Antimicrobial activity of Spondias mombin L. aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts on Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - an in vitro study




Phytotherapy; Anti-Infective Agents; Microbiology.


Objective: To chemically characterize Spondias mombin L. extracts and to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of these extracts on Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Material and methods: Both extracts were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis prior to determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Inhibitory Adhesion Concentration (MIAC) and Bactericidal Kinetics (BK). The Student’s t-test was used to compare MIC results at the 5% significance level. The chemical characterization, MIAC and BK data were analyzed descriptively. Results: Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins were detected in the extracts. The hydroethanolic extracts in different concentrations showed statistically superior inhibitory bacterial growth activity (p <0.05) compared to the control against the two investigated microorganisms, whereas the aqueous extracts (also in different concentrations) was statistically superior (p <0.05) to the control only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The anti-adherent effect of both extracts was superior to that of the control for P. aeruginosa, and similar to that for E. faecalis. In their crude and diluted concentrations, aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts showed bactericidal action within the first two to four hours of contact with the bacteria. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extracts in different concentrations showed superior antimicrobial activity than 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate against the microorganisms with this activity associated to the chemical characterization of these extracts.

Author Biographies

Rivanaldo Adriano Holanda Alves, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte



Juliana de Sousa Lima Mayer, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte



Maria Regina Macêdo Costa, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte



Emanuelle Louyde Ferreira de Lima, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte



Silvana Maria Zucolotto Langassner, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte




Fábio Roberto Dametto, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte



Ruthinéia Diógenes Alves Uchoa Lins, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte




Abo, K. A., Ogunleye, V. O., & Ashidi, J. S. (1999). Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 13(6), 494-497.

Adedokun, M. O., Oladoye, A. O., Oluwalana, S. A., & Mendie, I. I. (2010). Socio–economic importance and utilization of Spondias mombin in Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3(3), 232-234.

Allaker, R. P., & Douglas, C. I. (2009). Novel anti-microbial therapies for dental plaque-related diseases. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 33(1), 8-13.

Bayer, A. W., Kirby, W. M. M., Sherris, J. C., & Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. American journal of clinical pathology, 45(4), 493-496.

Beganovic, M., Luther, M. K., Rice, L. B., Arias, C. A., Rybak, M. J., & LaPlante, K. L. (2018). A review of combination antimicrobial therapy for Enterococcus faecalis bloodstream infections and infective endocarditis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 67(2), 303-309.

Cabral, B., Siqueira, E. M., Bitencourt, M. A., Lima, M. C., Lima, A. K., Ortmann, C. F., ... & Zucolotto, S. M. (2016). Phytochemical study and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Spondias mombin leaves. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 26(3), 304-311.

Caldas, R. R., Le Gall, F., Revert, K., Rault, G., Virmaux, M., Gouriou, S., ... & Boisramé, S. (2015). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity and lungs of cystic fibrosis patients: a case-control study. Journal of clinical microbiology, 53(6), 1898-1907.

Chakraborty, A., & Brantner, A. H. (1999). Antibacterial steroid alkaloids from the stem bark of Holarrhena pubescens. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 68(1-3), 339-344.

Colombo, A. V., Barbosa, G. M., Higashi, D., di Micheli, G., Rodrigues, P. H., & Simionato, M. R. L. (2013). Quantitative detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human oral epithelial cells from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health. Journal of medical microbiology, 62(10), 1592-1600.

Corthout, J., Pieters, L., Claeys, M., Berghe, D. V., & Vlietinck, A. (1992). Antiviral caffeoyl esters from Spondias mombin. Phytochemistry, 31(6), 1979-1981.

Delazar, A., Talischi, B., Nazemiyeh, H., Rezazadeh, H., Nahar, L., & Sarker, S. D. (2006). Chrozophorin: a new acylated flavone glucoside from Chrozophora tinctoria (Euphorbiaceae). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 16(3), 286-290.

Elzaawely, A. A., Xuan, T. D., & Tawata, S. (2005). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rumex japonicus H OUTT. Aerial Parts. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(12), 2225-2230.

Gomes, M. S., Lins, R. D. A. U., Langassner, S. M. Z., da Silveira, É. J. D., de Carvalho, T. G., de Sousa Lopes, M. L. D., ... & de Araújo, A. A. (2020). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic extract of Spondias mombin leaf in an oral mucositis experimental model. Archives of Oral Biology, 111, 104664.

Gülçin, İ., Huyut, Z., Elmastaş, M., & Aboul-Enein, H. Y. (2010). Radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of tannic acid. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 3(1), 43-53.

Jongsma, M. A., van de Lagemaat, M., Busscher, H. J., Geertsema-Doornbusch, G. I., Atema-Smit, J., van der Mei, H. C., & Ren, Y. (2015). Synergy of brushing mode and antibacterial use on in vivo biofilm formation. Journal of dentistry, 43(12), 1580-1586.

Kadan, S., Saad, B., Sasson, Y., & Zaid, H. (2016). In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts. Food chemistry, 196, 1066-1074.

