Monkeypox: The New Pandemic of 2022
Keywords:Monkeypox; Virus; Disease.
This literature review addresses monkeypox, an infectious disease caused by the Monkeypox virus that belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus and to the family Poxviridae, the same as the human smallpox virus. It had its first case registered in Congo in 1970. After almost 40 years, with no reported case, in 2017 it re-emerged in Nigeria. With the absence of mass vaccination and its transmission occurring through direct contact with people infected through close and prolonged exposure to droplets or other respiratory secretions, this virus has already originated in more than 44 countries, causing a new global pandemic. With a low mortality rate, which can reach between 3% and 6%, its symptoms are very similar to those observed in patients with smallpox, although they are clinically less severe. Thus, the present work aimed to study the characteristics and general aspects of monkeypox, in order to take measures to prevent and promote this disease.
ANVISA – Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Orientações para Prevenção e Controle. [s.l: s.n.]. (2022). <https://www.gov.br/anvisa/pt-br/centraisdeconteudo/publicacoes/servicosdesaude/notas-tecnicas/nota-tecnica-gvims-ggtes-anvisa-no-03-2022-orientacoes-para-prevencao-e-controle-da-monkeypox-nos-servicos-de-saude/view>.
Brasil, M. DA S. Agentes Biológicos Classificação de Risco dos Agentes Biológicos. [s.l: s.n.]. 2017. <https://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/classificacao_risco_agentes_biologicos_3ed.p df>.
Breman, J. G., Kalisa-Ruti, Steniowski, M. V., Zanotto, E., Gromyko, A. I., & Arita, I. (1980). Human monkeypox, 1970-79. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(2), 165–182. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6249508/
Catalent Pharma Solutions (2018, July). HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: These highlights do not include all the information needed to use TPOXX® safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for TPOXX. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/208627s000lbl.pdf
CDC. (2022, October 26). Monkeypox in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/veterinarian/case-def.html
Monkeypox infections in animals: updated interim guidance for persons who have frequent contact with animals (pet owners, pet shop owners and employees, animal rescuers, animal handlers, and animal control officers). (n.d.). Stacks.cdc.gov. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/22658
CDC. (2022, October 19). Monkeypox in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/clinicians/vaccines/vaccine-considerations.html
ECDC – EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR DISEASE PREVNETION AND CONTROL. Interim advice on Risk Communication and Community Engagement during the monkeypox outbreak in Europe, 2022 Situation analysis Monkeypox outbreak in Europe Risk communication response. 2022. Acesso em 10/06/2022. [s.l: s.n.]. Disponível em: <https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Joint-ECDC-WHO-interim- advice-on-RCCE-for-Monkeypox-2-June-2022.pdf>.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Hepatitis A outbreaks in the EU/EEA mostly affecting men who have sex with men [Internet]. 2017[cited 2022 Jun 20]. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/media/en/publications/ Publications/16-02-2017-RRA%20UPDATE%201-Hepatitis%20A-United%20Kingdom.pdf
Guarner, J., Johnson, B. J., Paddock, C. D., Shieh, W.-J., Goldsmith, C. S., Reynolds, M. G., Damon, I. K., Regnery, R. L., & Zaki, S. R. (2004). Monkeypox Transmission and Pathogenesis in Prairie Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(3), 426–431. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1003.030878
Lopera, J. G., Falendysz, E. A., Rocke, T. E., & Osorio, J. E. (2015). Attenuation of monkeypox virus by deletion of genomic regions. Virology, 475, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2014.11.009
McCollum, A. M., Reynolds, M. G., Ndongala, G. M., Pukuta, E., Tamfum, J.-J. M., Malekani, J., Karhemere, S., Lushima, R. S., Wilkins, K., Gao, J., Emerson, G., Damon, I. K., Li, Y., Ilunga, B. K., Kabamba, J., Carroll, D. S., & Nakazawa, Y. (2015). Human Monkeypox in the Kivus, a Conflict Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93(4), 718–721. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0095
Minhaj, F. S. (2022). Monkeypox Outbreak — Nine States, May 2022. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 71. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7123e1
Monkeypox Outbreak Toolbox. (n. d.). https://www.who.int/emergencies/outbreak-toolkit/disease-outbreak-toolboxes/monkeypox-outbreak-toolbox
Parker, S., Chen, N. G., Foster, S., Hartzler, H., Hembrador, E., Hruby, D., Jordan, R., Lanier, R., Painter, G., Painter, W., Sagartz, J. E., Schriewer, J., & Mark Buller, R. (2012). Evaluation of disease and viral biomarkers as triggers for therapeutic intervention in respiratory mousepox - an animal model of smallpox. Antiviral Research, 94(1), 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.02.005
Pinkstone J. Grindr sends monkeypox warnings to users as cases rise [Internet]. 2022[cited 2022 Jun 20]. The Telegraphy. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2022/05/25/grindr-sends-monkeypox-warnings-users-cases-continue-soar/
SMS-SP – SECRETARIA MUNICIPAL DE SAÚDE DE SÃO PAULO. Capital confirma primeiro caso de monkeypox no Brasil (2022). Disponível em:<https://www.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cidade/secretarias/saude/noticias/?p=330304>.
Sousa AR, Cerqueira SSB, Santana TS, Suto CSS, Almeida ES, Brito LS, et al. Estigma vivenciado por homens diagnosticados com COVID-19. Rev Bras Enferm. 2022;75(Suppl 1):e20210038. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2021-0038
UNAIDS. Press Release: UNAIDS warns that stigmatizing language on Monkeypox jeopardises public health [Internet]. 2022[cited 2022 Jun 20] https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/pressreleaseandstatementarchive/2022/ may/20220522_PR_Monkeypox
Weinstein, R. A., Nalca, A., Rimoin, A. W., Bavari, S., & Whitehouse, C. A. (2005). Reemergence of Monkeypox: Prevalence, Diagnostics, and Countermeasures. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(12), 1765–1771. https://doi.org/10.1086/498155
Whitemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(5), 546–553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x
WHO press conference on COVID-19, monkeypox and other global health issues - 5 October 2022. (n.d.). Www.who.int. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/monkeypox--covid-19---other-global-health-issues-virtual-press-conference---5-October-2022
World Health Organization (21 May 2022). Disease Outbreak News; Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries. https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON385
World Health Organization (WHO). Laboratory testing for the monkeypox virus: interim guidance. Geneva: WHO; 23 maio 2022 [citado em 27 set. 2022]. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-MPX-laboratory-2022.1.
World Health Organization (WHO). Surveillance, case investigation and contact tracing for monkeypox: interim guidance. Geneva, 25 ago. 2022 [citado em 27 set. 2022]. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-MPX-Surveillance-2022.3.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Arthur Araújo de Souza; Geovana Borba de Albuquerque; Luanna Karina Marinho de Assis Dantas; Marvin Gonçalves Duarte; Luísa Montenegro Brayner de Moraes; Luciano Barreto Silva; Rodolfo Scavuzzi Carneiro Cunha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.