Anthropogenic disturbances stimulate natural regeneration of Euxylophora paraensis Huber in a forest fragment in the eastern Amazon

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11972

Keywords:

Edge effect; Forest fragmentation; Extinction; Endemic specie.

Abstract

In the Brazilian Amazon, forest fragments increase annually leading many species to local extinction. Euxylophora paraensis Huber is an endemic species whose natural habitat is restricted to the north of Brazil. The natural regeneration was evaluated using 10 circular plots of land each with a radius of 20 meters. The density of regenerating individuals at the edge and the interior of the fragment and the behavior in relation to the parent tree. The Periodic Annual Increment of the diameter and the height were calculated individually for each plant that remained alive during all four measurements and GLM (General Linear Model) was applied to verify if there were differences between environments and the size of the individuals.  The results show that the density of natural regeneration increases as the distance from the parent tree increases and has a significant negative correlation with canopy area, the smaller the canopy area the higher the density of individuals. Larger diametric growth was observed in saplings and small trees at the edge and larger increments of height in small trees were observed both at the edge and interior of the fragments. Therefore, natural regeneration is influenced by the process of forest fragmentation where the germination of seeds and establishment of saplings is favorable, however, there were no adult trees at the edge.

References

Alvares, C. A., Stape J. L., Sentelhas P. C., Gonçalves J. L. M., Sparovek G. (2013). Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22, 711-728. doi: https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

Amaral, D. D. D., Vieira, I. C. G., Almeida, S. S. D., Salomão, R. D. P., Silva, A. S. L. D., Jardim, M. A. G. (2009). Checklist da flora arbórea de remanescentes florestais da região metropolitana de Belém e valor histórico dos fragmentos, Pará, Brasil. Bol. Mus. Para Emílio Goeldi Cienc. Nat. 4(3), 231-289. Retrieved from http://scielo.iec.gov.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1981-81142009000300002

Benítez‐Malvido, J., Lázaro, A., Ferraz, I. D. (2018). Effect of distance to edge and edge interaction on seedling regeneration and biotic damage in tropical rainforest fragments: A long-term experiment. Journal of ecology, 106(6), 2204–2217. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13003

Bett, L. A., May, D. (2017). Regeneração natural de Ocotea odorifera (Vell.) Rohwer (lauraceae) em floresta ombrófila mista, Paraná, Brasil. Ciência Florestal, 27, 707-717. doi: https://doi.org/10.5902/1980509827756

Blumenfeld, E. C., Santos, R. F., Thomaziello, S. A., Ragazzi, S. (2016). Relações entre tipo de vizinhança e efeitos de borda em fragmento florestal. Ciência Florestal 26(4), 1301-1316. Retrieved from https://periodicos.ufsm.br/cienciaflorestal/article/view/25150

Brandão, A. D. S., Dionisio, L. F. S., Farias, P. R. S., Schwartz, G., Carvalho, J. O. P. (2018). Spatial distribution pattern of Euxylophora paraensis Huber in a natural managed forest in the Eastern Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrarias, 13(3), 5545. doi: https://doi.org/10.5039/agraria.v13i3a5545

Brasil. (2014). Portaria MMA Nº 443 de 17 de dezembro de 2014 - Reconhecer como espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção aquelas constantes da "Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Flora Ameaçadas de Extinção". Diário Oficial da União, Brasília.

Budowski, G. (1965). Distribution of tropical american rain forest species in the light of successional processes. Turrialba, 15:40-42 .

Cheptou, P. O., Hargreaves, A. L., Bonte, D., Jacquemyn, H. (2017). Adaptation to fragmentation: evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 372. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0037

Connell, J. H. (1971). On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In: Boer PJ, Gradwell GR, editores. Dynamics of populations. Wageningen: Center for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.

Costa, N. S. L., Jardim, F. C. S., Gomes, J. M,. Dionisio, L. F. S., Schwartz, G. (2020). Responses in growth and dynamics of the shade-tolerant species Theobroma subincanum to logging gaps in the Eastern Amazon. Forest Systems 29, e003. doi: https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2020291-15832

Dionisio, L. F. S., Schwartz, G., Lopes, J. C., Oliveira, F. A. (2018) Growth, mortality, and recruitment of tree species in an Amazonian rainforest over 13 years of reduced impact logging. For Ecol Manag 430, 150-156. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.024

Duarte, J. A. P., Ferreira, G. C., Ruschel, A. R., Mafra, N.A. (2018). Composição e estrutura florística de Florestas degradadas e secundárias da mesorregião Sudeste Paraense, PA, Brasil. Biota Amazônia. 8(2), 32-43, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v8n2p32-43

Freitas, L. J. M., Lopes, J., Bandão, A., Ferreira, J., Stucchi, G., Schwartz, G., Silva, A. (2019). Silvicultura em clareiras: Estratégia de conservação in situ de Euxylophora paraensis (pau-amarelo) no Nordeste Paraense. Documentos, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, 21p. Retrieved from https://www.embrapa.br/busca-de-publicacoes

Haddad, N. M., Brudvig, L. A., Clobert, J., Davies, K. F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R. D., Lovejoy, T. E., Sexton, J. O., Austin, M. P., Collins, C. D., Cook, W. M., Damschen, E. I., Ewers, R. M., Foster, B. L., Jenkins, C. N., King, A. J., Laurance, W. F., Levey, D. J., Margules, C. R., Melbourne, B. A., Nicholls, A. O., Orrock, J. L., Song, D., Townshend, J. R. (2015) Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances, 1(2):1-9. doi: 10.1126 / sciadv.1500052

IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2012). Manual técnico da vegetação brasileira. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro

Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 104(940):501-528. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2459010?seq=1

Laurance, W. F., Camargo, J. L., Fearnside, P. M., Lovejoy, T. E., Williamson, G. B., Mesquita, R. C., Laurance, S. G. (2018). An Amazonian rainforest and its fragments as a laboratory of global change. Biological Reviews 93, 223-247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12343

Laurance, W. F., Nascimento, H. E., Laurance, S. G., Andrade, A. C., Fearnside, P. M., Ribeiro, J. E., Capretz, R. L. (2006) Rain forest fragmentation and the proliferation of successional trees. Ecology 87, 469-482. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/05-0064

Laurance, W. F., Vasconcelos, H. L. (2009). Consequências ecológicas da fragmentação. Oecologia Brasiliensis 13(3), 434-451. doi: https://doi.org/10.4257/oeco.2009.1303.03

Magnago, L. F. S., Magrach, A., Barlow, J., Schaefer, C. E. G. R., Laurance, W. F., Martins, S. V., Edwards, D. P. (2017). Do fragment size and edge effects predict carbon stocks in trees and lianas in tropical forests? Functional ecology, 31(2), 542-552. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12752

Marini, L., Bruun, H. H., Heikkinen, R. K., Helm, A., Honnay, O., Krauss, J., Bommarco, R. (2012). Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss. Diversity and Distributions 18(9), 898-908. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00893.x

Marques, T. E. D., Beijo, L. A., Ramos, F. N. (2010). Are biotic and abiotic factors and seedling mechanical damage in forest-edge fragments always different from the interior? Australian Journal of Botany 58, 241-247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1071/BT09112

Melo, A. C. G., Daronco, C., RÉ, D. S., Durigan, G. (2015). Tree species attributes and facilitation of natural regeneration in heterogeneous planting of riparian vegetation. Scientia forestalis 43(106), 333-344. Retrieved from https://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr106/cap09.pdf

Murcia, C. (1995). Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology e Evolution 10, 58-62. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88977-6

Nascimento, H. E. M., Laurance, W. F. (2006). Efeitos de área e de borda sobre a estrutura florestal em fragmentos de floresta de terra-firme após 13-17 anos de isolamento. Acta Amazonica 36(2), 183-192. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0044-59672006000200008

Pereira A.S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia de pesquisa científica. [e-book]. Santa Maria. Ed. UAB / NTE / UFSM. Retrieved from https://repositorio.ufsm.br/bitstream/handle/1/15824/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1

Pirani, J. R. (2016). Euxylophora. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved from http://cncflora.jbrj.gov.br/

Razafindratsima, O. H., Brown, K. A., Carvalho, F., Johnson, S. E., Wright, P. C., Dunham, A. E. (2018). Edge effects on components of diversity and above‐ground biomass in a tropical rainforest. Journal of Applied Ecology 55, 977–985. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12985

Reis, L. P., Ruschel, A. R., Silva, J. N. M., Reis, P. C. M., Carvalho, J. O. P., Soares, M. H. M. (2014). Dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica de algumas espécies de Sapotaceae após exploração florestal na Amazônia Oriental. Revista de Ciências Agrárias 57(3), 234-243. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/rca.ao1401

Rodrigues, R. R., Martins, S. V., Barros, L. C. (2004). Tropical rain Forest regeneretion in area degraded by mining in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. For. Ecol. Manag. 190, 323-333. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.10.023

Rodrigues, T. E., Silva, R. C., Silva, J. M. L., Oliveira Junior, R. C., Gama, J. R. N. F., Valente, M. A. (2003). Caracterização e classificação dos solos do município de Paragominas, Estado do Pará. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Documentos, 162. Retrieved from https://www.embrapa.br/busca-de-publicacoes/-/publicacao/408067/caracterizacao-e-classificacao-dos-solos-do-municipio-de-paragominas-estado-do-para

Ribeiro, S. S., Oliveira, F. A., Ferreira, G. C., Santos, D. E., Cruz, D. C. (2019). Forest Restoration Evaluation Through Indicators in Areas of Bauxite Mining. Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(3), e20170812. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-8087.081217

Schwartz, G., Falkowski, V., Peña-Claros, M. (2017). Natural regeneration of tree species in the Eastern Amazon: short-term responses after reduced-impact logging. Forest Ecol Manage 385, 97-103. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.11.036

Schwartz, G., Lopes, J. C., Kanashiro, M., Mohren, G. M., Peña‐Claros, M. (2014). Disturbance Level Determines the Regeneration of Commercial Tree Species in the Eastern Amazon. Biotropica 46(2), 148-156. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12096

Whitmore, T. C. (1989). Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70, 536-538 .

Downloads

Published

24/01/2021

How to Cite

DUARTE, J. A. P.; SILVA, J. N. M. .; PIRES, J. P. de A.; FERREIRA, G. C.; DIONISIO, L. F. S. Anthropogenic disturbances stimulate natural regeneration of Euxylophora paraensis Huber in a forest fragment in the eastern Amazon. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e47210111972, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11972. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/11972. Acesso em: 28 feb. 2021.

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences