Clinical analysis of the molar’s foramen diameter according to the age range and pulp and periradicular diagnosis
Keywords:Anatomy; Dental apex; Endodontics.
Introduction: The understanding of the characteristics of the foraminal diameter contributes to the work of the clinician because it allows a selection of the appropriate instruments for the root canals preparation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the foraminal diameter, in vivo, in upper and lower molar canals and to verify an influence of factors such as age group and pulp and periradicular diagnosis. Methods: 150 root canals of 48 upper and lower first and second molars, were divided into groups according to age group: A1 - Under 15 years old; A2 - 16 to 34 years old and A3 - 34 to 50 years old, and according to the diagnosis: Irreversible pulpitis; pulp necrosis and pulp necrosis with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. K files were inserted up to the actual tooth length for a foraminal anatomical instrument selection (FAI). The initial diameter of the tip (D0) of the FAI was considered for the determination of foraminal diameter. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with three criteria and for multiple comparisons the Tukey test was used. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the interaction between age group and diagnosis (p <0.001), with the teeth of younger patients (A1) with irreversible pulpitis having larger diameters. Furthermore, it was found that, regardless of age and diagnosis, the diameter was significantly influenced by the type of tooth / canal (p <0.001). Conclusion: The foraminal diameter can vary according to the type of tooth / root canal, with age and diagnosis also influencing the results when analyzed concomitantly.
Abarca, J., Zaror, C., Monardes, H., Hermosilla, V., Muñoz, C., & Cantin, M. (2014). Morphology of the physiological apical foramen in maxillary and mandibular first molars. International journal of morphology= Revista internacional de morfología, 32(2), 671.
Campello, A. F., Marceliano-Alves, M. F., Siqueira Jr, J. F., Marques, F. V., Guedes, F. R., Lopes, R. T., ... & Alves, F. R. (2019). Determination of the initial apical canal diameter by the first file to bind or cone-beam computed tomographic measurements using micro-computed tomography as the gold standard: an ex vivo study in human cadavers. Journal of endodontics, 45(5), 619-622.
Contreras, M. A. L., Zinman, E. H., & Kaplan, S. K. (2001). Comparison of the first file that fits at the apex, before and after early flaring. Journal of Endodontics, 27(2), 113-116.
Demiriz, L., Bodrumlu, E. H., & Icen, M. (2018). Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary mandibular second molars by using cone beam computed tomography. Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 21(4).
Gani, O., & Visvisian, C. (1999). Apical canal diameter in the first upper molar at various ages. Journal of Endodontics, 25(10), 689-691.
Green, E. N. (1958). Microscopic investigation of root canal diameters. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 57(5), 636-644.
Jou, Y. T., Karabucak, B., Levin, J., & Liu, D. (2004). Endodontic working width: current concepts and techniques. Dental Clinics, 48(1), 323-335.
Kerekes, K., & Tronstad, L. (1977). Morphometric observations on the root canals of human molars. Journal of Endodontics, 3(3), 114-118.
Kfir, A., Rosenberg, E., & Fuss, Z. (2006). Comparison in vivo of the first tapered and nontapered instruments that bind at the apical constriction. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 102(3), 395-398.
Kuttler, Y. (1955). Microscopic investigation of root apexes. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 50(5), 544-552.
Levorato, G. L., Pereira, E. R., Carnevalli, B., & Franco de Carvalho, E. M. O. (2011). Avaliação da forma e dos diâmetros cervical, médio e apical dos canais principais e dos forames apicais dos molares superiores: parte II. Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online).
Lopes, H. P., Siqueira Júnior, J. F., Elias, C. N., & Vieira, M. V. B. (2015). Preparo químico-mecânico dos canais radiculares. In: Lopes HP, Siqueira Júnior JF. Endodontia: biologia e técnica. 4a ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 355.
Madeira, M. C., & Rizzolo, R. J. T. (2007). Cavidade pulpar. In: Madeira MC. Anatomia do dente. (5a ed.), Sarvier. 101
Marroquín, B. B., El-Sayed, M. A., & Willershausen-Zönnchen, B. (2004). Morphology of the physiological foramen: I. Maxillary and mandibular molars. Journal of Endodontics, 30(5), 321-328.
Morfis, A., Sylaras, S. N., Georgopoulou, M., Kernani, M., & Prountzos, F. (1994). Study of the apices of human permanent teeth with the use of a scanning electron microscope. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, 77(2), 172-176.
Nitzan, D. W., Michaeli, Y., Weinreb, M., & Azaz, B. (1986). The effect of aging on tooth morphology: a study on impacted teeth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, 61(1), 54-60.
Pecora, J. D., Capelli, A., Guerisoli, D. M. Z., Spanó, J. C. E., & Estrela, C. (2005). Influence of cervical preflaring on apical file size determination. International Endodontic Journal, 38(7), 430-435.
Peters, A. O., & Peters, C. I. (2011). Limpeza e modelagem do sistema de canais radiculares. In: Hargreaves KM, Cohen S. Caminhos da Polpa. (10a ed.), Elsevier, 270-271
Ricucci, D., Pascon, E. A., & Siqueira, J. F. (2019). The Complexity of the Apical Anatomy. In The Root Canal Anatomy in Permanent Dentition (pp. 241-254). Springer, Cham.
Schilder, H. (1974). Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am, 18(2):269-296.
Singh, S. K., Kanaparthy, A., Kanaparthy, R., Pillai, A., & Sandhu, G. (2013). Geriatric endodontic. Journal of Orofacial Research, 191-196.
Tan, B. T., & Messer, H. H. (2002). The effect of instrument type and preflaring on apical file size determination. International Endodontic Journal, 35(9), 752-758.
Versiani, M. A., Leoni, G. B., Pécora, J. D., & Sousa Neto, M. D. (2015). Anatomia interna. In: Lopes, H. P., Siqueira Júnior, J. F. Endodontia: biologia e técnica. 4a ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, p. 206-211.
Vier, F. V., Tochetto, F. F., Orlandin, L. I., Xavier, L. L., Michelon, S., & Barletta, F. B. (2004). Avaliação in vitro do diâmetro anatômico de canais radiculares de molares humanos, segundo a influência da idade.
Wolf, T. G., Paqué, F., Woop, A. C., Willershausen, B., & Briseño-Marroquín, B. (2017). Root canal morphology and configuration of 123 maxillary second molars by means of micro-CT. International journal of oral science, 9(1), 33-37.
Wu, M. K., Barkis, D., Roris, A., & Wesselink, P. R. (2002). Does the first file to bind correspond to the diameter of the canal in the apical region? International Endodontic Journal, 35(3), 264-267.
Wu, M. K., R'oris, A., Barkis, D., & Wesselink, P. R. (2000). Prevalence and extent of long oval canals in the apical third. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 89(6), 739-743.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Giovana Domitila Rafagnin; Augusto Shoji Kato; Ana Grasiela da Silva Limoeiro; Rina Andrea Pelegrine; Laura De Vito; Carlos Eduardo Fontana; Daniel Guimarães Pedro Rocha; Ricardo Machado; Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.