The proposition of a new method to convert formalin cadavers to academic and museology purposes
Keywords:Embalming; Wistar rats; Formaldehyde; Anatomy; Museums.
The embalming of a cadaver to study anatomy in humans, animals, and for expositions in biological museums is classically performed by formaldehyde injection. Despite its efficiency and wide application, this method delivers technical problems and high toxicity. Through an experimental model with Wistar rats previously embalmed in formalin, we developed two converting solutions (G1 and G2) to perform a macroscopic and qualitative analysis of the embalming maintenance, the color, the fungus proliferation, the pliability, and the post-conversion dissection of the specimens. This work aims to present the results of this experiment and discuss the data. After 365 days of the experiment, both solutions showed benefits in terms of reduction of toxicity, the use of a single solution to convert, storage without the need for containers with embalming solution, containment of fungus proliferation, and improvement of the color of the organs. Although these are the initial results without full achievement, we consider the G1 solution a suitable and advantageous alternative for the museology area.
Balta, J. Y., Cryan, J. F., & O’Mahony, S. M. (2019). The antimicrobial capacity of embalming solutions: A comparative study. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 126(3), 764–770. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14191
Balta, Joy Y., Lamb, C., & Soames, R. W. (2015). A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 8(1), 86–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1470
Baptista, J. da S., Leite, R. de S., de Oliveira, G. B., Seyfert, C. E., & Marega, P. (2010). Desafios na Implantação de um Laboratório de Anatomia Humana no Interior do Nordeste Paraibano. O Anatomista, 3.
Brenner, E. (2014). Human body preservation – old and new techniques. Journal of Anatomy, 224(3), 316–344. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12160
Burns, D. M., Bell, I., Katchky, R., Dwyer, T., Toor, J., Whyne, C. M., & Safir, O. (2018). Saturated Salt Solution Cadaver-Embalming Method Improves Orthopaedic Surgical Skills Training. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 100(15), e104. https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01256
Chafin, D., Theiss, A., Roberts, E., Borlee, G., Otter, M., & Baird, G. S. (2013). Rapid Two-Temperature Formalin Fixation. PLoS ONE, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054138
Gilbert, M. T. P., Haselkorn, T., Bunce, M., Sanchez, J. J., Lucas, S. B., Jewell, L. D., Van Marck, E., & Worobey, M. (2007). The isolation of nucleic acids from fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues-which methods are useful when? PloS One, 2(6), e537. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000537
Haizuka, Y., Nagase, M., Takashino, S., Kobayashi, Y., Fujikura, Y., & Matsumura, G. (2018). A new substitute for formalin: Application to embalming cadavers. Clinical Anatomy, 31(1), 90–98. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23011
Hammer, N., Löffler, S., Bechmann, I., Steinke, H., Hädrich, C., & Feja, C. (2015). Comparison of modified Thiel embalming and ethanol-glycerin fixation in an anatomy environment: Potentials and limitations of two complementary techniques. Anatomical Sciences Education, 8(1), 74–85. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1450
Hammer, N., Löffler, S., Feja, C., Bechmann, I., & Steinke, H. (2011). Substitution of formaldehyde in cross anatomy is possible. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 103(7), 610–611. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djr035
Hammer, N., Löffler, S., Feja, C., Sandrock, M., Schmidt, W., Bechmann, I., & Steinke, H. (2012). Ethanol-glycerin fixation with thymol conservation: A potential alternative to formaldehyde and phenol embalming. Anatomical Sciences Education, 5(4), 225–233. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1270
Hayashi, S., Homma, H., Naito, M., Oda, J., Nishiyama, T., Kawamoto, A., Kawata, S., Sato, N., Fukuhara, T., Taguchi, H., Mashiko, K., Azuhata, T., Ito, M., Kawai, K., Suzuki, T., Nishizawa, Y., Araki, J., Matsuno, N., Shirai, T., & Itoh, M. (2014). Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training. Medicine, 93(27), e196. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000196
Homma, H., Oda, J., Sano, H., Kawai, K., Koizumi, N., Uramoto, H., Sato, N., Mashiko, K., Yasumatsu, H., Ito, M., Fukuhara, T., Watanabe, Y., Kim, S., Hayashi, S., Kawata, S., Miyawaki, M., Miyaso, H., & Itoh, M. (2019). Advanced cadaver-based educational seminar for trauma surgery using saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers. Acute Medicine & Surgery, 6(2), 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1002/ams2.390
Hunter, A., Eisma, R., & Lamb, C. (2014). Thiel embalming fluid—A new way to revive formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens. Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.), 27(6), 853–855. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.22392
International Agency for Research on Cancer (Org.). (2006). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 88, Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol: This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 2 - 9 June 2004. IARC.
Lombardero, M., Yllera, M. M., Costa-e-Silva, A., Oliveira, M. J., & Ferreira, P. G. (2017). Saturated salt solution: A further step to a formaldehyde-free embalming method for veterinary gross anatomy. Journal of Anatomy, 231(2), 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12634
Lorenzoni, D.-C., Pinheiro, L.-P., Nascimento, H.-S., Menegardo, C.-S., Silva, R.-G., Bautz, W.-G., Henriques, J.-F., Almeida-Coburn, K.-L., & da Gama-de-Souza, L.-N. (2017). Could formaldehyde induce mutagenic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells during anatomy classes? Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, 22(1), e58–e63. https://doi.org/10.4317/medoral.21492
Lucchesi, E. G., Eguchi, S. Y., & Moraes, A. M. (2012). Influence of a triazine derivative-based biocide on microbial biofilms of cutting fluids in contact with different substrates. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 39(5), 743–748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-011-1081-x
Patel, K. M., & Moxham, B. J. (2008). The relationships between learning outcomes and methods of teaching anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists. Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.), 21(2), 182–189. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.20584
Rodrigues, H., Tose, D., Musso, F., Azeredo, R., & Mayer, W. (2010). Técnicas Anatômicas (4a ed.). GM gráfica e editora.
Tamayo-Arango, L., & Garzón-Alzate, A. (2018). Preservation of Animal Cadavers with a Formaldehyde-free Solution for Gross Anatomy. Journal of Morphological Sciences, 35(2), 136–141. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1669434
Yörükoglu, K., Cingöz, S., Agilkaya, S., & Aydin, I. (2013). The effect of the alternative solutions to formaldehyde and xylene on tissue processing. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 56(3), 221. https://doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.120371
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Amanda Teixeira Prata; Josemberg da Silva Baptista
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.