A bibliographic review on bokashi from the last 20 years





Organic fertilizer; Effective microorganisms; Fermented fertilizer.


An organic fertilizer that is increasingly gaining ground in agriculture is bokashi. Bokashi is the result of a composting method based on the addition of a liquid solution of effective microorganisms, which are anaerobic bacteria and lactic acid yeasts. A technique from Japan that was adapted to Brazil in the late 1980s by Japanese immigrants. In Brazil, it is known as "Fermento da Vida", for bringing life to the soil, increasing the number and diversity of microorganisms that live in it. It is noted that the scientific knowledge about bokashi has not been explored much, besides, there is no bibliographical research on this organic fertilizer. In this context, the objective of this research was to systematize the studies carried out on bokashi in the areas of agriculture and biological sciences, environmental science, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, immunology and microbiology, chemical engineering, energy, multidisciplinary, chemistry, social and veterinary sciences. The present work was carried out using the research instrument Periódico Capes, through the Scopus and Web Of Science (WOS) databases. For both bases, the following keywords were used: bokashi; to download the searched documents, the EndNote X7 Software was used. The survey was conducted on July 1, 2019. Through this review survey, it can be concluded that more than 50% of the articles published on bokashi in the last 20 years of research are focused on the area of ​​agriculture and biological sciences and sciences environmental, demonstrating that other areas such as veterinary, social sciences, chemistry, multidisciplinary, energy, chemical engineering, immunology and microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, are scarce in research related to fertilizer.


Abdul Aziz, N. I. H., Hanafiah, M. M., Mohamed Ali, M. Y. (2019). Sustainable biogas production from agrowaste and effluents – A promising step for small-scale industry income. Renewable Energy, 132, 363-369.

Alattar, M. A., Green, T. R., Henry, J., Gulca, V., Tizazu, M., Bergstrom, R. Popa, R. (2012). Effect of microaerobic fermentation in preprocessing fibrous lignocellulosic materials. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 167(4), 909-917.

Álvarez-Solís, J. D., Mendoza-Núñez, J. A., León-Martínez, N. S., Castellanos-Albores, J., Gutiérrez-Miceli, F. A. (2016). Effect of Bokashi and vermicompost leachate on yield and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and onion (Allium cepa) under monoculture and intercropping cultures. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, 43(2), 243-252.

Álvarez-Solís, J. D., Gómez-Velasco, D. A., León-Martínez, N. S., Gutiérrez-Miceli, F. A. (2010). Integrated management of inorganic and organic fertilizers in maize cropping. Agrociencia, 44(5), 575-586.

Aulinas Masó, M., Bonmatí Blasi, A. (2008). Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua. Bioresource Technology, 99(11), 5120-5124.

Baldotto, M. A., Baldotto, L. E. B. (2016). Initial performance of corn in response to treatment of seeds with humic acids isolated from bokashi. Revista Ceres, 63(1-62), 62-67.

Barajas-Aceves, M., Camarillo-Ravelo, D., Juárez-Sánchez, F., Rodríguez-Vázquez, R. (2012). Lead and zinc distribution in Brassica juncea and arid soil amended with mine tailings and bokashi. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 21(9), 2626-2637.

Barajas-Aceves, M., Rodríguez-Vázquez, R. (2013). Effects of organic amendments on the mobility of Pb and Zn from mine tailings added to semi-arid soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 48(3), 226-236.

Bautista-Cruz, A., Cruz Domínguez, G., Rodríguez Mendoza, M. N., Pérez Pacheco, R., Robles, C. (2014). Effect of compost and slow-release fertilizers addition on soil biochemistry and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in Oaxaca, Mexico. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, 46(1), 181-193.

Boechat, C. L., Santos, J. A. G., Accioly, A. M. A. (2013). Net mineralization nitrogen and soil chemical changes with application of organic wastes with 'Fermented Bokashi Compost'. Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy, 35(2), 257-264.

Borda-Molina, D., Pardo-García, J. M., Montaña-Lara, J. S., Martínez-Salgado, M. M. (2011). Influence of organic matter and Azotobacter nigricans on a Stevia rebaudiana B. Plantation. Universitas Scientiarum, 16(3), 282-293.

Castro, A., Batista, N. S., Latawiec, A. E., Rodrigues, A., Strassburg, B., Silva, D., Araujo, E. de Moraes, L. F. D., Guerra, J. G., Galvão, G., Alves-Pinto, H., Mendes, M., Santos, J. S., Rangel, M. C., Figueredo, M., Cornelissen, G., Hale, S. (2018). The effects of Gliricidia-derived biochar on sequential maize and bean farming. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(3).

Curi, N.; Ker, J.C., Novais, R.F., Vidal-Torrado, P., Schaefer, C.E.G.R. (2017). Pedologia: solos dos biomas brasileiros. Viçosa: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo.

Daiss, N., Lobo, M. G., Socorro, A. R., Brückner, U., Heller, J., Gonzalez, M. (2008). The effect of three organic pre-harvest treatments on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla L.) quality. European Food Research and Technology, 226 (3), 345-353.

Daiss, N., Lobo, M. G., Gonzalez, M. (2008). Changes in postharvest quality of swiss chard grown using 3 organic preharvest treatments. Journal of Food Science, 73(6), 314-320.

Dias-Arieira, C. R., Mattei, D., Puerari, H. H., Ribeiro, R. C. F. (2015). Use of organic amendments in the management of root-knot nematode in lettuce. Horticultura Brasileira, 33(4), 488-492.

Ekebafe, M. O., Ekebafe, L. O., Ugbesia, S. O. (2015). Biochar composts and composites. Science Progress, 98(2), 169-176.

Esatu, W., Melesse, A., Dessie, T. (2011). Effect of effective microorganisms on growth parameters and serum cholesterol levels in broilers. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(16), 3841-3846.

Fernandes, S. J. O., Titon, M., Santana, R. C., Antonini, L. G., Nogueira, G. S., Filho, N. F. B. (2011). Survival and growth of eucalypts clones seedlings in response to organic fertilizer application. Cerne, 17(4), 601-606.

Ferreira, J. C. A., Hernandes, I., Brito, O. D. C., Cardoso, M. R., Dias-Arieira, C. R. (2017). Dosages of bokashi in the control of Meloidogyne javanica in lettuce, in greenhouse. Horticultura Brasileira, 35(2), 224-229.

Formowitz, B., Elango, F., Okumoto, S., Müller, T., Buerkert, A. (2007). The role of "effective microorganisms" in the composting of banana (Musa ssp.) residues. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170(5), 649-656.

França, F. C. T., da Silva, E. C., Pedrosa, M. W., Carlos, L. A., Maciel, G. M. (2016). Tomato yield and quality under various combinations of organic compost. Bioscience Journal, 32(5), 1147-1154.

Gómez-Velasco, D. A., Álvarez-Solís, J. D., Ruiz-Valdiviezo, V. M., Abud-Archila, M., Montes-Molina, J. A., Dendooven, L., Gutiérrez-Miceli, F. A. (2014). Enzymatic Activities in Soil Cultivated with Coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. ‘Bourbon’) and Amended with Organic Material. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 45(19), 2529-2538.

Goyal, S., Inubushi, K., Kato, S., Xu, H. L., Umemura, H. (1999). Effect of anaerobically fermented manure on the soil organic matter, microbial properties and growth of Spinach under greenhouse conditions. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 39(4), 211-216.

Hafle, O. M., dos Santos, V. A., Ramos, J. D., da Cruz, M. C., de Melo, P. C. (2009). Production of seedlings of papaya tree using bokashi and lithothamnium. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31(1), 245-251.

Hanafiah, M. M., Mohamed Ali, M. Y., Abdul Aziz, N. I. H., Ashraf, M. A., Halim, A. A., Lee, K. E., Idris, M. (2017). Biogas production from goat and chicken manure in Malaysia. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(3), 529-535.

Hikamah, S. R., Sudiarti, D., Hasbiyati, H. (2019). The effectiveness of bokashi against growth of mustard Brassica juncea L., Brassica rapa L. Pokcay And Maize Zea mays L. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,243, 012072.

Hoshino, R. T., Alves, G. A. C., Melo, T. R., Barzan, R. R., Fregonezi, G. A. F., Faria, R. T. (2016). Mineral and organic fertilization influence on the development of cattlianthe ‘chocolate drop’. Horticultura Brasileira, 34(4), 475-482.

Jaramillo-López, P. F., Ramírez, M. I., Pérez-Salicrup, D. R. (2015). Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects. Journal of Environmental Management, 150, 48-56.

Kale, D. K., Anthappan, P. D. (2012). Sustainable treatment of wastewater using effective microorganisms. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 6(1), 333-338.

Karimuna, L., Leomo, S., Indriyani, L. (2012). Improvement of Maize and Peanut production in intercropping system through the application of organic fertilizer and mulch in ultisol soil. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 11(1), 387-394.

Laskowska, E., Jarosz, Ł., Grądzki, Z. (2019). Effect of Multi-Microbial Probiotic Formulation Bokashi on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Profile in the Serum, Colostrum and Milk of Sows, and in a Culture of Polymorphonuclear Cells Isolated from Colostrum. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 11(1), 220-232.

Laskowska, E., Jarosz, Ł., Grądzki, Z. (2017). The effect of feed supplementation with effective microorganisms (EM) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in pigs. Research in Veterinary Science, 115, 244-249.