Kannan, S., Devi, B. P., & Jayakar, B. (2011). Antibacterial activity of Passiflora ligularis. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 9(1), 393-396.

Lucena, A., Dalla Costa, L. M., Nogueira, K. S., Matos, A. P., Gales, A. C., Paganini, M. C., ... & Raboni, S. M. (2014). Nosocomial infections with metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: molecular epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features and outcomes. Journal of Hospital Infection, 87(4), 234-240.

Łysakowska, M. E., Ciebiada‐Adamiec, A., Sienkiewicz, M., Sokołowski, J., & Banaszek, K. (2016). The cultivable microbiota of primary and secondary infected root canals, their susceptibility to antibiotics and association with the signs and symptoms of infection. International Endodontic Journal, 49(5), 422-430.

Medeiros, P. M., Ladio, A. H., Santos, A. M. M., & de Albuquerque, U. P. (2013). Does the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations suffer taxonomic influence?. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 146(3), 842-852.

Natarajan, D., Britto, S. J., Srinivasan, K., Nagamurugan, N., Mohanasundari, C., & Perumal, G. (2005). Anti-bacterial activity of Euphorbia fusiformis—A rare medicinal herb. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 102(1), 123-126.

Nworu, C. S., Akah, P. A., Okoye, F. B., Toukam, D. K., Udeh, J., & Esimone, C. O. (2011). The leaf extract of Spondias mombin L. displays an anti-inflammatory effect and suppresses inducible formation of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide (NO). Journal of immunotoxicology, 8(1), 10-16.

O'Donnell, L. E., Smith, K., Williams, C., Nile, C. J., Lappin, D. F., Bradshaw, D., ... & Ramage, G. (2016). Dentures are a reservoir for respiratory pathogens. Journal of Prosthodontics, 25(2), 99-104.

O’Driscoll, T., & Crank, C. W. (2015). Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management. Infection and drug resistance, 8, 217.

Peña, C., Suarez, C., Ocampo-Sosa, A., Murillas, J., Almirante, B., Pomar, V., ... & Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI). (2013). Effect of adequate single-drug vs combination antimicrobial therapy on mortality in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections: a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort. Clinical infectious diseases, 57(2), 208-216.

Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica.

Peyret, M., Carret, G., Carre, C., Fardel, G., & Flandrois, J. P. (1990). Mathematical study of the sensitivity curves of Escherichia coli exposed to polymyxins. Pathologie-biologie, 38(5), 441-445.

Quintas, V., Prada-Lopez, I., Donos, N., Suarez-Quintanilla, D., & Tomás, I. (2015). In situ neutralisation of the antibacterial effect of 0.2% Chlorhexidine on salivary microbiota: Quantification of substantivity. Archives of oral biology, 60(8), 1109-1116.

Rams, T. E., Degener, J. E., & Van Winkelhoff, A. J. (2013). Prevalence of β‐lactamase‐producing bacteria in human periodontitis. Journal of periodontal research, 48(4), 493-499.

Shukla, N., Saha, S., & Singh, S. (2016). Effect of chlorhexidine with fluoride mouthrinse on plaque accumulation, plaque pH-a double blind parallel randomized clinical trial. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 10(7), ZC62.

Smania Jr, A., Monache, F. D., Smania, E. D. F. A., & Cuneo, R. S. (1999). Antibacterial activity of steroidal compounds isolated from Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.(Aphyllophoromycetideae) fruit body. International Journal of medicinal mushrooms, 1(4).

Souto, R., Silva-Boghossian, C. M., & Colombo, A. P. V. (2014). Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45(2), 495-501.

Thadhani, V. M., Choudhary, M. I., Khan, S., & Karunaratne, V. (2012). Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of some depsides and depsidones. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 40(1), 43-48.

Wei, J., & Jingping, L. (2015). Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress. Frontiers in microbiology, 6, 795.

Wu, X., Cao, G., Li, Q., Cai, B., & Hu, S. (2015). Quantitative evaluation main of the components in Paeoniae Radix Alba–Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair by high‐performance liquid chromatography. Journal of separation science, 38(2), 239-246.

Yao, Y., Yang, X., Shi, Z., & Ren, G. (2014). Anti‐inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide‐stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells. Journal of Food Science, 79(5), H1018-H1023.

Zoletti, G. O., Pereira, E. M., Schuenck, R. P., Teixeira, L. M., Siqueira Jr, J. F., & dos Santos, K. R. N. (2011). Characterization of virulence factors and clonal diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from treated dental root canals. Research in microbiology, 162(2), 151-158.




How to Cite

LIMA, I. P. A. de .; ALVES, R. A. H. .; MAYER, J. de S. L. .; COSTA, M. R. M. .; MENDONÇA, A. K. P. de .; LIMA, E. L. F. de .; LANGASSNER, S. Z. .; DAMETTO, F. R. .; LIMA, K. C. de .; LINS, R. D. A. U. . Antimicrobial activity of Spondias mombin L. aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts on Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - an in vitro study. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e50710111949, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11949. Disponível em: Acesso em: 26 feb. 2021.



Health Sciences