The role of the Veterinarians in coping with Covid-19 pandemic: a literature review
Keywords:Coronavirus disease; Preventive veterinary medicine; Public health; Viral diseases; Zoonotic diseases.
The world is facing a pandemic caused by COVID-19, a disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This pandemic began in the municipal market in Wuhan, China, where several species of wild animals were commercialized and there were no adequate conditions for hygiene and food safety, which allowed this new virus to be transmitted from intermediate hosts to humans. SARS-CoV-2 is believed to have originated in bats and subsequently infected pangolins and, ultimately, humans. Therefore, there is a fundamental role of veterinary medicine in the prevention of emerging zoonotic diseases, such as COVID-19. Thus, the present literature review aims to discuss the roles of the veterinarian in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. Scientific research bases were used and the following descriptors were used to search for the articles: COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR Coronavirus AND One Health; COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR Coronavirus AND Veterinary OR Medicine Veterinary. Current articles were selected, available in English and Portuguese. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 shows the close relationship between human health, animal health, the condition of the ecosystem and people's habits, which is the core concept of "One Health”. The veterinarian is an integral part of the global community of health professionals and plays a key role in the prevention and control of diseases, such as COVID-19. This professional has knowledge about other coronaviruses that affect animals and, therefore, can help in studies on the origin and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as well as assist in the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs.
Addie, D., Houe, L., Maitland, K., Passantino, G., & Decaro, N. (2020). Effect of cat litters on feline coronavirus infection of cell culture and cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 22 (4), 350–357. doi: 10.1177/1098612X19848167
Americam Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). (2020). SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Recuperado de https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/covid-19/sars-cov-2-animals-including-pets.
Ayittey, F. K., Ayittey, M. K., Chiwero, N. B., Kamasah, J. S., & Dzuvor, C. (2020). Economic impacts of Wuhan 2019-nCoV on China and the world. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(5), 473–475. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25706
Buonavoglia, C., Decaro, N., Martella, V., Elia, G., Campolo, M., Desario, C., Castagnaro, M., & Tempesta, M. (2006). Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(3), 492–494. doi:10.3201/eid1203.050839
Chan, J. F. W., Kok, K. H., Zhu, Z., Chu, H., To, K. K. W., Yuan, S., & Yuen, K. Y. (2020). Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 9(1), 221–236. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902
Cui, J., Li, F., & Shi, Z. L. (2019). Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 17(3), 181–192. doi: 10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9
Daszak, P., Olival, K. J., & Li, H. (2020). A strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Biosafety and Health, 2(1), 6–8. doi: 10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.01.003
Decaro, N., Martella, V., Saif, L. J., & Buonavoglia, C. (2020). COVID-19 from veterinary medicine and one health perspectives: What animal coronaviruses have taught us. Research in veterinary science, 131, 21–23. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.04.009
Dhama, K., Sharun, K., Tiwari, R., Dadar, M., Malik, Y. S., Singh, K. P., & Chaicumpa, W. (2020). COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 16(6), 1232–1238. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227
Dilcher, M., Werno, A., & Jennings, L. C. (2020). SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 133(1510), 6–11. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2020.02.002
Kuldeep, D., Singh S. D., Rajamani, B., Desingu, P. A., Sandip, C., Ruchi, T., Kumar, M. A. (2014). Emergence of avian infectious bronchitis virus and its variants need better diagnosis, prevention and control strategies: a global perspective. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 17(6), 751-67. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.751.767.
Gorbalenya, A. E., Baker, S. C., Baric, R. S., Groot, R. J. De, Gulyaeva, A. A., Haagmans, B. L., Lauber, C., & Leontovich, A. M. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus : The species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Biorxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory), 1–15. doi: 10.1101/2020.02.07.937862
Gortázar, C., & de la Fuente, J. (2020). COVID-19 is likely to impact animal health. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 180(April), 105030. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105030
Harypursat, V., & Chen, Y. K. (2020). Six weeks into the 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak: It is time to consider strategies to impede the emergence of new zoonotic infections. Chinese Medical Journal, 133(9), 1118–1120. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000760
Ji, W., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Zai, J., & Li, X. (2020). Cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(4), 433–440. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25682
Lee, K., & Brumme, Z. L. (2013). Operationalizing the One Health approach: The global governance challenges. Health Policy and Planning, 28(7), 778–785. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czs127
Leroy, E. M., Gouilh, M. A., Brugére-Picoux, J. (2020) The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to pets and other wild and domestic animals stronguly mandates a one-health strategy to control the COVID-10 pandemic. One Health, 10(100133), 1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100133
Limongi, J. E., & Oliveira, S. V. (2020). COVID-19 e a abordagem One Health (Saúde Única): uma revisão sistemática. Vigilância Sanitária Em Debate: Sociedade, Ciência & Tecnologia, 8(3), 1–11. doi: 10.22239/2317-269x.01610
Lorusso, A., Calistri, P., Petrini, A., Savini, G., & Decaro, N. (2020). Novel coronavirus (COVID‑19) epidemic: a veterinary perspective. Veterinaria Italiana, February. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.2173.11599.1
Lorusso, A., Decaro, N., Schellen, P., Rottier, P. J. M., Buonavoglia, C., Haijema, B.-J., & de Groot, R. J. (2008). Gain, Preservation, and Loss of a Group 1a Coronavirus Accessory Glycoprotein. Journal of Virology, 82(20), 10312–10317. doi: 10.1128/jvi.01031-08
Lu, J., Milinovich, G. J., & Hu, W. (2016). A brief historical overview of emerging infectious disease response in China and the need for a One Health approach in future responses. One Health, 2, 99–102. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2016.07.001
Michael, E., Smith, M. E., Katabarwa, M. N., Byamukama, E., Grisworld, E., Habomugisha, P., Lakwo, T., Tukahebwa, E., Miri, E. S., Eigege, A., Ngige, E., Unnasch, T. R., & Richards, F. O. (2018). Substantiating freedom from parasitic infection by combining transmission model predictions with disease surveys. Nature Communications, 9(1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06657-5
Millán-oñate, J., Rodriguez-morales, A. J., Camacho-moreno, G., & Mendoza-ramírez, H. (2021). A new emerging zoonotic virus of concern : the 2019 novel Coronavirus ( SARS CoV-2). Infectio, 24(3), 187–192. .doi: 10.22354/in.v24i3.848
Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira F. J. & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica [recurso eletrônico]. 1. ed. Santa Maria, RS: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, NTE. 119. Recuperado de https://repositorio.ufsm.br/bitstream/handle/1/158 24/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1.
Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109 (February), 102433. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433
Salim Mattar, V., & Marco González, T. (2018). Zoonotic emergence of coronavirus: A potential public risk for Latin America. Revista MVZ Cordoba, 23(3), 6775–6777. doi: 10.21897/rmvz.1408
Shi, J., Wen, Z., Zhong, G., Yang, H., Wang, C., Huang, B. & Liu, R. et al. (2020). Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science, 368(6494), 1016–1020. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015
Sit, T. H. C.; Brackman, C. J.; Ming Ip, S.; Tam, K. W. S.; Law, P. Y. T.; To, E. M. W.; Yu V. Y. T. Sims, L. D.; Tsang, D. N. C.; Chu, D. K. W.; Perera, R. A. P. M.; Poon, L. L. M.; Peiris, M. (2020) Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1-3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2334-5
Stafford, E. G. (2020). Highlighting the role of veterinary pharmacists in zoonotic diseases including COVID-19. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 1, 2020. Doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2020.06.021
Tanner, E., White, A., Lurz, P. W. W., Gortázar, C., Díez-Delgado, I., & Boots, M. (2019). The critical role of infectious disease in compensatory population growth in response to culling. American Naturalist, 194(1), E1–E12. doi: 10.1086/703437
Tiwari, R., Dhama, K., Sharun, K., Iqbal Yatoo, M., Malik, Y. S., Singh, R., Michalak, I., Sah, R., Bonilla-Aldana, D. K., & Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). COVID-19: animals, veterinary and zoonotic links. Veterinary Quarterly, 40(1), 169–182. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1766725
Wei, X., Li, X., & Cui, J. (2020). Evolutionary perspectives on novel coronaviruses identified in pneumonia cases in China. National Science Review, 7(2), 239–242. doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwaa009
Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72314 Cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(13), 1239–1242. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Yoo, H. S., & Yoo, D. (2020). COVID-19 and veterinarians for one health, zoonotic- and reverse-zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Veterinary Science, 21(3), e51. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e51
Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., Huang, K., Yang, Y., Hui, X., Gao, J. & He, X. et al. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing serum antibodies in cats: a serological investigation. BioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.04.01.021196
Zhang, X. M., Herbst, W., Kousoulas, K. G., & Storz, J. (1994). Biological and genetic characterization of a hemagglutinating coronavirus isolated from a diarrhoeic child. Journal of Medical Virology, 44(2), 152–161. doi: 10.1002/jmv.1890440207
Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Waltner-Toews, D., & Tanner, M. (2011). From “one medicine” to “one health” and systemic approaches to health and well-being. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 101(3–4), 148–156. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.07.003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Carolina Barros da Rosa Pedroso; Helena Tavares Dutra; Dyana Ribeiro dos Santos; Emanuely Zequim Ubeda; Paulo José Bastos Queiroz; Luciana Ramos Gaston Brandstetter
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.