Lasmini, S. A., Nasir, B., Hayati, N., Edy, N. (2018). Improvement of soil quality using bokashi composting and NPK fertilizer to increase shallot yield on dry land. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 12(11), 1743-1749.

Lima, C. E. P., Fontenelle, M. R., Silva, L. R. B., Soares, D. C., Moita, A. W., Zandonadi, D. B., Souza, R. B. Lopes, C. A. (2015). Short-term changes in fertility attributes and soil organic matter caused by the addition of em Bokashis in two tropical soils. International Journal of Agronomy, 17(2), 56-70.

Lurling, M., Tolman, Y., Euwe, M. (2009). Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: How effective are 'effective microorganisms'? Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, 14(4), 353-363.

Lurling, M., Tolman, Y., Van Oosterhout, F. (2010). Cyanobacteria blooms cannot be controlled by Effective Microorganisms (EM®) from mud- or Bokashi-balls. Hydrobiologia, 646(1), 133-143.

Mayer, J., Scheid, S., Widmer, F., Fließbach, A., Oberholzer, H. R. (2010). How effective are 'Effective microorganisms ® (EM)'? Results from a field study in temperate climate. Applied Soil Ecology, 46(2), 230-239.

Morales, E. B., Peñafiel, M., Barahona, M., Mohiddin, G. J., Cuaycal, A. E., Aguas, S. B. (2016). Effect of silicon in Taro crop (Colocasia esculenta) in combination with two levels of organic matter. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 18(4), 809-816.

Mponya, C. S., Sharma, S. K., Meena, R. H., Koshik, M. K. (2014). Effect of different organic manures on yield and nutrient uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). Ecology Environment and Conservation, 20(2), 519-522.

Ndona, R. K., Friedel, J. K., Spornberger, A., Rinnofner, T., Jezik, K. (2011). 'Effective Micro-organisms' (EM): An Effective Plant Strengthening Agent for Tomatoes in Protected Cultivation. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 27(2), 189-203.

Nikitin, A. N., Cheshyk, I. A., Gutseva, G. Z., Tankevich, E. A., Shintani, M., Okumoto, S. (2018). Impact of effective microorganisms on the transfer of radioactive cesium into lettuce and barley biomass. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, 491-497.

Nurhidayati, A., Nurhidayati, Q., Kusuma, Z. Sudarto, (2014). Effectiveness of various mulch towards chemical fertility, soil erosion and crops production of potato (Solanum tuberosum, Linn) in Andisol of Ranupani, East Java. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 6(11), 4796-4802.

Ourives, O. E. A., Souza, G. M., Tiritan, C. S., Santos, D. H. (2010). Organic fertilizer as phosphorus supplier for Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Tropical, 40(2), 126-132.

Pandit, N. R., Schmidt, H. P., Mulder, J., Hale, S. E., Husson, O., Cornelissen, G. (2019). Nutrient effect of various composting methods with and without biochar on soil fertility and maize growth. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.

Park & Kremer (2002). Establishment of an inoculated bacterial strain on plant root surfaces in soils with different microbial community. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 53(3), 379-383.

Pei-Sheng, Y., Hui-Lian, X. (2002). Influence of EM bokashi on nodulation, physiological characters and yield of peanut in nature farming fields. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 19(4), 105-112.

Peralta-Antonio, N., Becerril-Román, A. E., Rebolledo-Martínez, A., Jaén-Contreras, D. (2015). Nutritional foliar status of three mango cultivars fertilized with organic amendments. Idesia, 33(3), 65-72.

Peralta-Antonio, N., Rebolledo-Martínez, A., Becerril-Román, A. E., Jaén-Contreras, D., Del Angel-Pérez, A. L. (2014). Response to organic fertilization in mango cultivars: Manila, Tommy Atkins and Ataulfo. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 14(3), 688-700.

Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M, Parreira, F. J., Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. [eBook]. Santa Maria. Ed. UAB / NTE / UFSM. Available at: https://repositorio.ufsm.br/bitstream/handle/1/15824/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1

Pérez, A., Céspedes, C., Núñez, P. (2008). Physical, chemical and biological characterization of applied organic amendments in crop production in Dominican Republic. Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutricion Vegetal, 8(3), 10-29.

Pérez-Godínez, E. A., Lagunes-Zarate, J., Corona-Hernández, J., Barajas-Aceves, M. (2017). Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting. Waste Management, 64, 67-78.

Quiroz, M. & Flores, F. (2019). Nitrogen availability, maturity and stability of bokashi-type fertilizers elaborated with different feedstocks of animal origin. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65(6), 867-875.

Resman, T., Tufaila, M., Ansi, A., Halim, A., Arma, M. J., Harlis, W. O. (2018). Effect of bokashi fertilizer on growth and yield of local maize from Muna Island under net house treatment in West Muna Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bioscience Research, 15(3), 1520-1527.

Reyna-Ramírez, C. A., Rodríguez-Sánchez, L. M., Vela-Correa, G., Etchevers-Barra, J., Fuentes-Ponce, M. (2018). Redesign of the traditional Mesoamerican agroecosystem based on participative ecological intensification: Evaluation of the soil and efficiency of the system. Agricultural Systems, 165, 177-186.

Rezende, A. M. F. A., Tomita, C. K., Uesugi, C. H. (2008). Cupric fungicides, benzalconium chlorides and liquid bioactive compost (Bokashi): Phytotoxicity and control of guava bacterial blight caused by Erwinia psidii. Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(4), 288-294.

Ribeiro, M. N. O., Almeida, E. F. A., Reis, S. N., Carvalho, L. M., Figueiredo, J. R. M., Ribeiro Júnior, P. M. (2016). Manure effect on the incidence of rose diseases in the Integrated Production System. Horticultura Brasileira, 34(3), 412-415.

Roldi, M., Dias-Arieira, C. R., Severino, J. J., De Melo Santana, S., Dadazio, T. S., Marini, P. M., Mattei, D. (2013). Use of organic amendments to control meloidogyne incognita on tomatoes. Nematropica, v. 43(1), 49-55.

Saldaña Y Hernández, M. I., Álvarez, R. G., Rivera Cruz, M. D. C., Solís, J. D. A., García, C. F. O., Fernández, J. M. P. (2014). Effect of organic fertilizers on soil microbial dynamics and production of Alpinia purpurata (Vieill) K. Schum. Interciencia, 39(11), 809-815.

Saldaña y Hernández, M. I., Gómez-Álvarez, R., Rivera-Cruz, M. C., Álvarez-Solís, J. D., Pat-Fernández, J. M., Ortiz-García, C. F. (2014). The influence of organic fertilizers on the chemical properties of soil and the production of Alpinia purpurata. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, 41(2), 215-224.

Shin, K., van Diepen, G., Blok, W., van Bruggen, A. H. C. (2017). Variability of Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in bokashi and soil and effects on soil-borne plant pathogens. Crop Protection, 99, 168-176.

Shingo, G. Y., Ventura, M. U. (2009). Collard greens yield with mineral and organic fertilization. Semina: Ciencias Agrarias, 30(3), 589-594.

Siregar, M. J. (2018). Characteristic of husk charcoal, bokashi compost, and wood charcoal as biofilter filler on application of Ammonia 5 Percent. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(4), 53-56.

Souza, P. P. (2018). Influência da adubação orgânica e mineral no desenvolvimento inicial na cultura da abobrinha-italiana (Cucurbita pepo). Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento, 2(3), 133-145.

Sumarni, T., Aini, N., Fajriani, S. (2017). The application of compost and arbuscularmy corrhizal fungi to increase efficiency of inorganic fertilization on maize (Zea mays L.). Bioscience Research, 14(4), 1057-1063.

Urra, J., Alkorta, I., Lanzén, A., Mijangos, I., Garbisu, C. (2019). The application of fresh and composted horse and chicken manure affects soil quality, microbial composition and antibiotic resistance. Applied Soil Ecology, 135, 73-84.

Vetayasuporn, S. (2006). Effects of biological and chemical fertiliser on growth and yield of glutinous corn production. Journal of Agronomy, 5(1), 1-4.

Xavier, M. C. G.; Santos, C. A.; Costa, E. S. P.; Carmo, M. G. F. (2019). Cabbage yield as a function of bokashi doses. Revista De Agricultura Neotropical, 6(1), 17-22.

Xu, H. L., Wang, R., Mridha, M. A. U. (2000). Effects of organic fertilizers and a microbial inoculant on leaf photosynthesis and fruit yield and quality of tomato plants. Journal of Crop Production, 3(1), 173-182.

Xu, H. L., Wang, X., Wang, J. (2000). Modeling photosynthesis decline of excised leaves of sweet corn plants grown with organic and chemical fertilization. Journal of Crop Production, 3(1), 245-253.

Yamada, K., Xu, H. L. (2000). Properties and applications of an organic fertilizer inoculated with effective microorganisms. Journal of Crop Production, 3(1), 255-268.

Zaman, M., Ahmed, M., Gogoi, P. (2010). Effect of Bokashi on plant growth, yield and essential oil quantity and quality in Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.). Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 7(1), 383-387.



How to Cite

VICENTE, N. F. de P. .; MARAFELI, Érica A. M. .; OLIVEIRA, J. A. de C.; TOMITA, J. L. C. .; PICCOLI, R. H. . A bibliographic review on bokashi from the last 20 years. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 10, p. e279108339, 2020. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v9i10.8339. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/8339. Acesso em: 26 sep. 2023.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences