Cinnamaldehyde and α-terpineol as an alternative for using as denture cleansers: antifungal activity and acrylic resin color stability
Keywords:Candida albicans; Biofilm; Denture stomatitis; Denture cleansers; Phytotherapy.
Objective: here was investigated the potential of phytoconstituents as cinnamaldehyde and α-terpineol as denture cleansers, which was evaluated the antifungal activity, also their effect on the color change of the poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA). Methodology: Candida albicans biofilms were formed on PMMA specimens and exposed a 10 minutes daily treatment with cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/ mL), α-terpineol (10 mg/ mL), NaCl 0.9%, and NaClO 1%. Biofilms were collected, then analyzed the cell viability (CFU/ mL), cell metabolism (MTT), and roughness. Moreover, the color variation of the specimens during seven and 14 days was checked. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney, and ANOVA one-way were applied (α < 0.05). Results: cinnamaldehyde and α-terpineol decrease the number of viable cells compared to NaCl 0.9% by 76% and 83.2%, respectively (p< 0.05). Both substances reduce biofilm metabolism by around 70% (p< 0.05). Also, the phytoconstituents showed low biofilm roughness, similar to NaClO (p> 0.05), without changing the color of the acrylic resin (p> 0.05). Conclusion: cinnamaldehyde and α-terpineol, at a concentration of 10 mg/ mL, shows antifungal activity on C. albicans biofilms free from PMMA surface changes. From a clinical viewpoint, these substances have a strong potential to be incorporated into denture cleansers solutions.
Almeida, L., Paula, J. F., Almeida, R. V., Williams, D. W., Hebling, J., & Cavalcanti, Y. W. (2016). Efficacy of citronella and cinnamon essential oils on Candida albicans biofilms. Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 74(5), 393–398.
Arruda, C., Salles, M. M., Badaró, M. M., Sorgini, D. B., Oliveira, V. C., Macedo, A. P., Silva-Lovato, C. H., & Paranhos, H. (2018). Evaluation of biofilm removal and adverse effects on acrylic resin by diluted concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis solutions. Gerodontology, 10.1111/ger.12348.
Axe, A. S., Varghese, R., Bosma, M., Kitson, N., & Bradshaw, D. J. (2016). Dental health professional recommendation and consumer habits in denture cleansing. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 115(2), 183–188.
Badaró, M. M., Bueno, F. L., Arnez, R. M., Oliveira, V. C., Macedo, A. P., de Souza, R. F., Paranhos, H., & Silva-Lovato, C. H. (2020). The effects of three disinfection protocols on Candida spp., denture stomatitis, and biofilm: A parallel group randomized controlled trial. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 124(6), 690–698.
Bakhtiari, S., Jafari, S., Taheri, J. B., Kashi, T., Namazi, Z., Iman, M., & Poorberafeyi, M. (2019). The Effects of Cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamon Derivatives) and Nystatin on Candida Albicans and Candida Glabrata. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 7(7), 1067–1070.
Calderone, R. A., & Fonzi, W. A. (2001). Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends in microbiology, 9(7), 327–335.
Cavalcanti, Y. W., Wilson, M., Lewis, M., Williams, D., Senna, P. M., Del-Bel-Cury, A. A., & da Silva, W. J. (2016). Salivary pellicles equalise surfaces' charges and modulate the virulence of Candida albicans biofilm. Archives of oral biology, 66, 129–140.
Chen, B. J., Fu, C. S., Li, G. H., Wang, X. N., Lou, H. X., Ren, D. M., & Shen, T. (2017). Cinnamaldehyde Analogues as Potential Therapeutic Agents. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry, 17(1), 33–43.
de Groot, A. C., & Schmidt, E. (2016). Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition. Contact dermatitis, 75(3), 129–143.
de Souza, R. F., Silva-Lovato, C. H., de Arruda, C. N., Regis, R. R., Zanini, A. P., Longo, D. L., Peracini, A., de Andrade, I. M., Watanabe, E., & Paranhos, H. F. (2019). Efficacy of a propolis solution for cleaning complete dentures. American journal of dentistry, 32(6), 306–310.
Doyle, A. A., & Stephens, J. C. (2019). A review of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives as antibacterial agents. Fitoterapia 139, 104405.
Duyck, J., Vandamme, K., Krausch-Hofmann, S., Boon, L., De Keersmaecker, K., Jalon, E., & Teughels, W. (2016). Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial. PloS one, 11(1), e0145837.
Faot, F., Cavalcanti, Y. W., Mendonça e Bertolini, M. d., Pinto, L., da Silva, W. J., & Cury, A. A. (2014). Efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser on the Candida albicans biofilm formed on poly(methyl methacrylate): effects on residual biofilm and recolonization process. BMC oral health, 14, 77.
Figuerôa, R., Conterno, B., Arrais, C., Sugio, C., Urban, V. M., & Neppelenbroek, K. H. (2018). Porosity, water sorption and solubility of denture base acrylic resins polymerized conventionally or in microwave. Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB, 26, e20170383.
Freitas-Fernandes, F. S., Cavalcanti, Y. W., Ricomini Filho, A. P., Silva, W. J., Del Bel Cury, A. A., & Bertolini, M. M. (2014). Effect of daily use of an enzymatic denture cleanser on Candida albicans biofilms formed on polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate) resins: an in vitro study. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 112(6), 1349–1355.
Gendreau, L., & Loewy, Z. G. (2011). Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. Journal of prosthodontics: official journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, 20(4), 251–260.
Gulati, M., & Nobile, C. J. (2016). Candida albicans biofilms: development, regulation, and molecular mechanisms. Microbes and infection, 18(5), 310–321.
Hannah, V. E., O'Donnell, L., Robertson, D., & Ramage, G. (2017). Denture Stomatitis: Causes, Cures and Prevention. Primary dental journal, 6(4), 46–51.
Khan, M. S., Ahmad, I., & Cameotra, S. S. (2013). Phenyl aldehyde and propanoids exert multiple sites of action towards cell membrane and cell wall targeting ergosterol in Candida albicans. AMB Express, 3(1), 54.
Kong, Q., Zhang, L., An, P., Qi, J., Yu, X., Lu, J., & Ren, X. (2019). Antifungal mechanisms of α-terpineol and terpene-4-alcohol as the critical components of Melaleuca alternifolia oil in the inhibition of rot disease caused by Aspergillus ochraceus in postharvest grapes. Journal of applied microbiology, 126(4), 1161–1174.
Kurt, A., Erkose-Genc, G., Uzun, M., Sarı, T., & Isik-Ozkol, G. (2018). The Effect of Cleaning Solutions on a Denture Base Material: Elimination of Candida albicans and Alteration of Physical Properties. Journal of prosthodontics: official journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, 27(6), 577–583.
Leite, K. F., Martins, M. L., de Medeiros, M. M., Bezerra, N. V., Brito, C. M., de Almeida, L. F., & Cavalcanti, Y. W. (2020). Red propolis hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the formation of Candida albicans biofilms on denture surface. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 12(7), e626–e631.
Martins, M. L., Leite, K., Pacheco-Filho, E. F., Pereira, A., Romanos, M., Maia, L. C., Fonseca-Gonçalves, A., Padilha, W., & Cavalcanti, Y. W. (2018). Efficacy of red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm build-up and dental enamel demineralization. Archives of oral biology, 93, 56–65.
Martorano-Fernandes, L., Cavalcanti, Y. W., & de Almeida, L. (2020). "Inhibitory effect of Brazilian red propolis on Candida biofilms developed on titanium surfaces". BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 20(1), 104.
Mayer, F. L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119–128.
Mehta, P., Shah, R., Lohidasan, S., & Mahadik, K. R. (2015). Pharmacokinetic profile of phytoconstituent(s) isolated from medicinal plants-A comprehensive review. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine 5(4), 207–227.
Murakami, Y., Kawata, A., Suzuki, S., & Fujisawa, S. (2018). Cytotoxicity and Pro-/Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cinnamates, Acrylates and Methacrylates Against RAW264.7 Cells. In vivo (Athens, Greece), 32(6), 1309–1322.
Paranhos, H., Peracini, A., Pisani, M. X., Oliveira, V., de Souza, R. F., & Silva-Lovato, C. H. (2013). Color stability, surface roughness and flexural strength of an acrylic resin submitted to simulated overnight immersion in denture cleansers. Brazilian dental journal, 24(2), 152–156.
Pellizzaro, D., Polyzois, G., Machado, A. L., Giampaolo, E. T., Sanitá, P. V., & Vergani, C. E. (2012). Effectiveness of mechanical brushing with different denture cleansing agents in reducing in vitro Candida albicans biofilm viability. Brazilian dental journal, 23(5), 547–554.
Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da Pesquisa Científica. Santa Maria, RS: Núcleo de Tecnologia Educacional NTE.
Porwal, A., Khandelwal, M., Punia, V., & Sharma, V. (2017). Effect of denture cleansers on color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of different denture base resins. Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, 17(1), 61–67.
Pradebon Brondani, L., Alves da Silva Neto, T., Antonio Freitag, R., & Guerra Lund, R. (2018). Evaluation of anti-enzyme properties of Origanum vulgare essential oil against oral Candida albicans. Journal de mycologie medicale, 28(1), 94–100.
Ramage, G., Milligan, S., Lappin, D. F., Sherry, L., Sweeney, P., Williams, C., Bagg, J., & Culshaw, S. (2012). Antifungal, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients. Frontiers in microbiology, 3, 220.
Ribeiro, A. B., de Araújo, C. B., Silva, L., Fazan-Junior, R., Salgado, H. C., Ribeiro, A. B., Fortes, C. V., Bueno, F. L., de Oliveira, V. C., de F O Paranhos, H., Watanabe, E., & da Silva-Lovato, C. H. (2019). Hygiene protocols for the treatment of denture-related stomatitis: local and systemic parameters analysis - a randomized, double-blind trial protocol. Trials, 20(1), 661.
Shreaz, S., Bhatia, R., Khan, N., Muralidhar, S., Manzoor, N., & Khan, L. A. (2013). Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida. Journal of medical microbiology, 62(Pt 2), 232–240.
Shreaz, S., Wani, W. A., Behbehani, J. M., Raja, V., Irshad, M., Karched, M., Ali, I., Siddiqi, W. A., & Hun, L. T. (2016). Cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives, a novel class of antifungal agents. Fitoterapia, 112, 116–131.
Skupien, J. A., Valentini, F., Boscato, N., & Pereira-Cenci, T. (2013). Prevention and treatment of Candida colonization on denture liners: a systematic review. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 110(5), 356–362.
Straede, A., Corran, A., Bundy, J., & Heinisch, J. J. (2007). The effect of tea tree oil and antifungal agents on a reporter for yeast cell integrity signalling. Yeast (Chichester, England), 24(4), 321–334.
Taguchi, Y., Hasumi, Y., Hayama, K., Arai, R., Nishiyama, Y., & Abe, S. (2012). Effect of cinnamaldehyde on hyphal growth of C. albicans under various treatment conditions. Medical mycology journal, 53(3), 199–204.
Taguchi, Y., Hasumi, Y., Abe, S., & Nishiyama, Y. (2013). The effect of cinnamaldehyde on the growth and the morphology of Candida albicans. Medical molecular morphology, 46(1), 8–13.
Zou, Y., & Zhan, D. (2015). Patients' expectation and satisfaction with complete denture before and after the therapy. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 72(6), 495–498.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Loyse Martorano-Fernandes; Nadiny Cezar Rodrigues; Natanael Victor Furtunato Bezerra; Maria Heloisa de Souza Borges; Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti; Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de Almeida
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.