Production of chitosan nanoparticles and application as coating in starch and poly(lactic acid) sheets




Antimicrobial activity; Ionic gelation; Thermoplastic extrusion; Biodegradable material.


Chitosan is a biopolymer with wide application in the cosmetic, textile, food and agriculture areas. In this work chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) was produced by ionic gelation and used as coating in starch (TPS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) sheets produced by thermoplastic extrusion. In the CNP the average diameter, the morphology by transmission electronic microscopy and the antimicrobial activity against the microorganism Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus ochraceus were determined. In the TPS/PLA sheets coated with CNP the mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP) were determined. The CNP were successfully produced by ionic gelation method, the average diameter was 146.9 nm, the polydispersity index was 0.281 and showed spherical shape. The CNP did not show antimicrobial activity against the microorganism studied. Furthermore, their use as a coating on TPS/PLA sheets did not alter the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties and thickness.


Abdou, E. S., Nagy, K. S. A., & Elsabee, M. Z. (2008). Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from local sources. Bioresource Technology, 99(5), 1359-1367.

Agulló, E., Rodríguez, M. S., Ramos, V., & Albertengo, L. (2003). Present and future role of chitin and chitosan in food. Macromolecular Bioscience, 3(10), 521-530.

Alberti, M. L., Souza, S. J., Gonçalves, H., Yamashita, F., & Shirai, M. A. (2015). Efeito da adição de quitosana em laminados de amido e poli(ácido lático) produzidos por extrusão. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Alimentos, 6(1), 80-90.

Bie, P., Liu, P., Yu, L., Li, X., Chen, L., & Xie, F. (2013). The properties of antimicrobial films derived from poly (lactic acid)/starch/chitosan blended matrix. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98, 959-966.

Calvo, P., Remuñán-López, C., Vila-Jato, J. L., & Alonso, M. J. (1997). Novel hydrophilic chitosan-polyethylene oxide nanoparticles as protein carriers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 63(1), 125–132.<125::AID-APP13>3.0.CO;2-4

Chang, P. R., Jian, R., Yu, J., & Ma, X. (2010). Fabrication and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles/plasticised-starch composites. Food Chemistry, 120(3), 736-740.

Chavez-Paz, L. E., Resin, A., Howard, K. A., Sutherland, D. S., & Wejse, P. L. (2011). Antimicrobial effect of chitosan nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(11), 3892-3895.

Du, W. L., Niu, S. S., Xu, Y. L., Xu, Z. R., & Fan, C. L. (2009). Antibacterial activity of chitosan tripolyphosphate nanoparticles loaded with various metal ions. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75(3), 385-389.

Elsabee, M. Z., & Abdou, E. S. (2013). Chitosan based edible films and coatings: A review. Material Science and Engineering C, 33(4), 1819-1841.

Ju, S., Zhang, F., Duan, J., & Jiang, J. (2020). Characterization of bacterial cellulose composite films incorporated with bulk chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles: A comparative study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 237, 116167.

Kumari, A., Yadav, S. K., & Yadav, S. C. (2010). Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery systems. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 75(1), 1-18.

Lorevice, M. V., Moura M. R., & Mattoso L. H. C. (2014). Nanocompósito de polpa de mamão e nanopartículas de quitosana para aplilcação em embalagens. Química Nova, 37(6), 931-936.

Lorevice, M. V., Otoni, C. G., Moura M. R., & Mattoso L. H. C. (2016). Chitosan nanoparticles on the improvement of thermal, barrier, and mechanical properties of high- and low-methyl pectin films. Food Hydrocolloids, 52, 732-740.

Mohamed, S. A. A., El-Sakhawy, M., & El-Sakhawy, M. A. (2020). Polysaccharides, Protein and Lipid -Based Natural Edible Films in Food Packaging: A Review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 238, 116178.

Moura, M. R., Aouada, F. A., Avena-Bustillos, R. J., Mchugh, T. H., Krochta, J. M., & Mattoso, L. H. C. (2009). Improved barrier and mechanical properties of novel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose edible films witch chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles. Journal of Food Engineering, 92, 448-453.

Neves, A. L. P., Milioli, C. C., Müller, L., Riella, H. G., Kuhnen, N. C., & Stulzer, H. K. (2014). Factorial design as tool in chitosan nanoparticles development by ionic gelation technique. Colloids and Surfaces: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 445, 34-39.

Pedro, R.O., Takaki, M., Gorayeb, T. C. C., Bianchi, V. L., Thomeo, J. C., Tiera, M. J., & Tiera, V. A. O. (2013). Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of quaternary derivatives of chitosan on Aspergillus flavus. Microbiological Research, 168(1), 50-55.

Pizzoli, A. P. O., Marchiore, N. G., Souza, S. J., Santos, P. F., Gonçalves, O. H., Yamashita, F., Shirai, M. A., & Leimann, F. V. (2016). Antimicrobial PLA/TPS/gelatin sheets with enzymatically crosslinked surface containing silver nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 133(8), 43039.

Pizzoli, A. P. O., Yamashita, F, Gonçalves, O. H., Shirai, M. A., & Leimann, F. V. (2017). The effect of gelatin amount on the properties of PLA/TPS/gelatin extruded sheets. Polímeros, 27(1), 27-34.

Qi, L., Xu, Z., Jiang, X., Hu, C., & Zou, X. (2004). Preparation and bacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydrate Research, 339(16), 2693-2700.

Ravi Kumar, M. N. V. (2000). A review of chitin and chitosan applications. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 46(1), 1–27.

Reis, M. O., Olivato, J. B., Bilck, A. P., Zanela, J., Grossmann, M. V. E., & Yamashita, F. (2018). Biodegradable trays of thermoplastic starch/poly(lactic acid) coated with beeswax. Industrial Crops and Products, 112, 481-487.

Rodrigues, G. A., Santos, W. de O. dos, Malpass, G. R. P., Okura, M. H., Sanfelice, R. C., & Granato, A. C. (2020). Evaluation of the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of films based on biopolymers incorporating Zingiber officinale extract. Research, Society and Development, 9(8), e618986199.

Sathiyabama, M., & Parthasarathy, R. (2016). Biological preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and its in vitro antifungal efficacy against some phytopathogenic fungi. Carbohydrate Polymers, 151, 321-325.

Shirai, M. A., Müller, C. M. O., Grossmann, M. V. E., & Yamashita, F. (2015). Adipate and citrate esters as plasticizers for poly (lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch sheets. Journal of Polymer and Environment, 23(1), 54-61.

Soares, F. C., Yamashita, F., Müller, C. M. O., & Pires, A. T. N. (2013). Thermoplastic starch/poly(lactic acid) sheets coated with cross-linked chitosan. Polymer Testing, 32(1), 94-98.

Sullivan, D. J., Cruz-Romero, M., Collins, T., Cummins, E., Kerry, J. P., & Morris, M. A. (2018). Synthesis of monodisperse chitosan nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloids, 83, 355-364.

Yam K. L., Takhistov P. T., & Miltz J. (2005). Intelligent Packaging: Concepts and applications. Journal of Food Science, 70(1), 1-10.



How to Cite

Galindo, M. V., Paglione, I. dos S., Coelho, A. R., Leimann, F. V., & Shirai, M. A. (2020). Production of chitosan nanoparticles and application as coating in starch and poly(lactic acid) sheets. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e505997694.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences