen and soft tissues from Pleistocene mammals from Yakutia: implications for the palaeobiology of the Mammoth Steppe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 126(1-2), 31-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(96)00068-5

Boeskorov, G. G., Protopopov, A. V., Mashchenko, E. N., Potapova, O. R., Kuznetsova, T. V., Plotnikov, V. V., Grigoryev, S. E., Belolyubskii, I. N., Tomshin, M. D., Shchelchkova, M. V., Kolesov, S. D., van der Plicht, I., & Tikhonov, A. N. (2013). New findings of unique preserved fossil mammals in the permafrost of Yakutia. Doklady biological sciences: proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 452(1), 291–295. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0012496613050116

Borja, C., García‐Pacheco, M., Olivares, E. G., Scheuenstuhl, G., & Lowenstein, J. M. (1997). Immunospecificity of albumin detected in 1.6 million‐year‐old fossils from Venta Micena in Orce, Granada, Spain. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103(4), 433-441. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199708)103:4%3C433::AID-AJPA1%3E3.0.CO;2-O

Boskovic, D. S., Vidal, U. L., Nick, K. E., Esperante, R., Brand, L. R., Wright, K. R., Sandberg, L. B., & Siviero, B. C. (2021). Strutuctural and protein preservation in fossil whale bones from the Pisco Formation (Middle-Upper Miocene), Peru. PALAIOS, 36(4), 155-164. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2020.032

Bray, F., Flament, S., Abrams, G., Bonjean, D., Di Modica, K., Rolando, C., Tokarski, C., & Auguste, P. (2020). Extinct species identification from Upper Pleistocene bone fragments not identifiable from their osteomorphological studies by proteomics analysis. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.06.328021

Brunson, K., & Reich, D. (2019). The promise of paleogenomics beyond our own species. Trends in Genetics, 35(5), 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2019.02.006

Buckley, M., & Collins, M. J. (2011). Collagen survival and its use for species identification in Holocene-lower Pleistocene bone fragments from British archaeological and paleontological sites. Antiqua, 1(1), e1-e1. https://doi.org/10.4081/antiqua.2011.e1

Buckley, M., Larkin, N., & Collins, M. (2011). Mammoth and Mastodon collagen sequences; survival and utility. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(7), 2007-2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.01.022

Buckley, M. (2015). Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American ‘ungulates’. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1806), 20142671. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2671

Buckley, M., Fariña, R. A., Lawless, C., Tambusso, P. S., Varela, L., Carlini, A. A., Powell, J. E., & Martinez, J. G. (2015). Collagen sequence analysis of the extinct giant ground sloths Lestodon and Megatherium. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e0139611. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139611

Buckley, M., Lawless, C., & Rybczynski, N. (2019). Collagen sequence analysis of fossil camels, Camelops and cf Paracamelus, from the Arctic and sub-Arctic of Plio-Pleistocene North America. Journal of Proteomics, 194, 218-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.11.014

Buckley, M., Recabarren, O. P., Lawless, C., García, N., & Pino, M. (2019). A molecular phylogeny of the extinct South American gomphothere through collagen sequence analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 224, 105882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.105882

Cadena, E. (2016). Microscopical and elemental FESEM and Phenom ProX-SEM-EDS analysis of osteocyte-and blood vessel-like microstructures obtained from fossil vertebrates of the Eocene Messel Pit, Germany. PeerJ, 4, e1618. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1618

Capellini, E., Welker, F., Pandolfi, L., Ramos-Madrigal, J., Samodova, D., Rüther, P. L., Fotakis, A. K., Lyon, D., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Bukhsianidze, M., Jersie-Christensen, R. R., Mackie, M., Ginolhac, A., Ferring, R., Tappen, M., Palkopoulou, E., Dickinson, M. R., Stafford Jr, T. W., Chan, Y. L., Götherström, A., Nathan, S. K., Heintzman, P. D., Kapp, J. D., Kirillova, I., Moodley, Y., Agusti, J., Kahlke, R. D., Kiladze, G., Martínez-Navarro, B., Liu, S., Velasco, M. S., Sinding, M. S., Kelstrup, C. D., Allentoft, M. E., Orlando, L., Penkman, K., Shapiro, B., Rook, L., Dalén, L., Gilbert, M. P., Olsen, J. V., Lordkipanidze, D., & Willerslev, E. (2019). Early Pleistocene enamel proteome from Dmanisi resolves Stephanorhinus phylogeny. Nature, 574(7776), 103-107. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1555-y

Clack, A. A., MacPhee, R. D., & Poinar, H. N. (2012). Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces. Methods Molecular Biology, 840: 51–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-516-9_7

Cleland, T. P., Schroeter, E. R., Feranec, R. S., & Vashishth, D. (2016). Peptide sequences from the first Castoroides ohioensis skull and the utility of old museum collections for palaeoproteomics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283(1832), 20160593. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0593

Colleary, C., Dolocan, A., Gardner, J., Singh, S., Wuttke, M., Rabenstein, R., Habersetzer, J., Schaal, S., Feseha, M., Clemens, M., Jacobs, B. F., Currano, E. D., Jacobs, L. L., Sylvestersen, R. L., Gabbott, S. E., & Vinther, J. (2015). Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(41), 12592-12597. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1509831112

Colleary, C., Lamadrid, H. M., O’Reilly, S. S., Dolocan, A., & Nesbitt, S. J. (2021). Molecular preservation in mammoth bone and variation based on burial environment. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81849-6

Collins, M. J., Nielsen–Marsh, C. M., Hiller, J., Smith, C. I., Roberts, J. P., Prigodich, R. V., Prigodich, R. V., Wess, T. J., Csapo, J., Millard, A. R.,& Turner–Walker, G. (2002). The survival of organic matter in bone: a review. Archaeometry, 44(3), 388. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00071

Coltrain, J. B., Harris, J. M., Cerling, T. E., Ehleringer, J. R., Dearing, M. D., Ward, J., & Allen, J. (2004). Rancho La Brea stable isotope biogeochemistry and its implications for the palaeoecology of late Pleistocene, coastal southern California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 205(3-4), 199-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2003.12.008

Dabney, J., Knapp, M., Glocke, I., Gansauge, M., Weihmann, A., Nickel, B., Valdiosera, C., García, N., Pääbo, S., Arsuaga, J., & Meyer, M. (2013). Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(39), 15758-15763. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314445110

Delsuc, F., Gibb, G. C., Kuck, M., Billet, G., Hautier, L., Southon, J., Rouillard, J., Fernicola, J. C., Vizcaíno, S. F., MacPhee, R. D. E., & Poinar, H. N. (2016). The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts. Current Biology, 26(4), R155-R156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.039

Duchêne, D. A., Bragg, J. G., Duchêne, S., Neaves, L. E., Potter, S., Moritz, C., Johnson, R. N., Ho, S. Y. W., & Eldridge, M. D. (2018). Analysis of phylogenomic tree space resolves relationships among marsupial families. Systematic Biology, 67(3), 400-412. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syx076

Eldridge, M. D., Beck, R. M., Croft, D. A., Travouillon, K. J., & Fox, B. J. (2019). An emerging consensus in the evolution, phylogeny, and systematics of marsupials and their fossil relatives (Metatheria). Journal of Mammalogy, 100(3), 802-837. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz018

Fostowicz-Frelik, L., Ge, D., & Ruf, I. (2021). Recent advances in the evolution of Euarchontoglires. Frontiers in Genetics, 12, 773789. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.773789

Geng, W. H., Wang, X. P., Che, L. F., Wang, X., Liu, R., Zhou, T., Roos, C., Irwin, D. M., & Yu, L. (2020). Convergent evolution of locomotory modes in Euarchontoglires. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 476. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.615862

Gilbert, M. T. P., Wilson, A. S., Bunce, M., Hansen, A. J., Willerslev, E., Shapiro, B., Higham, T.F., Richards, M. P., O’Connell, T. C., Tobin, D. J., Cooper, A., &Janaway, R. C. (2004). Ancient mitochondrial DNA from hair. Current Biology, 14(12), R463-R464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2004.06.008

Gilbert, M. T. P., Tomsho, L. P., Rendulic, S., Packard, M., Drautz, D. I., Sher, A., Tikhonov, A., Dalen, L., Kuznetsova, T., Kosintsev, P., Higham, T., Collins, M. J., Wilson, A. S., Shidlovskiy, F., Buigues, B., Ericson, P. G., Germonpré, M., Götherström, A., Iacumin, P., Nikolaev, V., Nowak-Kemp, M., Willerslev, E., Knight, J. R., Irzyk, Gerard, Perbost, C. S., Fredrikson, K. M., Harkins, T. T., Sheridan, S., Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., & Campos, P. F. (2007). Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts. Science, 317(5846), 1927-1930. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1146971

Gilbert, M. T. P., Drautz, D. I., Lesk, A. M., Ho, S. Y., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Hsu, C., Sher, A., Dalén, L., Götherström, A., Tomsho, L. P., Rendulic, S., Packard, M., Campos, P. F., Kuznetsova, T. V., Shidlovskiy, F., Tikhonov, A., Willerslev, E., Iacumin, P., Buigues, B., Ericson. P. G. P., Germonpré, M., Kosintev, P., Nikolaev, V., Nowak-Kemp, M., Knight, J. R., Irzyk, G. P., Perbost, C. S., Fredrikson, K. M., Harkins, T. T., Sheridan, S., Miller, W., & Schuster, S. C. (2008). Intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of Siberian woolly mammoths using complete mitochondrial genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(24), 8327-8332. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802315105

Gobbo, S. R., & Bertini, R. J. (2014). Tecidos moles (não resistentes): como se fossilizam? Terrae Didatica, 10(1), 2-13. https://doi.org/10.20396/td.v10i1.8637374

Goin, F. J., Woodburne, M. O., Zimicz, A. N., Martin, G. M., & Chornogubsky, L. (2016). Dispersal of vertebrates from between the Americas, Antarctica, and Australia in the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic. In A brief history of South American metatherians. Springer, Dordrecht, 77-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7420-8_3

Gomes, W. A., Machado, M. F., Bélo, P., & Alves, E. F. (2021a). Biomoléculas em fósseis de mamíferos cenozoicos: reivindicações de tecidos moles não mineralizados em fósseis recuperados de diferentes contextos tafonômicos. Paleodest – Paleontologia em Destaque, 36(74),45. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.11401.47206

Gomes, W. A., Machado, M. F., Bélo, P., & Alves, E. F. (2021b). Paleontologia molecular do Cenozoico: reivindicações de tecidos moles não mineralizados em mamíferos encontrados em depósitos sedimentares pouco favoráveis à preservação. Paleodest – Paleontologia em Destaque, 36(74),45. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.18951.21928

Goodman, M., Birk, D. E., Romero-Herrera, A. E., Lande, M. A., Dene, H., & Barnhart, M. I. (1980). Collagen preservation in soft tissue from the Magadan mammoth. FEBS Letters, 114(1), 30-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(80)80854-4

Greenwood, A. D., Castresana, J., Feldmaier-Fuchs, G., & Pääbo, S. (2001). A molecular phylogeny of two extinct sloths. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 18(1), 94-103. https://doi.org/10.1006/mpev.2000.0860

Hallström, B. M., & Janke, A. (2010). Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27(12), 2804-2816. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msq166

Hallström, B. M., Schneider, A., Zoller, S., & Janke, A. (2011). A genomic approach to examine the complex evolution of laurasiatherian mammals. PLoS ONE, 6(12), e28199. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028199

Haouchar, D., Haile, J., McDowell, M. C., Murray, D. C., White, N. E., Allcock, R. J., Phillips, M. J., Prideaux, G. J., & Bunce, M. (2014). Thorough assessment of DNA preservation from fossil bone and sediments excavated from a late Pleistocene–Holocene cave deposit on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 84, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.11.007

Heintzman, P. D., Zazula, G. D., Cahill, J. A., Reyes, A. V., MacPhee, R. D., & Shapiro, B. (2015). Genomic data from extinct North American Camelops revise camel evolutionary history. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32(9), 2433-2440. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msv128

Hill, C. L. (1998). American mastodon (Mammut americanum) from the Doeden Gravels, No. 2 Terrace, Lower Yellowstone River. In American Quaternary Association Program and Abstracts of the 15th Biennial Meeting. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, 180.

Hill, C. L., & Schweitzer, M. H. (1999). Mammoth (Mammuthus) from the Doeden Gravels Eastern Montana: biometric and molecular analyses. Current Research Pleistocene, 16, 120-123.

Hill, R. C., Wither, M. J., Nemkov, T., Barrett, A., D'Alessandro, A., Dzieciatkowska, M., & Hansen, K. C. (2015). Preserved proteins from extinct Bison latifrons identified by tandem mass spectrometry; hydroxylysine glycosides are a common feature of ancient collagen. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, 14(7), 1946-1958. https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M114.047787

Ho, T. Y. (1965). The amino acid composition of bone and tooth proteins in late Pleistocene mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 54(1), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.54.1.26

Hofreiter, M., Poinar, H. N., Spaulding, W. G., Bauer, K., Martin, P. S., Possnert, G., & Pääbo, S. (2000). A molecular analysis of ground sloth diet through the last glaciation. Molecular Ecology, 9(12), 1975-1984. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01106.x

Hofreiter, M., Betancourt, J. L., Sbriller, A. P., Markgraf, V., & McDonald, H. G. (2003). Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Cura, Neuquen Province, southwest Argentina. Quaternary Research, 59(3), 364-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-5894(03)00030-9

Höss, M., Dilling, A., Currant, A., & Pääbo, S. (1996). Molecular phylogeny of the extinct ground sloth Mylodon darwinii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(1), 181-1856. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.1.181

Hu, J., Zhang, Y., & Yu, L. (2012). Summary of Laurasiatheria (Mammalia) phylogeny. Zoological Research, 33(E5-6), E65-74. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.E05-06E65

Irisarri, I., & Meyer, A. (2016). The identification of the closest living relative(s) of tetrapods: phylogenomic lessons for resolving short ancient internodes. Systematic Biology, 65(6), 1057-1075. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syw057

Jarvis, E. D., Mirarab, S., Aberer, A. J., Li, B., Houde, P., Li, C., Ho, S. Y. W., Faircloth, B. C., Nabholz, B., Howard, J. T., Suh, A., Weber, C. C., Fonseca, R. R., Li, J., Zhang, F., Li, H., Zhou, L., Narula, N., Liu, L.,Ganapathy, G., Boussau, B., Bayzid, M. S., Zavidovych, V.,Subramanian, S., Gabaldón, T., Capella-Gutiérrez, S., Huerta-Cepas, J., Rekepalli, B., Munch, K., Schierup, M., Lindow, B., Warren, W. C., Ray, D., Green, R. G., Bruford, M. W., Zhan, X., Dixon, A., Li, S., Li, N., Huang, Y., Derryberry, E. P.,Bertelsen, M. F., Sheldon, F. H., Brumfield, R. T., Mello, C. V., Lovell, P. V.,Wirthlin, M.,Schneider, M. P. C., Prosdocimi, F., Samaniego, J. A., Velazquez, A. M. V., Alfaro-Núñez, A., Campos, P. F., Petersen, B., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Pas, A., Bailey, T., Scofield, P., Bunce, M., Lambert, D. M., Zhou, Q., Perelman, P.,Driskell, A. C., Shapiro, B., Xiong, Z., Zeng, Y., Liu, S., Li, Z., Liu, B., Wu, K., Xiao, J., Yinqi, X., Zheng, Q., Zhang, Y., Yang, H., Wang, J., Smeds, L., Rheindt, F. E., Braun, M., Fjeldsa, J., Orlando, L.,Barker, F. K., Jønsson, K. A., Johnson, W., Koepfli, K., O’Brien, S., Haussler, D., Ryder, O. A., Rahbek, C., Willerslev, E., Graves, G. R., Glenn, T. C., McCormack, J., Burt, D., Ellegren, H., Alström, P., Edwards, S. V., Stamatakis, A., Mindell, D. P., Cracraft, J.,Braun, E. L., Warnow, T.,Jun, W., Gilbert, M. T. P., & Zhang, G. (2014). Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science, 346(6215), 1320-1331. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1253451

Krause, J., Dear, P. H., Pollack, J. L., Slatkin, M., Spriggs, H., Barnes, I., Lister, A. M., Ebersberger, I., Pääbo, S., & Hofreiter, M. (2006). Multiplex amplification of the mammoth mitochondrial genome and the evolution of Elephantidae. Nature, 439(7077), 724-727. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04432

Krause, J., Unger, T., Noçon, A., Malaspinas, A., Kolokotronis, S., Stiller, M., Soibelzon, L., Spriggs, H., Dear, P. H., Briggs, A. W., Bray, S. C. E., O’Brien, S. J., Rabeder, G., Matheus, P., Cooper, A., Slatkin, M., Pääbo, S., & Hofreiter, M. (2008). Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8(1), 220. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-220

Kuch, M., Rohland, N., Betancourt, J. L., Latorre, C., Steppan, S., & Poinar, H. N. (2002). Molecular analysis of a 11 700‐year‐old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular Ecology, 11(5), 913-924. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01492.x

Kuntner, M., May‐Collado, L. J., & Agnarsson, I. (2011). Phylogeny and conservation priorities of afrotherian mammals (Afrotheria, Mammalia). Zoologica Scripta, 40(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00452.x

Lambert, J. B., Santiago‐Blay, J. A., Wu, Y., & Levy, A. J. (2015). Examination of amber and related materials by NMR spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 53(1), 2-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrc.4121

Liang, R., Li, Z., LauVetter, M. C., Vishnivetskaya, T. A., Zanina, O. G., Lloyd, K. G., Pfiffner, S. M., Riykina, E. M., Wang, W., Wiggins, J., Miller, J., Hettich, R. L.,& Onstott, T. C. (2021). Genomic reconstruction of fossil and living microorganisms in ancient Siberian permafrost. Microbiome, 9(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01057-2

Lindqvist, C., Schuster, S. C., Sun, Y., Talbot, S. L., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Kasson, L., Zeyl, E., Aars, J, Miller, W., Ingólfsson O., Bachmann, L., & Øystein, W. (2010). Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(11), 5053-5057. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914266107

Lister, A. M., Edwards, C. J., Nock, D. A. W., Bunce, M., van Pijlen, I. A., Bradley, D. G., Thomas, M. G., & Barnes, I. (2005). The phylogenetic position of the ‘giant deer’ Megaloceros giganteus. Nature, 438(7069), 850-853. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04134

Lister, A. M. (2013). The role of behaviour in adaptive morphological evolution of African proboscideans. Nature, 500(7462), 331-334. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12275

Little, K., Kelly, M., & Courts, A. (1962). Studies on bone matrix in normal and osteoporotic bone. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 44(3), 503-519. https://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.44B3.503

Lowenstein, J. M. (1981). Immunological reactions from fossil material. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences, 292(1057), 143-149. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1981.0022

Lowenstein, J. M., & Scheuenstuhl, G. (1991). Immunological methods in molecular palaeontology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences, 333(1268), 375-380. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1991.0087

Lv, X., Hu, J., Hu, Y., Li, Y., Xu, D., Ryder, O. A., Irwin, D. M., & Yu, L. (2021). Diverse phylogenomic datasets uncover a concordant scenario of laurasiatherian interordinal relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 157, 107065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107065

Mccormack, J. E., Faircloth, B. C., Crawford, N. G., Gowaty, P. A., Brumfield, R. T., & Glenn, T. C. (2012). Ultraconserved elements are novel phylogenomic markers that resolve placental mammal phylogeny when combined with species-tree analysis. Genome Research, 22(4), 746-754. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.125864.111

Mess, A. (2014). Placental evolution within the supraordinal clades of eutheria with the perspective of alternative animal models for human placentation. Advances in Biology, 2014, 639274. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/639274

Miller, W., Drautz, D. I., Ratan, A., Pusey, B., Qi, J., Lesk, A. M., Tomsho, L. P., Packard, M. D., Zhao, F., Sher, A., Tikhonov, A., Raney, B., Patterson, N., Lindblad-Toh, K., Lander, E. S., Knight, J. R., Irzyk, G. P., Fredrikson, K. M., Harkins, T. T., Sheridan, S., Pringle, T., & Schuster, S. C. (2008). Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth. Nature, 456(7220), 387-390. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07446

Morgan, C. C., Foster, P. G., Webb, A. E., Pisani, D., McInerney, J. O., & O’Connell, M. J. (2013). Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(9), 2145-2156. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst117

Nery, M. F., González, D. J., Hoffmann, F. G., & Opazo, J. C. (2012). Resolution of the laurasiatherian phylogeny: evidence from genomic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64(3), 685-689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.04.012

Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Ostrom, P. H., Gandhi, H., Shapiro, B., Cooper, A., Hauschka, P. V., & Collins, M. J. (2002). Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka. Geology, 30(12), 1099-1102. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030%3C1099:SPOOPA%3E2.0.CO;2

Noonan, J. P., Hofreiter, M., Smith, D., Priest, J. R., Rohland, N., Rabeder, G., Krause, J., Detter, J. C., Pääbo, S., & Rubin, E. M. (2005). Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears. Science, 309(5734), 597-599. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1113485

O'Leary, M. A., Bloch, J. I., Flynn, J. J., Gaudin, T. J., Giallombardo, A., Giannini, N. P., Goldberg, S. L., Kraatz, B. P., Luo, Z., Meng, J., Ni, X., Novacek, M. J., Perini, F. A., Randall, Z. S., Rougier, G. W., Sargis, E. J., Silcox, M. T., Simmons, N. B., Spaulding, M., Velazco, P. M., Weksler, M., Wible, J. R., & Cirranello, A. L. (2013). The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science, 339(6120), 662-667. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1229237

Orlando, L., Leonard, J. A., Thenot, A., Laudet, V., Guerin, C., & Hänni, C. (2003). Ancient DNA analysis reveals woolly rhino evolutionary relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28(3), 485-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00023-X

Orlando, L., Ginolhac, A., Zhang, G., Froese, D., Albrechtsen, A., Stiller, M., Schuber, M., Cappellini, E., Petersen, B., Moltke, I., Johnson, P. L. F., Fumagalli, M., Vilstrup, J. T., Raghavan, M., Korneliussen, T., Malaspinas, A., Vogt, J., Szklarczyk, D., Kelstrup, C. D., Vinther, J., Dolocan, A., Stenderup, J., Velazquez, A. M. V., Cahill, J., Rasmussen, M., Wang, X., Min, J., Zazula, G. D., Seguin-Orlando, A., Mortensen, C., Magnussen, K., Thompson, J. F., Weinstock, J., Gregersen, K., Røed, K. H., Eisenmann, V., Rubin, C. J., Miller, D. C., Antczak, D. F., Bertelsen, M. F., Brunak, S., Al-Rasheid, K. A. S., Ryder, O., Anderson, L., Mundy, J., Krogh, A., Gilbert, M. T. P., Kjaer, K., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Jensen, L. J., Olsen, J. V., Hofreiter, M., Nielsen, R., Shapiro, B., Wang, J., & Willerslev, E. (2013). Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse. Nature, 499(7456), 74-78. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12323

O'Reilly, S., Summons, R., Mayr, G., & Vinther, J. (2017). Preservation of uropygial gland lipids in a 48-million-year-old bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1865), 20171050. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1050

Ostrom, P. H., Schall, M., Gandhi, H., Shen, T. L., Hauschka, P. V., Strahler, J. R., & Gage, D. A. (2000). New strategies for characterizing ancient proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(6), 1043-1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00381-6

Ostrom, P. H., Gandhi, H., Strahler, J. R., Walker, A. K., Andrews, P. C., Leykam, J., Stafford, T. W., Kelly, R. L., Walker, D. N., Buckley, M., &Hampula, J. (2006). Unraveling the sequence and structure of the protein osteocalcin from a 42 ka fossil horse. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(8), 2034-2044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.01.004

Paijmans, J. L. A., Barnett, R., Gilbert, M. T. P., Zepeda-Mendoza, M. L., Reumer, J. W. F., Vos, J., Zazula, G., Nagel, D., Baryshnikov, G. F., Leonard, J. A., Rohland, N., Westbury, M. V., Barlow, A., & Hofreiter, M. (2017). Evolutionary history of saber-toothed cats based on ancient mitogenomics. Current Biology, 27(21), 3330-3336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.033

Peñalver, E., & Grimaldi, D. (2005). Assemblages of mammalian hair and blood-feeding midges (Insecta: Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Miocene amber. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 96(2), 177-195. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0263593300001292

Phillips, M. J., & Zakaria, S. S. (2021). Enhancing mitogenomic phylogeny and resolving the relationships of extinct megafaunal placental mammals. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 158, 107082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107082

Poinar Jr, G. (2017). Fossilized mammalian erythrocytes associated with a tick reveal ancient piroplasms. Journal of Medical Entomology, 54(4), 895-900. https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw247

Rana, F. (2016). Dinosaur blood and the Age of the Earth. RTB Press.

Rao, H., Yang, Y., Liu, J., Westbury, M. V., Zhang, C., & Shao, Q. (2020). Palaeoproteomic analysis of Pleistocene cave hyenas from east Asia. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73542-x

Reest, A. J., & Currie, P. J. (2020). Preservation frequency of tissue-like structures in vertebrate remains from the upper Campanian of Alberta: Dinosaur Park Formation. Cretaceous Research, 109(104370). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2019.104370

Rogaev, E. I., Moliaka, Y. K., Malyarchuk, B. A., Kondrashov, F. A., Derenko, M. V., Chumakov, I., & Grigorenko, A. P. (2006). Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of Pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. PLoS Biology, 4(3), e73. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040073

Romiguier, J., Ranwez, V., Delsuc, F., Galtier, N., & Douzery, E. J. (2013). Less is more in mammalian phylogenomics: AT-rich genes minimize tree conflicts and unravel the root of placental mammals. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(9), 2134-2144. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst116

Rossi, V., McNamara, M. E., Webb, S. M., Ito, S., & Wakamatsu, K. (2019). Tissue-specific geometry and chemistry of modern and fossilized melanosomes reveal internal anatomy of extinct vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(36), 17880-17889. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820285116

Rother, E. T. (2007). Revisão sistemática X revisão narrativa. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 20(2), v-vi. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002007000200001

Rowley, M. J., Rich, P. V., Rich, T. H., & Mackay, I. R. (1986). Immunoreactive colla-gen in avian and mammalian fossils. Naturwissenschaften, 73(10), 620-623. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00368777

Rybczynski, N., Gosse, J. C., Harington, C. R., Wogelius, R. A., Hidy, A. J., & Buckley, M. (2013). Mid-Pliocene warm-period deposits in the High Arctic yield insight into camel evolution. Nature Communications, 4(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2516

Sansom, R. S. (2014). Experimental decay of soft tissues. Reading and writing of the fossil record: preservational pathways to exceptional fossilization. Paleontological Society Papers, 20, 259-274. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1089332600002886

Schubert, M., Jónsson, H., Chang, D., Der Sarkissian, C., Ermini, L., Ginolhac, A., Albrechtsen, A., Dupanloup, I., Foucal, A., Petersen, B., Fumagalli, M., Raghavan, M., Seguin-Orlando, A., Korneliussen, T. S., Velazquez, A. M. V., Stenderup, J., Hoover, C. R., Alfarhan, A. H., Alquraishi, S. A., Al-Rasheid, K. A. S., MacHugh, D. E., Kalbfleisch, T., MacLeod, J. N., Rubin, E. N., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Andersson, L., Hofreiter, M., Marques-Bonet, T., Gilbert, M. T. P., Nielsen, R., Excoffier, L., Willerslev, E., Shapiro, B., & Orlando, L. (2014). Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(52), E5661-E5669. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1416991111

Schmidt-Schultz, T. H., Reich, M., & Schultz, M. (2021). Exceptionally preserved extracellular bone matrix proteins from the late Neogene proboscidean Anancus (Mammalia: Proboscidea). PalZ, 95, 757–765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-021-00566-7

Schwarz, C., Debruyne, R., Kuch, M., McNally, E., Schwarcz, H., Aubrey, A. D., Bada, J., & Poinar, H. (2009). New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains. Nucleic Acids Research, 37(10), 3215-3229. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp159

Schweitzer, M., Hill, C. L., Asara, J. M., Lane, W. S., & Pincus, S. H. (2002). Identification of immunoreactive material in mammoth fossils. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 55(6), 696-705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-002-2365-6

Schweitzer, M. H. (2003). Reviews and previews: the future of molecular biology. Palaeontologia Electronica, 5(2),1-11.

Schweitzer, M. H. (2004). Molecular paleontology: some current advances and problems. Annales de Paléontologie, 90(2), 81-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annpal.2004.02.001

Schweitzer, M. H., Wittmeyer, J. L., & Horner, J. R. (2007a). Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1607), 183-197. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3705

Schweitzer, M. H., Suo, Z., Avci, R., Asara, J. M., Allen, M. A., Arce, F. T., & Horner, J. R. (2007b). Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein. Science, 316(5822), 277-280. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138709

Schweitzer, M. H., Zheng, W., Organ, C. L., Avci, R., Suo, Z., Freimark, L. M., Lebleu, V. S., Duncan, M. B., Heiden, M. G. V., Neveu, J. M., Lane, W. S., Cottrell, J. S., Horner, J. R., Cantley, L. C., Kalluri, R., & Asara, J. M. (2009). Biomolecular characterization and protein sequences of the Campanian hadrosaur B. canadensis. Science, 324(5927), 626-631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165069

Schweitzer, M. H., Schroeter, E. R., Cleland, T. P., & Zheng, W. (2019). Paleoproteomics of Mesozoic dinosaurs and other Mesozoic fossils. Proteomics, 19(16), 1800251. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201800251

Shoshani, J., Lowenstein, J. M., Walz, D. A., & Goodman, M. (1985). Proboscidean origins of mastodon and woolly mammoth demonstrated immunologically. Paleobiology, 11(4), 429-437. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0094837300011714

Simões, M. G., Rodrigues, S. C., Bertoni-Machado, C., & Holz, M. (2014). Tafonomia: processos e ambientes de fossilização. In Carvalho, I. S. Paleontologia: conceitos e métodos. 3. ed. Editora Interciência, 1, 19-51.

Slater, G. J. (2013). Phylogenetic evidence for a shift in the mode of mammalian body size evolution at the Cretaceous‐Palaeogene boundary. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4(8), 734-744. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12084

Stach, P., Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Dumańska-Słowik, M., Kosakowski, P., Naglik, B., Drzewicz, P., Misiak, J., Pršek, J., George, C., & Gomez, R. E. R. (2021). The study of Dominican amber-bearing sediments from Siete Cañadas and La Cumbre with a discussion on their origin. Scientific Reports, 11, 18556. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96520-3

Stanhope, M. J., Waddell, V. G., Madsen, O., De Jong, W., Hedges, S. B., Cleven, G. C., Kao, D., & Springer, M. S. (1998). Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(17), 9967-9972. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.17.9967

Tabuce, R., Asher, R. J., & Lehmann, T. (2008). Afrotherian mammals: a review of current data. Mammalia, 72(1), 2-14. https://doi.org/10.1515/MAMM.2008.004

Tarver, J. E., Reis, M., Mirarab, S., Moran, R. J., Parker, S., O’Reilly, J. E., King, B. L., O’Connell, M. J., Asher, R. B., Warnow, T., Peterson, K. J., Donoghue, P. C. J., & Pisani, D. (2016). The interrelationships of placental mammals and the limits of phylogenetic inference. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8(2), 330-344. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evv261

Taylor, P. G. (1996). Reproducibility of ancient DNA sequences from extinct Pleistocene fauna. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13(1), 283-285. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025566

Thomas, B. D. (2018). Collagen remnants in ancient bone. PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool.

Thomas, B., & Taylor, S. (2019). Proteomes of the past: the pursuit of proteins in Paleontology. Expert Review of Proteomics, 16(11-12), 881-895. https://doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2019.1700114

Tuross, N. (1989). Albumin preservation in the Taima-taima mastodon skeleton. Applied Geochemistry, 4(3), 255-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-2927(89)90026-7

Ulrich, M. M. W., Perizonius, W. R. K., Spoor, C. F., Sandberg, P., & Vermeer, C. (1987). Extraction of osteocalcin from fossil bones and teeth. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 149(2), 712-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(87)90426-8

Valdiosera, C., García, N., Dalén, L., Smith, C., Kahlke, R., Lidén, K., Angerbjörn, Arsuaga, J. L., & Götherström, A. (2006). Typing single polymorphic nucleotides in mitochondrial DNA as a way to access Middle Pleistocene DNA. Biology Letters, 2(4), 601-603. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2006.0515

van der Valk, T., Pečnerová, P., Díez-del-Molino, D., Bergström, Oppenheimer, J., Hartmann, S., Xenikoudakis, G., Thomas, J. A., Dehasque, M., Saglican, E., Fidan, R. B., Barnes, I., Liu, S., Somel, M., Heintzman, P. D., Nikolskiy, P., Shapiro, B., Skoglund, P., Hofreiter, M., Lister, A. M., Götherström, A., & Dalén, L. (2021). Million-year-old DNA sheds light on the genomic history of mammoths. Nature, 591, 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03224-9

Vander Linden, A., Hedrick, B. P., Kamilar, J. M., & Dumont, E. R. (2019). Atlas morphology, scaling and locomotor behaviour in primates, rodents and relatives (Mammalia: Euarchontoglires). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 185(1), 283-299. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zly042

Vidal, U. L. (2010). Protein preservation in fossil whale bones of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, Peru. Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects, 12, 1-168.

Vinther, J., Briggs, D. E., Clarke, J., Mayr, G., & Prum, R. O. (2010). Structural coloration in a fossil feather. Biology Letters, 6(1), 128-131. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0524

Vosgerau, D. S. A. R., & Romanowski, J. P. (2014) Estudos de revisão: implicações conceituais e metodológicas. Revista de Diálogo Educacional, (14)41, 165-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.7213/dialogo.educ.14.041.DS08

Welker, F., Collins, M. J., Thomas, J. A., Wadsley, M., Brace, S., Cappellini, E., Turvey, S., Reguero, M., Gelfo, J., Kramarz, A., Burger, J., Thomas-Oates, J., Ashford, D., Ashton, P., Rowsell, K., Porter, D., Kessler, B., Fischer, R., Baessmann, C., Kaspar, S., Olsen, J., Kiley, P., Elliott, J., Kelstrup, K., Mullin, V., Hofreiter, M., Willerslev, E., Hublin, J., Orlando, L., Barnes, I., & MacPhee, R. (2015). Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin’s South American ungulates. Nature, 522(7554), 81-84. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14249

Welker, F., Smith, G. M., Hutson, J. M., Kindler, L., Garcia-Moreno, A., Villaluenga, A., Turner, E., Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S. (2017). Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae. PeerJ, 5, e3033. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3033

Westbury, M., Baleka, S., Barlow, A., Hartmann, S., Paijmans, J. L. A., Kramarz, A., Forasiepi, A. M, Bond, M., Gelfo, J. N., Reguero, M. A., López-Mendoza, P., Taglioretti, M., Scaglia, F., Rinderknecht, A., Jones, W., Mena, F., Billet, G., Muizon, C., Aguilar, J. L., MacPhee, R. D. E., & Hofreiter, M. (2017). A mitogenomic timetree for Darwin’s enigmatic South American mammal Macrauchenia patachonica. Nature Communications, 8, 15951. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15951

Wyckoff, R. W., Mccaughey, W. F., & Doberenz, A. R. (1964). The amino acid composition of proteins from Pleistocene bones. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 93(2), 374-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4165(64)90387-3

Wyckoff, R. W., & Davidson, F. D. (1976). Pleistocene and dinosaur gelatins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 55(1), 95-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(76)90179-6

Yuan, J., Sheng, G., Hou, X., Shuang, X., Yi, J., Yang, H., & Lai, X. (2014). Ancient DNA sequences from Coelodonta antiquitatis in China reveal its divergence and phylogeny. Science China Earth Sciences, 57(3), 388-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-013-4702-6

Zhou, X., Xu, S., Xu, J., Chen, B., Zhou, K., & Yang, G. (2012). Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the Laurasiatherian mammals. Systematic Biology, 61(1), 150. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syr089

Zúniga, L. E., Enríquez, L., Vides, C., & Aguilar, D. (2019). Recuperación de tejidos blandos de perezosos fósiles gigantes (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Pilosa) de la zona central del Departamento de Yoro, Honduras. Revista Ciencia y Tecnología, (24), 32-4. https://doi.org/10.5377/rct.v0i24.7875

Published

05/11/2022

How to Cite

GOMES, W. A.; MACHADO, M. F.; ALVES, E. F. Exceptional preservation of nonmineralized biomaterials in Cenozoic fossils of the Mammalia clade. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 14, p. e533111436739, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i14.36739. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/36739. Acesso em: 26 nov. 2022.

Issue

Section

Exact and Earth Sciences