Revisiting Bowlby's hypothesis: attachment theory, neuroendocrine maturation and predisposition to psychopathologies
Keywords:Stress; Glucocorticoids; Hippocampus; Maternal deprivation.
Objective: To review the impacts of child stress on the neuroendocrine maturation of the stress response system and the relationships between stress indicators and psychopathologies. Methods: This is a narrative review of literature carried out through a bibliographic survey in books and in the Medline-Pubmed database. The research was carried out without limit of dates with the following keywords: maternal deprivation, psychopathology, maternal care and HPA-axis. Bibliographic Review: With this research, 292 works were found, of these the works were selected to compose this review, classified as works related to the themes: maternal deprivation, attachment and predisposition to psychopathologies. Results: The pioneering laboratory studies on the effects of maternal care date back to the 50s, after that period, many studies were carried out to describe the molecular, neurobiological and behavioral bases of attachment. These studies demonstrate the involvement of cytokines and the HPA-axis in the modulation of attachment. The research carried out shows that the interference in the attachment system between mother and puppies leads to unfavorable changes for the CNS maturation. Conclusion: It is concluded that the maturation of the stress response system is strongly modulated by the quality of the neonatal experience, with close relationships between early stress and predisposition to psychopathologies in adulthood being described.
Abbink, M. R., van Deijk, A. L. F., Heine, V. M., Verheijen, M. H., & Korosi, A. (2019). The involvement of astrocytes in early‐life adversity induced programming of the brain. Glia, 67(9), 1637-1653.
Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American psychologist, 46(4), 333.
Amini-Khoei, H., Haghani-Samani, E., Beigi, M., Soltani, A., Mobini, G. R., Balali-Dehkordi, S. (2019). On the role of corticosterone in behavioral disorders, microbiota composition alteration and neuroimmune response in adult male mice subjected to maternal separation stress. International Immunopharmacology, 66, 242-250.
Arborelius, L., & Eklund, M. (2007). Both long and brief maternal separation produces persistent changes in tissue levels of brain monoamines in middle-aged female rats. Neuroscience, 145(2), 738-750.
Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2004). The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. Neuroimage, 21(3), 1155-1166.
Biagini, G., Pich, E. M., Carani, C., Marrama, P., & Agnati, L. F. (1998). Postnatal maternal separation during the stress hyporesponsive period enhances the adrenocortical response to novelty in adult rats by affecting feedback regulation in the CA1 hippocampal field. International journal of developmental neuroscience, 16(3-4), 187-197.
Bierut, L. J., Heath, A. C., Bucholz, K. K., Dinwiddie, S. H., Madden, P. A., Statham, D. J. (1999). Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample: are there different genetic and environmental contributions for men and women? Archives of general psychiatry, 56(6), 557-563.
Chaby, L. E., Sheriff, M. J., Hirrlinger, A. M., & Braithwaite, V. A. (2015). Does early stress prepare individuals for a stressful future? Stress during adolescence improves foraging under threat. Animal Behaviour, 105, 37-45.
Cirulli, F., Francia, N., Berry, A., Aloe, L., Alleva, E., & Suomi, S. J. (2009). Early life stress as a risk factor for mental health: role of neurotrophins from rodents to non-human primates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(4), 573-585.
Duman, R. S., & Monteggia, L. M. (2006). A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biological psychiatry, 59(12), 1116-1127.
Francis, D. D., & Meaney, M. J. (1999). Maternal care and the development of stress responses. Current opinion in neurobiology, 9(1), 128-134.
Flosi, A. Z. (1947). Reação de alarme e o sindrome geral de adaptação: conceito de doenças de adaptação: importância clínica e cirúrgica. Revista de Medicina, 31(167-168), 321-352.
Gard, A. M., Waller, R., Shaw, D. S., Forbes, E. E., Hariri, A. R., & Hyde, L. W. (2017). The long reach of early adversity: Parenting, stress, and neural pathways to antisocial behavior in adulthood. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 2(7), 582-590.
Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American psychologist, 13(12), 673.
Harlow, H. F., & Harlow, M. K. (1965). The affectional systems. Behavior of nonhuman primates, 2, 287-334.
Hulshof, H. J., Novati, A., Sgoifo, A., Luiten, P. G., den Boer, J. A., & Meerlo, P. (2011). Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats. Behavioural brain research, 216(2), 552-560.
Kennard, J., & Birtchnell, J. (1982). The mental health of early mother separated women. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 65(6), 388-402.
Kuhn, C. M., & Schanberg, S. M. (1998). Responses to maternal separation: mechanisms and mediators. International journal of developmental neuroscience, 16(3-4), 261-270.
Levine, S. (1957). Infantile experience and resistance to physiological stress. Science.
Liu, D., Diorio, J., Tannenbaum, B., Caldji, C., Francis, D., Freedman, A. (1997). Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science, 277(5332), 1659-1662.
Loi, M., Mossink, J., Meerhoff, G., Den Blaauwen, J., Lucassen, P., & Joëls, M. (2017). Effects of early-life stress on cognitive function and hippocampal structure in female rodents. Neuroscience, 342, 101-119.
Lundberg, S., Abelson, K. S., Nylander, I., & Roman, E. (2017). Few long-term consequences after prolonged maternal separation in female Wistar rats. PloS one, 12(12), e0190042.
Marco, E. M., Valero, M., de la Serna, O., Aisa, B., Borcel, E., Ramirez, M. J. (2013). Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats. Neuropharmacology, 68, 223-231.
Mehta, M., & Schmauss, C. (2011). Strain-specific cognitive deficits in adult mice exposed to early life stress. Behavioral neuroscience, 125(1), 29.
Miragaia, A. S., de Oliveira Wertheimer, G. S., Consoli, A. C., Cabbia, R., Longo, B. M., Girardi, C. E. (2018). Maternal deprivation increases anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors in an age-dependent fashion and reduces neuropeptide Y expression in the amygdala and hippocampus of male and female young adult rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 159.
Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica.
Reis, A., De Azevedo, M., De Souza, M., Lutz, M., Alves, M., Izquierdo, I. (2014). Neonatal handling alters the structure of maternal behavior and affects mother–pup bonding. Behavioural brain research, 265, 216-228.
Roque, A., Ochoa-Zarzosa, A., & Torner, L. (2016). Maternal separation activates microglial cells and induces an inflammatory response in the hippocampus of male rat pups, independently of hypothalamic and peripheral cytokine levels. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 55, 39-48.
Rother, E. T. (2007). Revisão sistemática X revisão narrativa. Acta paulista de enfermagem, 20(2), v-vi.
Ruiz, R., Roque, A., Pineda, E., Licona-Limón, P., Valdéz-Alarcón, J. J., & Lajud, N. (2018). Early life stress accelerates age-induced effects on neurogenesis, depression, and metabolic risk. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 96, 203-211.
Sachs, B. D., Rodriguiz, R. M., Tran, H. L., Iyer, A., Wetsel, W. C., & Caron, M. G. (2015). Serotonin deficiency alters susceptibility to the long-term consequences of adverse early life experience. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 53, 69-81.
Santarelli, S., Zimmermann, C., Kalideris, G., Lesuis, S. L., Arloth, J., Uribe, A. (2017). An adverse early life environment can enhance stress resilience in adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 213-221.
Sapolsky, R. M., & Meaney, M. J. (1986). Maturation of the adrenocortical stress response: neuroendocrine control mechanisms and the stress hyporesponsive period. Brain research reviews, 11(1), 65-76.
Schore, A. N. (2002). Dysregulation of the right brain: a fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36(1), 9-30.
Schore, A. N., & Newton, R. P. (2013). Using modern attachment theory to guide clinical assessments of early attachment relationships Attachment-based clinical work with children and adolescents (pp. 61-96): Springer.
Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. N. (2008). Modern attachment theory: The central role of affect regulation in development and treatment. Clinical social work journal, 36(1), 9-20.
Spitz, R. (2004). O primeiro ano de vida. 3ª: São Paulo: Martins Fontes.
Sutanto, W., Rosenfeld, P., de Kloet, E. R., & Levine, S. (1996). Long-term effects of neonatal maternal deprivation and ACTH on hippocampal mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Developmental Brain Research, 92(2), 156-163.
Van der Horst, F. C. (2011). John Bowlby-From psychoanalysis to ethology: Unravelling the roots of attachment theory: John Wiley & Sons.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Adriano Junio Moreira de Souza; Ana Izabella Freire; Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza; Elizabeth Giestal De Araujo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.