Udayana COVID-19 Scoring System: a simple diagnosing aid for early detection of COVID-19
Keywords:COVID-19; Diganosis; Scoring system.
Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable disease. While the most common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and fatigue, severe symptoms could feature acute respiratory distress syndrome and severe pneumonia. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. Unfortunately, it has high cost, extensive waiting time, and low availability in remote areas. Therefore, we developed the Udayana COVID-19 Scoring System (UCSS) for quick detection of COVID-19. This study aims to determine the cutoff score and measure the sensitivity and specificity of the UCSS. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study from June 2020 to July 2020. A questionnaire consisting of 3 objective and subjective scores assesses COVID-19 symptoms and risk factors. Participants were patients suspected of COVID-19 awaiting RT-PCR test results. The UCSS total score then compared with the RT-PCR test result and analyzed to determine the cutoff score, sensitivity, and specificity. 150 participants were included in this study (74 male, 49.3%; mean age 42 ± 15.7). The UCSS total score was significantly correlated with RT-PCR test result (p-value = 0.000). The receiving operator characteristic analysis showed an optimal cutoff score of 7, with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 71%. Therefore, the UCSS’ accuracy is at a moderate level. The UCSS showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity, and has the potential to be used as a diagnostic aid for COVID-19 early detection. Further study in diverse areas and larger sample size are needed.
Cao, Y., Li, Q., Chen, J., Guo, X., Miao, C., Yang, H., Chen, Z., Li, C., & Li, L. (2020). Hospital Emergency Management Plan During the COVID-19 Epidemic. In Academic Emergency Medicine. 27(4), 309–311. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13951
Chu, A. W. H., Chan, W. M., Ip, J. D., Yip, C. C. Y., Chan, J. F. W., Yuen, K. Y., & To, K. K. W. (2020). Evaluation of simple nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal and saliva specimens during global shortage of extraction kits. Journal of Clinical Virology, 129, 104519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104519
Cohen, A. N., Kessel, B., & Milgroom, M. G. (2020). Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection: The danger of over-reliance on positive test results. In medRxiv (p. 2020.04.26.20080911). medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.26.20080911
Finch, W. H., & Hernández Finch, M. E. (2020). Poverty and Covid-19: Rates of Incidence and Deaths in the United States During the First 10 Weeks of the Pandemic. Frontiers in Sociology, 5, 47. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2020.00047
Foppiani, A., Bertoli, S., Battezzati, A., & Zuccotti, G. (2020). Data to guide the application of the new WHO criteria for releasing COVID-19 patients from isolation. In Pharmacological Research (Vol. 160). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105063
Galea-Pace, S. (2020, July). McKinsey: Overcoming Supply Chain Shortages due to COVID-19 | Digital Supply Chain | Supply Chain Digital. Supply Chain Digital.
Gostic, K. M., Gomez, A. C. R., Mummah, R. O., Kucharski, A. J., & Lloyd-Smith, J. O. (2020). Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19. ELife, 9. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55570
Hur, J., & Chang, M. C. (2020). Usefulness of an Online Preliminary Questionnaire under the COVID-19 Pandemic. In Journal of Medical Systems (Vol. 44, Issue 7, pp. 1–2). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-020-01586-7
Jiang, F., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Cai, Y., Cheung, C. W., & Xia, Z. (2020). Review of the Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In Journal of General Internal Medicine (Vol. 35, Issue 5, pp. 1545–1549). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w
Kerboua, K. E. (2021). NLR: A Cost-effective Nomogram to Guide Therapeutic Interventions in COVID-19. In Immunological Investigations (Vol. 50, Issue 1, pp. 92–100). Taylor and Francis Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1773850
Kwon, K. T., Ko, J. H., Shin, H., Sung, M., & Kim, J. Y. (2020). Drive-through screening center for covid-19: A safe and efficient screening system against massive community outbreak. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 35(11), 123. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e123
Lauer, S. A., Grantz, K. H., Bi, Q., Jones, F. K., Zheng, Q., Meredith, H. R., Azman, A. S., Reich, N. G., & Lessler, J. (2020). The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application. Annals of Internal Medicine, 172(9), 577–582. https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-0504
Lyons-Weiler, J. (2021). Balance of Risk in COVID-19 Reveals the Extreme Cost of False Positives. In International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research (Vol. 1, Issue 2).
Manski, C. F., & Molinari, F. (2021). Estimating the COVID-19 infection rate: Anatomy of an inference problem. Journal of Econometrics, 220(1), 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconom.2020.04.041
McIntosh, K., & Hirsh, M. B. A. (2021). COVID-19: Epidemiology, virology, and prevention - UpToDate. Uptodate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/covid-19-epidemiology-virology-and-prevention
Moghadas, S. M., Fitzpatrick, M. C., Sah, P., Pandey, A., Shoukat, A., Singer, B. H., & Galvani, A. P. (2020). The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(30), 17513–17515. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008373117
Morawska, L., & Milton, D. K. (2020). It Is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In Clinical Infectious Diseases (Vol. 71, Issue 9, pp. 2311–2313). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa939
Park, M., Cook, A. R., Lim, J. T., Sun, Y., & Dickens, B. L. (2020). A Systematic Review of COVID-19 Epidemiology Based on Current Evidence. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(4), 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040967
Peiffer-Smadja, N., Lucet, J. C., Bendjelloul, G., Bouadma, L., Gerard, S., Choquet, C., Jacques, S., Khalil, A., Maisani, P., Casalino, E., Descamps, D., Timsit, J. F., Yazdanpanah, Y., & Lescure, F. X. (2020). Challenges and issues about organizing a hospital to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak: experience from a French reference centre. In Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Vol. 26, Issue 6, pp. 669–672). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.002
Purwa, & Sucahya, K. (2020). Barriers to Covid-19 RT-PCR Testing in Indonesia: A Health Policy Perspective. In Journal of Indonesian Health Policy and Administration (Vol. 5, Issue 2).
Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. In Journal of Autoimmunity (Vol. 109). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433
Sastroasmoro, S., & Ismael, S. (2011). Dasar-dasar Metodologi Penelitian Klinis (4th ed.). Sagung Seto.
Surkova, E., Nikolayevskyy, V., & Drobniewski, F. (2020). False-positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs. In The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (Vol. 8, Issue 12, pp. 1167–1168). Lancet Publishing Group. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30453-7
Tassis, B., Lunghi, G., Frattaruolo, M. P., Ruggiero, M., Somigliana, E., & Ferrazzi, E. (2020). Effectiveness of a COVID‐19 screening questionnaire for pregnant women at admission to an obstetric unit in Milan. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 150(1), 124–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13191
Zheng, Y., Wang, L., & Ben, S. (2021). Meta‐analysis of chest CT features of patients with COVID‐19 pneumonia. Journal of Medical Virology, 93(1), 241–249. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26218
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Cokorda Agung Wahyu Purnamasidhi; I Made Ady Wirawan ; Dewa Putu Wisnu Wardhana; Cokorde Istri Yuliandari Krisnawardani K; I Gde Raka Widiana; Ketut Tuti Parwati Merati
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.