Adulterants identified in cocaine commercialized in Piauí - PI: a qualitative analysis of its toxicological potential

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.9713

Keywords:

Chromatography; Marketing; Intoxication.

Abstract

In street cocaine production for retail trade, in addition to the active ingredient, other substances are commonly added. The other substances presence, known as adulterants, becomes an additional aggravating factor for user´s health. This work aimed to evaluate qualitatively the cocaine seized by civil police of PI state. For this, 100 cocaine samples seized between the years 2017 and 2018 were used. The GC-MS analyzes identified, mainly, caffeine, phenacetin and levamisole in 58%, 48% and 30% of the samples, respectively. Only 9% the samples did not have adulterants. These adulterants can change cocaine intoxication signs and symptoms since the increase in the power of addiction to the hematological disorders. Finally, is possible to conclude the cocaine seized in the PI does not have a high purity degree and that due the toxicological profile of its main adulterants, these substances identification is a data of great relevance since it helps in understanding of your market and the real risk to user´s health.

References

Alcântara, L. T. A. (2016). Adulterantes encontrados em drogas ilícitas: uma abordagem forense. Acta de Ciências e Saúde, 2(1), 1-16. https://www2.ls.edu.br/actacs/index.php/ACTA/article/view/129/120

Almeida, R. R. D., Zanetti, G., Souza Jr, A. S., Souza, L. S. D., Escuissato, D. L., Irion, K. L. & Marchiori, E. (2015). Cocaine-induced pulmonary changes: HRCT findings. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 41(4), 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132015000000025

Babu, K. M., Church, R. J., & Lewander, W. (2008). Energy drinks: the new eye-opener for adolescents. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 9(1), 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpem.2007.12.002

Banerjee, P., Ali, Z., Levine, B., & Fowler, D. R. (2014). Fatal caffeine intoxication: a series of eight cases from 1999 to 2009. Journal of forensic sciences, 59(3), 865-868. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12387

Barat, S. A., & Abdel-Rahman, M. S. (1996). Cocaine and lidocaine in combination are synergistic convulsants. Brain Research, 742(1-2), 157-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(96)01004-9

Barbosa, B. A., de Oliveira, L. K. R., de Mendes Soares, M. F., Silva, T. O. D. S. S., Veloso, V. L., & Marques, R. B. (2018). Intoxicação com anestésicos locais: revisão de literatura. https://doi.org/10.22280/revintervol11ed2.273

Becker, D. E., & Reed, K. L. (2012). Local anesthetics: review of pharmacological considerations. Anesthesia progress, 59(2), 90-102. https://doi.org/10.2344/0003-3006-59.2.90

Behrman, A. D. (2008). Luck of the draw: common adulterants found in illicit drugs. Journal of emergency nursing, 34(1), 80-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2007.10.001

Bernardo, N. P., Siqueira, M. E. P. B., de Paiva, M. J. N., & Maia, P. P. (2003). Caffeine and other adulterants in seizures of street cocaine in Brazil. International Journal of Drug Policy, 14(4), 331-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-3959(03)00083-5

Bianchi VN. (2010). Análise simultânea de cocaína e adulterantes em amostras de rua apreendidas pela polícia do estado de São Paulo por HPLC-DAD. São Paulo. Brasil. Sociedade Brasileira de Química. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-46702009000300008

Boermans, P. A. M. M., Go, H. S., Wessels, A. M. A., & Uges, D. R. A. (2006). Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users. Therapeutic drug monitoring, 28(3), 295-298. doi: 10.1097/01.ftd.0000198537.41835.71

Botelho, É. D., Cunha, R. B., Campos, A. F. C., & Maldaner, A. O. (2014). Chemical profiling of cocaine seized by Brazilian federal police in 2009-2012: Major components. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 25(4), 611-618. https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20140008

Chang, A., Osterloh, J., & Thomas, J. (2010). Levamisole: a dangerous new cocaine adulterant. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 88(3), 408-411. https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2010.156

Cole, C., Jones, L., McVeigh, J., Kicman, A., Syed, Q., & Bellis, M. (2011). Adulterants in illicit drugs: a review of empirical evidence. Drug testing and analysis, 3(2), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.220

Conceição, V. N., Souza, L. M., Merlo, B. B., Filgueiras, P. R., Poppi, R. J., & Romão, W. (2014). Estudo do teste de Scott via técnicas espectroscópicas: um método alternativo para diferenciar cloridrato de cocaína e seus adulterantes. Quimica Nova, 37(9), 1538-1544. https://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140240

Costa, R. A. R. (2012). Determinação do grau de pureza de amostra de crack apreendidas no Estado da Paraíba por RMNq-1H e CLAE-DAD. https://repositorio.ufpb.br/handle/tede/6724

Dubach, U. C., Rosner, B., & Stürmer, T. (1991). An epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesic drugs: effects of phenacetin and salicylate on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity (1968 to 1987). New England Journal of Medicine, 324(3), 155-160. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199101173240304

El-Boghdadly, K., Pawa, A., & Chin, K. J. (2018). Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. Local and regional anesthesia, 11, 35. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FLRA.S154512

Félix, S., & Portugal, P. (2017). Drug decriminalization and the price of illicit drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 39, 121-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.10.014

Floriani, G. (2012). Desenvolvimento e validação de método por CLAE para análise de cocaína, seus produtos de degradação e adulterantes. https://hdl.handle.net/1884/29289

Floriani, G., Gasparetto, J. C., Pontarolo, R., & Gonçalves, A. G. (2014). Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of cocaine, benzoic acid, benzoylecgonine and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine. Forensic science international, 235, 32-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.11.013

Gama LA, Oliveira ECS, Sousa LM, Merlo BB, Castro EVR, Romão W, Neto AC (2013). Quantificação relativa de cocaína e adulterantes de apreensões do Estado do Espírito Santo via RMN-H. 17º ENQA – Química Analítica e Qualidade de Vida. Belo Horizonte. Brasil. http://repositorio.ufes.br:8080/bitstream/10/1839/1/tese_7529_Lindamara%20Maria%20de%20Souza20140630-82317.pdf

Graham, J. H., Maher, J. R., & Robinson, S. E. (1995). The effect of cocaine and other local anesthetics on central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 274(2), 707-717. https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/274/2/707

Heard, K., Palmer, R., & Zahniser, N. R. (2008). Mechanisms of acute cocaine toxicity. The open pharmacology journal, 2(9), 70. https://dx.doi.org/10.2174%2F1874143600802010070

Hofmaier, T., Luf, A., Seddik, A., Stockner, T., Holy, M., Freissmuth, M. & Kudlacek, O. (2014). Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters. Neurochemistry international, 73, 32-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2013.11.010

Holstege, C. P., Hunter, Y., Baer, A. B., Savory, J., Bruns, D. E., & Boyd, J. C. (2003). Massive caffeine overdose requiring vasopressin infusion and hemodialysis. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 41(7), 1003-1007. https://doi.org/10.1081/CLT-120026526

Juanena, C., Cappeletti, F., Pascale, A., Negrin, A., Durante, S., Graciano, R., & Rocha, A. (2017). Cocaína adulterada con levamisol: reporte de tres casos clínicos. Revista Médica del Uruguay, 33(2), 139-158. http://www.scielo.edu.uy/scielo.php?pid=S1688-03902017000200139&script=sci_arttext

Kim, S. T., & Park, T. (2019). Acute and chronic effects of cocaine on cardiovascular health. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(3), 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030584

Kudlacek, O., Hofmaier, T., Luf, A., Mayer, F. P., Stockner, T., Nagy, C., ... & Sitte, H. H. (2017). Cocaine adulteration. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy, 83, 75-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017.06.001

Lawrence, L. A., Jiron Jr, J. L., Lin, H. S., & Folbe, A. J. (2014). Levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis of nose, ears, and extremities: case report. Allergy & Rhinology, 5(3), ar-2014. https://doi.org/10.2500%2Far.2014.5.0101

Lee, K. C., Ladizinski, B., & Federman, D. G. (2012, June). Complications associated with use of levamisole-contaminated cocaine: an emerging public health challenge. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 87, No. 6, pp. 581-586). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.03.010

Luft, A., & Mendes, F. F. (2007). Anestesia no paciente usuário de cocaína. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, 57(3), 307-314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942007000300009.

Magalhães, E. J., Nascentes, C. C., Pereira, L. S., Guedes, M. L., Lordeiro, R. A., Auler, L. M., ... & de Queiroz, M. E. L. (2013). Evaluation of the composition of street cocaine seized in two regions of Brazil. Science & Justice, 53(4), 425-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2013.05.003

Maldaner, A. O., Botelho, É. D., Zacca, J. J., Melo, R. C., Costa, J. L., Zancanaro, I., ... & Paixão, T. R. (2016). Chemical profiling of street cocaine from different brazilian regions. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 27(4), 719-726. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20150321

Martins, D., Valente, H., & Pires, C. (2015). CHECK! NG: A última fronteira para a Redução de Riscos em contextos festivos. Saúde e Sociedade, 24, 646-660. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902015000200020

Melo, N. F. S. D., Grillo, R., Rosa, A. H., Fraceto, L. F., Dias Filho, N. L., Paula, E. D., & Araújo, D. R. D. (2010). Desenvolvimento e caracterização de nanocápsulas de poli (L-lactídeo) contendo benzocaína. Química Nova, 65-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422010000100013

Muñiz, J. A., Prieto, J. P., González, B., Sosa, M. H., Cadet, J. L., Scorza, C., ... & Bisagno, V. (2017). Cocaine and caffeine effects on the conditioned place preference test: concomitant changes on early genes within the mouse prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 200. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00200

Muñiz, J. A., Gomez, G., González, B., Rivero-Echeto, M. C., Cadet, J. L., García-Rill, E., ... & Bisagno, V. (2016). Combined effects of simultaneous exposure to caffeine and cocaine in the mouse striatum. Neurotoxicity research, 29(4), 525-538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-016-9601-0

Neves, G. D. O. (2013). Caracterização de amostras de cocaína apreendida pela polícia civil do estado de Rondônia. Dissertação (Mestrado) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento Regional em Meio Ambiente, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia. https://ri.unir.br/jspui/handle/123456789/2233

Oliveira, L. F. M., & Wagner, S. C. (2013). A cocaína e sua adulteração. Revinter-Revista Intertox de Toxicologia, Risco Ambiental e Sociedade, 6(1), 15-28. https://www.pc.rs.gov.br/upload/arquivos/carga20181213/06191340-20130313092501artigo-cocaina.pdf

Pichini, S., Busardò, F. P., Gregori, A., Berretta, P., Gentili, S., & Pacifici, R. (2017). Purity and adulterant analysis of some recent drug seizures in Italy. Drug testing and analysis, 9(3), 485-490. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2134

Ruetsch, Y. A., Boni, T., & Borgeat, A. (2001). From cocaine to ropivacaine: the history of local anesthetic drugs. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 1(3), 175-182. https://doi.org/10.2174/1568026013395335

Sant'Ana, L. D., Sousa, V. C. D., Santos, F. R. D., Sabino, B. D., Cardoso, A., Lima, M. E. F. D., & Castro, R. N. (2019). Evaluation of cocaine samples seized in the streets of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Química Nova, 42(4), 379-386. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0100-40422019000400379&script=sci_arttext

Silva, A. F. D. (2016). Discriminação e quantificação de cocaína e adulterantes em drogas por espectroscopia de infravermelho e resolução multivariada de curvas. http://repositorio.unb.br/handle/10482/21416

Solimini, R., C Rotolo, M., Pellegrini, M., Minutillo, A., Pacifici, R., P Busardò, F., & Zaami, S. (2017). Adulteration practices of psychoactive illicit drugs: an updated review. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 18(7), 524-530. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201018666170710184531

Solomon, N., & Hayes, J. (2017). Levamisole: a high performance cutting agent. Academic forensic pathology, 7(3), 469-476. https://doi.org/10.23907%2F2017.039

Temple, J. L., Bernard, C., Lipshultz, S. E., Czachor, J. D., Westphal, J. A., & Mestre, M. A. (2017). The safety of ingested caffeine: a comprehensive review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 8, 80. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00080

UNODC- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report. Relatório Mundial sobre Drogas 2018: crise de opioides, abuso de medicamentos sob prescrição; cocaína e ópio atingem níveis recordes. Disponível em: <https://www.unodc.org/lpo-brazil/pt/frontpage/2018/06/relatorio-mundial-drogas-2018.html>. Acesso: 28 mar. de 2020.

UNODC-United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cocaine in seized materials. Disponível em: < https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/scientists/recommended-methods-for-the-identification-and-analysis-of-cocaine-in-seized-materials.html>. Acesso: 28 mar. 2020.

Zhu, N. Y., LeGatt, D. F., & Turner, A. R. (2009). Agranulocytosis after consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. Annals of internal medicine, 150(4), 287-289. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-4-200902170-00102

Zucoloto, A. D. (2018). Relação entre concentração sanguínea de cocaína e cocaetileno com a gravidade das manifestações clínicas apresentadas por pacientes com diagnóstico de intoxicação por cocaína (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo). https://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/9/9141/tde-18062018-113137/en.php

Published

12/11/2020

How to Cite

Graziela da Silva, C. ., Almeida Lima, L. ., Beatriz Melo de Oliveira , A. ., Carneiro da Frota Brito , L. ., Carreiro Tomaz Aguiar , L. ., Barbosa Alves , N. ., Viana, M. da, Ribeiro Gonçalves Affonso, C. ., & Amaral, M. P. de M. do . (2020). Adulterants identified in cocaine commercialized in Piauí - PI: a qualitative analysis of its toxicological potential. Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e2259119713. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.9713

Issue

Section

Health Sciences