Existing potentials in Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) for crop pest control





Ovicide; Larvicide; Morphological modifications; Reproductive modifications; Fagoinhibition.


The aim of this review is to explore the potentials existing in insecticides that are considered Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) for the control of insects considered crop pests, with an observation of the main mechanisms of neuroendocrine modifications, development and viability of the species used as study models. The data search on digital platforms, as well as the screening of materials about crop pests, resulted in 74 IGR references and their potentials. The analysis of the information found demonstrated a greater use in works of compounds belonging to chitin synthesis inhibitors class; and orders such as Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera and Diptera were represented in the studies. The main types of activities reunited were morphological and anatomical modifications, reproductive modifications, alterations in developmental stage, alterations in developmental period, ovicidal activity, larvicidal/ninficidal activity and fagoinhibition. The congregated knowledge about the main pests used as study models, the main IGRs compounds and their biological potentials allow an evaluation of their use as an informative source for crop pest control methods.


Adel, M. M., & Sehnal, F. (2000). Azadirachtin potentiates the action of ecdysteroid agonist RH-2485 in Spodoptera littoralis. Journal of Insect Physiology, 46, 267–274.

Agrolink. (2021). Agrolink – Portal. https://www.agrolink.com.br/.

Alavo, T. B. C., Tégbéssou, K. J. C., & Yarou, B. B. (2011). Potentialities of methoxyfenozide for the integrated management of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in Benin, West Africa. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44(8), 813–819.

Al-Mokhlef, A. A., Mariy, F. M., Emam, A. K., & Ali, G. M. (2012). Effect of teflubenzuron on ultrastructure and components of the integument in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) 5th instar nymphs. Annals of Agricultural Science, 57(1), 1–6.

Alyokhin, A., Sewell, G., & Choban, R. (2008). Reduced viability of colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, eggs exposed to novaluron. Pest Management Science, 64, 94–99.

Amiri, A., Bandani, A. R., & Ravan, S. (2010). Effect of an anti-juvenile hormone agent (Precocene I) on Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) development and reproduction. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(36), 5859-5868.

Andrade, L. H., Oliveira, J. V., Lima, I. M. M., Santana, M. F., & Breda, M. O. (2013). Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em algodoeiro. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 44(3), 628-634.

Ascher, K. R. S., Eliyahu, M., Glotter, E., Goldman, A., Kirson, I., Abraham, A., Jacobson, M., & Schmutterer, H. (1987). The antifeedant effect of some new withanolides on three insect species, Spodoptera littoralis, Epilachna varivestis and Tribolium castaneum. Phytoparasitica, 15(1), 15-29.

Ascher, K. R. S., & Eliyahu, M. (1988). The ovicidal properties of the juvenile hormone mimic sumitomo S-31183 (SK-591) to insects. Phytoparasitica, 16(1), 15-21.

Atta, B., Gogi, M. D., Arif, M. J., Mustafa, F., Raza, M. F., Hussain, M. J., Farooq, M. A., Nisar, M. J., & Iqbal, M. (2015). Toxicity of some insect growth regulators (IGRs) against different life stages of dusky cotton bugs Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Oxycareninae). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 21(2), 367–371.

Ayyanath, M. M., Scott-Dupree, C. D., & Cutler, G.C. (2015). Effect of low doses of precocene on reproduction and gene expression in green peach aphid. Chemosphere, 128, 245–251.

Bado, S., Mareggiani, G., Amiano, N., Burton, G., & Veleiro, A. S. (2004). Lethal and sublethal effects of withanolides from Salpichroa origanifolia and analogues on Ceratitis capitata. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 2875-2878.

Bakr, R. F. A., El-Barky, N. M., Elaziz, M. F. A., Awad, M. H., & El-Halim, H. M. E. A. (2010). Effect of chitin synthesis inhibitors (flufenoxuron) on some biological and biochemical aspects of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis Bosid (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(2), 43-56.

Bélai, I., & Fekete, G. (2003). Effects of anti-ecdysteroid quaternary derivatives of azole analogues of metyrapone on the post-embryonic development of the red cotton bug (Dysdercus cingulatus F). Pest Management Science, 59, 401–409.

Berghiche, W., Houamria, M., Velde, S. V., Soltani, N., & Smagghe, G. (2008). Effect of two insect growth regulators on the ecdysteroid contents in eggs of the mealworm. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 138(2), 140-145.

Bernardi, D., Garcia, M. S., Botton, M., & Cunha, U.S. (2012). Efeito da azadiractina sobre Chaetosiphon fragaefolli (Cockerell, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) na cultura do morangueiro. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 34(1), 93-101.

Bertuso, A. G., Morooka, S., & Tojo, S. (2002). Sensitive periods for wing development and precocious metamorphosis after precocene treatment of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Journal of Insect Physiology, 48, 221–229.

Bitsadze, N., Jaronski, S., Khasdan, V., Abashidze, E., Abashidze, M., Latchininsky, A., Samadashvili, D., Sokhadze, I., Rippa, M., Ishaaya, I., & Horowitz, A. R. (2013). Joint action of Beauveria bassiana and the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and novaluron, on the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Journal of Pest Science, 86, 293-300.

Boina, D. R., Rogers, M. E., Wang, N., & Stelinski, L. L. (2010). Effect of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on egg hatch, nymph development, adult emergence and reproduction of the asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Pest Management Science, 66, 349–357.

Borchert, D. M., Walgenbach, J. F., Kennedy, G. G., & Long, J. W. (2004). Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(4), 1342-52.

Bowers, W.S. (1976). Discovery of insect antiallatotropins. In: Gilbert, L. I. The Juvenile Hormones. Boston: Springer.

Bransby-Williams, W. R. (1971). Juvenile hormone activity of ethylfarnesoate dihydrochloride with the cotton stainer Dysdercus cardinalis Gerst. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61, 41-47.

Cabi. (2021). CABI – Portal. https://www.cabi.org/.

Carlson, G. R., Dhadialla, T. S., Hunter, R., Jansson, R. K., Jany, C. S., Lidert, Z., & Slawecki, R. A. (2001). The chemical and biological properties of methoxyfenozide, a new insecticidal ecdysteroid agonist. Pest Management Science, 57, 115-119.

Chenevert, R., Perron, J. M., Paquin, R., & Plante, R. (1981). Morphogenetic effect of precocene I and II on Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk). Experientia, 37, 32-33.

Cirigliato, A., Colomarino, I., Mareggiani, G., & Bado, S. (2008). Biological effects of Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) crude extracts and its major withanolides on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas, 34, 509-515.

Costa, H. N., Cunha, F. M., Cruz, G. S., D’Assunção, C. G., Rolim, G. G., Barros, M. E. G., Breda, M. O., Teixeira, A. A. C., & Teixeira, V. W. (2017). Lufenuron impact upon Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) midgut and its reflection in gametogenesis. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 137, 71–80.

Cotton, G., & Anstee, J. H. (1991). A biochemical and structural study on the effects of methoprene on fat body development in Locusta migratoria L. Journal of Insect Physiology, 31(7), 525-539.

Critchley, B. R., & Campion, D. G. (2009). Effects of a juvenile hormone analogue on growth and reproduction in the cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus Say. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61, 49-53.

Culliney, T. (2014). Chapter 8: Crop losses to arthropods. In: Pimentel, D., & Peshin, R. Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide ProblemS, vol.3. Netherlands: Springer.

Dinan, L. (1996). A strategy for the identification of ecdysteroids receptor agonists and antagonists from plants. European Journal of Entomology, 92, 271-283.

Dinan, L. (1997). Certain withanolides from Iochroma gesnerioides antagonize ecdysteroid action in a Drosophila melanogaster cell line. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 80, 415-420.

Eid, M. A. A., Salem, M. S., & Taha, G. Z. (1988). Effects of precocene II on morphogenesis of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 16(5), 515-520.

Eisa, A. A., El-Fatah, M. A., El-Nabawi, A., & El-Dash, A. A. (1991). Inhibitory effects of some insect growth regulators on developmental stages, fecundity and fertility of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis. Phytoparasitica 19(1), 49-55.

Eizaguirre, M., López, C., Schafellner, C., & Sehnal, F. (2007). Effects of ecdysteroid agonist RH-2485 reveal interactions between ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones in the development of Sesamia nonagrioides. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 65, 74–84.

El-Sheikh, E. A., Kamita, S. G., & Hammock, B. D. (2016). Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 128, 30–36.

Ergen, G. (2001). The Effects of precocene II on the fine structure of corpus allatum in adult female Anacridium aegyptium L. (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 25, 95-103.

Fang, Y., Kim, W. J., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. H., Ha, K. B., Park, D. H., Woo, R. M., Park, M. G., Choi, J. Y., & Je, Y. H. (2017). The transcriptomic responses of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus upon juvenile hormone agonist and antagonist treatment. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 20, 529–534.

Faria, A. B. C. (2009). Revisão sobre alguns grupos de inseticidas utilizados no manejo integrado de pragas florestais. Ambiência - Revista do Setor de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, 5(2), 345-358.

FAO. (2013). Fao Statistical Yearbook 2013 - World Food and Agriculture. Rome.

Gallo, D., Nakano, O., Neto, S. S., Carvalho, R. P. L., De Baptista, G. C., Filho, E. B., Parra, J. R. P., Zucchi, R. A., Alves, S. B., Vendramim, J. D., Marchini, L. C., Lopes, J. R. S., & Omoto, C. (2002). Entomologia Agrícola. Piracicaba: FEALQ.

Ghazawy, N. (2012). Ultrastructural observations on the gonads and neurosecretory cells of Schistocerca gregaria after treatment with lufenuron (CGA-184699). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 21(2), 141-148.

Gijswijt, M. J., Deul, D. H., & Jong, D. J. (1979). Inhibition of chitin synthesis by benzoyl-phenylurea insecticides, III. Similarity in action in Pieris brassicae (L.) with Polyoxin D. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 12, 87-94.

Gokçe, A., Kim, S. H. S., Wise, J. C., & Whalon, M. E. (2009). Reduced egg viability in codlingmoth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) following adult exposure to novaluron. Pest Management Science, 65, 283–287.

Gotoh, H., Cornette, R., Koshikawa, S., & Miura, T. (2008). Effects of precocenes on the corpora allata and the JH titer in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti (Isoptera: Termopsidae). Sociobiology, 52(2), 345-356.

Gullan, P. J., & Cranston, P. S. (2014). Insects: an outline of entomology. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, ltd.

Guyer, W., & Neumann, R. (1988). Activity and fate of chlorfluazuron and diflubenzuron in the larvae of Spodoptera littoralis and Heliothis virescens. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 30, 166-177.

Hales, D. F., & Mittler, T. E. (1981). Precocious metamorphosis of the aphid Myzus persicae induced by the precocene analogue 6-methoxy-7-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene. Journal of Insect Physiology, 27(5), 333-337.

Hardie, J., Gao, N., Timár, T., Sebok, P., & Honda, K. I. (1996). Precocene derivatives and aphid morphogenesis. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 32, 493-501.

Hardie, J. (1986). Morphogenetic effects of precocenes on three aphid species. Journal of Insect Physiology, 32(9), 813-818.

Hartenstein, V. (2006). The neuroendocrine system of invertebrates: a developmental and evolutionary perspective. Journal of Endocrinology, 190, 555–570.

Hoffmann, E. J., Middleton, S. M., & Wise, J. C. (2008). Ovicidal activity of organophosphate, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and Insect Growth Regulator chemistries on Northern Strain Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus Nenuphar. Journal of Insect Science, 8(29), 1-6.

Hosseinzadeh, J., & Delkhoon, S. (2013). Effects of the IGRs compounds, lufenuron and fenoxycarb on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46(3), 312–317.

IOWA State University. (2021). BugGuide – Portal. https://bugguide.net/node/view/15740.

Ishaaya, I., Yablonski, S., & Horowitz, A.R. (1995). Comparative toxicity of two ecdysteroid agonists, RH-2485 and RH-5992, on susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Phytoparasitica, 23(2), 139-145.

Joseph, S. V. (2017). Effects of insect growth regulators on Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(6), 2471–2477.

Joseph, S. V. (2019). Transovarial effects of insect growth regulators on Stephanitis pyrioides (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Pest Management Science, 75(8), 2182-2187.

Kafi-Farashah, F., Farazmand, H., Vafaei-Shoushtari, R., Golmohammadi, G., & Sanatgar, E. (2018). Effects of anti-juvenile hormone, precocene-I, on egg development of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, and its progenies. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20, 979-986.

Karimzadeh, R., Hejazi, M. J., Khoei, F. R., & Moghaddam, M. (2007). Laboratory evaluation of five chitin synthesis inhibitors against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Journal of Insect Science, 7(50), 1-6.

Khafagi, W. E., & Hegazi, E.M. (1999). Latent effects of precocenes (I and II) and juvenile hormone I on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) larvae. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 32(4), 337-350.

Khajepour, S., Izadi, H., & Asari, M. J. (2012). Evaluation of two formulated chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron against the raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella. Journal of Insect Science, 12(102), 1-7.

Khan, I., & Qamar, A. (2011). Biological activity of andalin (flucycloxuron), a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor, on red cotton Stainer Dysdercus koenigii (Fabricius). Biology and Medicine, 3(2), 324-335.

Khan, I., & Qamar, A. (2012). Andalin, an insect growth regulator, as reproductive inhibitor for the red cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii (F.) (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae). Academic Journal of Entomology, 5(2), 113-121.

Kim, S. H. S., Wise, J. C., Gokçe, A., & Whalon, M. E. (2011). Novaluron causes reduced egg hatch after treating adult codling moths, Cydia pomenella: Support for transovarial transfer. Journal of Insect Science, 11(126), 126.

Klowden, M. J. (2013). Physiological systems in insects. Academic Press.

Kontogiannatos, D., Swevers, L., Zakasis, G., & Kourti, A. (2015). The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ecotoxicology, 24, 356–367.

Kubota, S. (1989). Evaluation of the effect of some chitin synthesis inhibitors against Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting musk melons. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 24(4), 349-357.

Li, Y., Yang, N., Wei, X., Ling, Y., Yang, X., & Wang, Q. (2014). Evaluation of etoxazole against insects and acari in vegetables in China. Journal of Insect Science, 14(104), 1-14.

Mahmoudvand, M., & Moharramipour, S. (2015). Sublethal effects of fenoxycarb on the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Journal of Insect Science, 15(1:82), 1-6.

Martinez, S. S., & Emden, H. F. V. (2001). Growth disruption, abnormalities and mortality of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caused by azadirachtin. Neotropical Entomology, 30(1), 113-125.

McKenna, M. M., Hammad, E. M. A. F., & Farran, M. T. (2013). Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). SpringerPlus, 2, 144.

Meisner, J., Klein, M., & Ascher, K. R. S. (1986). The effect of some benzoyl phenylureas on the larvae of Earias insulana. Phytoparasitica 14(1), 3-9.

Meng, Q. W., Wang, J. J., Shi, J. F., Guo, W. C., & Li, G. Q. (2018). Effect of teflubenzuron ingestion on larval performance and chitin content in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. American Journal of Potato Research, 95, 463-472.

Merzendorfer, H. (2012). Chitin synthesis inhibitors: old molecules and new developments. Insect Science, 20(2), 121-38.

Miranda, J. E., Bortoli, S. A., & Takahashi, R. (2002). Efeitos de três análogos do hormônio juvenil aplicados em bicho-da-seda, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Neotropical Entomology, 31(1), 019-025.

Mordue (Luntz), A. J., & Nisbet, A.J. (2000). Azadirachtin from the neem tree Azadirachta indica: its action against insects. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica Brasileira, 29(4), 615-632.

Moreira, L. F., De Oliveira, J. S., De Araújo, J. G. F., & Braga, G. M. (1996). Impacto ambiental e administração de problemas toxicológicos na utilização de inseticidas agrícolas. Organizações Rurais e Agroindustriais, Lavras, 8(1), 28-35.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. (2021). NCBI – Portal. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.

Oliveira, C. M., Auad, A. M., Mendes, S. M., & Frizzas, M. R. (2014). Crop losses and the economic impact of insect pests on Brazilian Agriculture. Crop Protection, 56, 50-54.

Pavan, F., Barro, P., Floreani, C., Gambon, N., Stefanelli, G., & Mutton, P. (2005). Residual activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors on Lobesia botrana larvae reared in the laboratory on field collected grape berries. Bulletin of Insectology, 58(2), 113-117.

Pedersen, L. E. K. (1978). Effects of anti-juvenile hormone (precocene 1) on the development of Locust migratoria L. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 36, 502-509.

Pener, M. P., Dessberg, D., Lazarovici, P., Reuter, C. C., Tsai, L. W., & Baker, F.C. (1986). The effect of a synthetic precocene on juvenile hormone III titre in late Locusta eggs. Journal of Insect Physiology, 32(10), 853-857.

Perez-Farinos, G., Smagghe, G., Marco, V., Tirry, L., & Castanera, P. (1998). Effects of topical application of hexaflumuron on adult sugar beet weevil, Aubeonymus mariaefranciscae, on embryonic development: pharmacokinetics in adults and embryos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 61, 169–182.

Periódicos CAPES. (2021). Periódicos Capes – Portal. https://www.periodicos.capes.gov.br/.

Sarker, S. D., Savchenko, T., Whiting, P., Sik, V., & Dinan, L. (1997). Two limonoids from Turraea obtusifolia (Meliaceae), prieurianin and rohitukin, antagonise 20-hydroxyecdysone action in a Drosophila Cell Line. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 35, 211–217.

Savchenko, T., Whiting, P., Germade, A., & Dinan, L. (2000). Ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities in species of the Solanaceae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 28, 403-419.

Scientific Electronic Library Online. (2021). SciElo – Portal. https://scielo.org/.

Seth, R. K., Kaur, J. J., Rao, D. K., & Reynolds, S. E. (2004). Effects of larval exposure to sublethal concentrations of the ecdysteroid agonists RH-5849 and tebufenozide (RH-5992) on male reproductive physiology in Spodoptera litura. Journal of Insect Physiology, 50, 505–517.

Sharma, S., Kooner, R., & Arora, R. (2017). Capitule 2: Insect pests and crop losses. In: Arora, R., Sandhu, S.K. Breeding insect resistant crops for sustainable agriculture. Singapure: Springer.

Singh, S., & Kumar, K. (2011). Effect of the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen on larval and pupal development of the citrus swallowtail Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 31(3), 192–198.

Singh, S., & Kumar, K. (2015). Comparative efficacy of phenoxy derivative JHAs pyriproxyfen and diofenolan against polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). Phytoparasitica, 43, 553-563.

Sláma, K., & Williams, C. M. (1965). Paper factor as an inhibitor of the metamorphosis of the red cotton bug, Dysdercus koenigii F. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 54.

Song, Y., Villeneuve, D. L., Toyota, K., Iguchi, T., & Tollefsen, K. E. (2017). Ecdysone receptor agonism leading to lethal molting disruption in arthropods: review and adverse outcome pathway development. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 4142-4157.

Suchy, M., Sláma, K., & Sorm, F. (1968). Insect hormone activity of p-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)benzoic acid derivatives in Dysdercus species. Science, 162(3853), 582-583.

Sun, X., Song, Q., & Barrett, B. (2003). Effects of ecdysone agonists on the expression of EcR, USP and other specific proteins in the ovaries of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33, 829–840.

Tail, G., Porcheron, P., Doumandji-Mitiche, B., & Blais, C. (2008). Diflubenzuron effects on reproduction and hemolymph ecdysteroid levels in female locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 17(1), 89-95.

Tallamy, D. W., Stull, J., Ehresman, N. P., Gorski, P. M., & Mason, C. E. (1997). Cucurbitacins as feeding and oviposition deterrents to insects. Environmental Entomology, 26(3), 678-683.

Triseleva, T. A. (2003). Effect of plants synthesizing biologically active substances—precocenes—on insects. Biology Bulletin, 30(3), 275–280.

Tunaz, H., & Uygun, N. (2004). Insect growth regulators for insect pest control. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 28, 377-387.

Viegas Júnior, C. (2003). Terpenos com atividade inseticida: uma alternativa para o controle químico de insetos. Química Nova, 26(3), 390-400.

Wang, F., & Sehnal, F. (2002). Ecdysteroid agonist RH-2485 injected into Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) females accelerates oviposition and enhances ecdysteroid content in eggs. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(3), 409-414.

Wigglesworth, V. B. (1934). The physiology of ecdysis in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera) II. Factors controlling moulting and metamorphosis. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 77, 191-222.

Woodhead, A. P., Stay, B., Seidel, S. L., Khan, M. A., & Tobe, S.S. (1989). Primary structure of four allatostatins: Neuropeptide inhibitors of juvenile hormone synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 5997-6001.

Xu, Q., Tang, B., Zou, Q., Zheng, H., Liu, X., & Wang, S. (2015). Effects of pyriproxyfen on female reproduction in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PLoS ONE, 10(10).

Yousaf, H. K., Shan, T., Chen, X., Ma, K., Shi, X., Desneux, N., Biondi, A., & Gao, X. (2018). Impact of the secondary plant metabolite Cucurbitacin B on the demographical traits of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 16473.

Zarate, N., Díaz, O., Martínez, A. M., Figueroa, J. I., Schneider, M. I., Smagghe, G., Vinuela, E., Budia, F., & Pineda, S. (2011). Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Neotropical Entomology, 40(1), 129-137.

Zhang, P., Zhao, Y., Wang, Q., Mu, W., & Liu, F. (2016). Lethal and sublethal effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor chlorfluazuron on Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 136, 80-88.




How to Cite

APOLINÁRIO, R.; FEDER, D. Existing potentials in Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) for crop pest control. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e35910111726, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11726. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/11726. Acesso em: 21 apr. 2021.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences