In vivo evaluation of Trás-os-Montes natural cosmetic ingredients: Impacts on Drosophila melanogaster longevity and genotoxicity




Antigenotoxicity; Cosmetics; Elderberry; Longevity; SMART assay.


Our body's well-being is intricately linked to external factors, including temperature, humidity, pollution, microorganisms, and the daily food we consume. Nurturing our bodies involves harnessing the benefits of various plants that contribute to the production of diverse cosmetics. Natural elements such as almonds (Prunus dulcis), elderberries (Sambucus nigra), olives (Olea europaea), and grapes (Vitis vinifera) have demonstrated a range of biological activities, holding potential for therapeutic applications. This study aimed to assess the in vivo impact of these natural ingredients on longevity and genotoxicity/antigenotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Longevity was evaluated through regular observations of Drosophila mortality. The somatic mutation and recombination assay were conducted to determine the antigenotoxic potential of the natural ingredients. The findings revealed that these ingredients influenced longevity, and they also exhibited antigenotoxic potential, with elderberry yielding the most promising results. The growing importance of natural and organic cosmetics underscores the significance of identifying ingredients with antigenotoxic effects, offering a promising avenue of research in recent years. Such ingredients could play a crucial role in safeguarding against DNA damage and its subsequent consequences.


Abraham, S. K. (1994). Antigenotoxicity of coffee in the Drosophila assay for somatic mutation and recombination. Mutagenesis, 9(4), 383–386.

Baenas, N., & Wagner, A. E. (2019). Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative model organism in nutrigenomics. Genes & Nutrition, 14, 14.

Benn, C. (2004). China’s Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press.

Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (2004). The logrank test. BMJ, 328(7447), 1073.

Bolzán, A. D., & Bianchi, M. S. (2001). Genotoxicity of streptonigrin: A review. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 488(1), 25–37.

Braga, F. G., Carvalho, L. M., Carvalho, M. J., Guedes-Pinto, H., Torres-Pereira, J. M., Neto, M. F., & Monteiro, A. (2002). Variation of the Anthocyanin Content in Sambucus nigra L. Populations Growing in Portugal. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 9(4), 289–295.

Centro Nacional de Competências dos Frutos Secos. (2020). Amêndoa. Estudo de produção e comercialização nas Terras de Trás-os-Montes. CNCFS.

Cohen, M. M., Shaw, M. W., & Craig, A. P. (1963). The effects of streptonigrin on cultured human leukocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 50(1), 16–24.

Cordeiro, V., & Monteiro, A. (2002). Almond growing in trás-os-montes region (Portugal). Acta Horticulturae, 591, 161–165.

Dawidowicz, A. L., Wianowska, D., & Baraniak, B. (2006). The antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from Sambucus nigra L. (antioxidant properties of extracts). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 39(3), 308–315.

de Figueiredo, T., Almeida, A., & Araújo, J. (2002). Edaphic characteristics of olive-tree areas in the trá-os-montes region (Portugal): a map-based approach. Acta Horticulturae, 586, 151–154.

Frei, H., & Würgler, F. E. (1988). Statistical methods to decide whether mutagenicity test data from Drosophila assays indicate a positive, negative, or inconclusive result. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects, 203(4), 297–308.

Gaivão, I., & Comendador, M. A. (1996). The w/w+ somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster for detecting reactive oxygen species: Characterization of 6 strains. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects, 360(2), 145–151.

Gaivão, I., Sierra, L. M., & Comendador, M. A. (1999). The w/w+ SMART assay of Drosophila melanogaster detects the genotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species inducing compounds. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 440(2), 139–145.

Genova, M. L., & Lenaz, G. (2015). The Interplay Between Respiratory Supercomplexes and ROS in Aging. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 23(3), 208–238.

Gonçalves, S., & Gaivão, I. (2021). Assessment of antigenotoxic properties in natural ingredients common in the trás-os-montes region: a phd project. ScienceOpen, 1, 1.

Han, S. K., Lee, D., Lee, H., Kim, D., Son, H. G., Yang, J.-S., Lee, S.-J. V., & Kim, S. (2016). OASIS 2: Online application for survival analysis 2 with features for the analysis of maximal lifespan and healthspan in aging research. Oncotarget, 7(35), 56147–56152.

J. N., O. (2015). Possible Health Implications Associated with Cosmetics: A Review. Science Journal of Public Health, 3(5), Artigo 5.

Jain, N., & Chaudhri, S. (2009). History of cosmetics. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics, 3(3), Artigo 3.

Kilani, H., Al-Hazzaa, H., Waly, M. I., & Musaiger, A. (2013). Lifestyle Habits: Diet, Physical Activity and Sleep Duration among Omani Adolescents = عادات نمط الحياة : الغذاء و النشاط البدني و مدة النوم بين المراهقين العمانيين. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 13(4), Artigo 4.

Kim, S. A., Kwon, Y., Kim, J. H., Muller, M. T., & Chung, I. K. (1998). Induction of Topoisomerase II-Mediated DNA Cleavage by a Protoberberine Alkaloid, Berberrubine. Biochemistry, 37(46), 16316–16324.

Maniche, L. (1999). Sacred Luxuries. Cornell University Press.

Marcos, R., Sierra, L., & Gaivão, I. (2014). The SMART Assays of Drosophila: Wings and Eyes as Target Tissues. Em Genotoxicity DNA Repair Pract. Approach. Human Press.

Nicolajsen, S. (2021, abril 10). Cosmetics to die for. Treeandearth.Dk.

OLSON, K. (2009). Cosmetics in Roman Antiquity: Substance, Remedy, Poison. Em The Classical World (1–102, pp. 291–310). The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pan, M.-H., Lai, C.-S., Tsai, M.-L., Wu, J.-C., & Ho, C.-T. (2012). Molecular mechanisms for anti-aging by natural dietary compounds. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 56(1), 88–115.

Portal do INE. (2013).

Richman, L. S., Kubzansky, L., Maselko, J., Kawachi, I., Choo, P., & Bauer, M. (2005). Positive Emotion and Health: Going Beyond the Negative. Health Psychology, 24(4), Artigo 4.

Schagen, S. K., Zampeli, V. A., Makrantonaki, E., & Zouboulis, C. C. (2012). Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging. Dermato-Endocrinology, 4(3), Artigo 3.

Sidor, A., & Gramza-Michałowska, A. (2015). Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review. Journal of Functional Foods, 18, 941–958.

Sousa, M., Pererira, C., Guerra, J., & Abade, E. (2007). Caracterização de Castas Cultivadas na Região Vitivinícola de Trás-os-Montes, Sub regiões de Chaves, Planalto Mirandês e Valpaços. Coleção uma agricultura com norte; Ministério da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas, 40.

Trindade, C., Valdiviesso, T., & Brás de Oliveira, P. (2019). Caraterização morfológica das inflorescências de variedades de Sambucus nigra L [Monografia]. Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douros.

Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. (2012). The Use of Cosmetics in Bible Times. The Watchtower, 12(1).

Winters, R., Winters, A., & Amedee, R. G. (2010). Statistics: A Brief Overview. The Ochsner Journal, 10(3), 213–216.




How to Cite

GONÇALVES, S.; GAIVÃO, I. In vivo evaluation of Trás-os-Montes natural cosmetic ingredients: Impacts on Drosophila melanogaster longevity and genotoxicity. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 13, n. 1, p. e7113144803, 2024. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v13i1.44803. Disponível em: Acesso em: 27 may. 2024.



Health Sciences