Comparative effectiveness of Metarhizium rileyi, novaluron, and glyphosate on immune system, development, and redox metabolism of Anticarsia gemmatalis




Agrochemical; Pest control; Entomopathogenic fungus; Oxidative stress; Soybean; Hemocytes.


Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the most important pests in world soybean crop. The most common intervention is the application of agrochemicals, such as novaluron and glyphosate. Among biological control agents, much attention has been drawn to entomopathogenic fungi, as Metarhizium rileyi. Here, we examined the changes that occur in the immune system (total and differential hemocyte count), secondary effects (caterpillar morphology), and oxidative metabolism after the caterpillars were exposed to M. rileyi, novaluron or glyphosate. M. rileyi was able to induce changes in the width, length, and weight of A. gemmatalis pupae, along with an increased in the number of defense cells. Novaluron prompt changes the insect’s immunity, and glyphosate caused milder immunological effects. However, it caused significant secondary effects including malformations in pupae and adults, and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) levels. Mortality observed when treating insects with novaluron and malformations due to glyphosate treatments did not occur due to oxidative stress. However, when insects were exposed to M. rileyi, we verified significantly increased levels of NO and concluded that these insects died due to oxidative stress. Our data provide evidence that contributes to better understanding the mechanism of herbicide-fungus interaction in the management of Anticarsia gemmatalis.

Author Biographies

Ana Paula Vargas Visentin, Universidade de Caxias do Sul

Biotechnology Institute, Pest Control Laboratory and Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants Laboratory

Lúcia Rosane Bertholdo, University of Caxias do Sul

Biotechnology Institute, Pest Control Laboratory

Rahyssa Chagas Hahn, University of Caxias do Sul

Biotechnology Institute, Pest Control Laboratory

Rafaela Andressa Thomazoni, University of Caxias do Sul

Biotechnology Institute, Pest Control Laboratory

Luciana Bavaresco Andrade Touguinha, University of Caxias do Sul

Institute of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

Catia Santos Branco, University of Caxias do Sul

Institute of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

Mirian Salvador, University of Caxias do Sul

Institute of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

Neiva Monteiro de Barros, University of Caxias do Sul

Biotechnology Institute, Pest Control Laboratory


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How to Cite

VISENTIN, A. P. V.; BERTHOLDO, L. R.; HAHN, R. C.; THOMAZONI, R. A. .; TOUGUINHA, L. B. A.; BRANCO, C. S.; SALVADOR, M. .; BARROS, N. M. de . Comparative effectiveness of Metarhizium rileyi, novaluron, and glyphosate on immune system, development, and redox metabolism of Anticarsia gemmatalis . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 6, p. e19810615611, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i6.15611. Disponível em: Acesso em: 24 jun. 2021.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences