Aspectos socioambientais e doenças relacionadas à água contaminada em comunidades vulneráveis no Nordeste do Brasil




Saúde pública; População rural; Doenças de veiculação hídrica; Qualidade da água.


The aim of this investigation was to analyse the perception of waterborne diseases and socioeconomic and environmental aspects of Quilombolas in vulnerable communities in Northeast Brazil, as the research was conducted in three vulnerable communities located in this area. The study was sectional regarding quantitative approach and was carried out from September 2018–August 2019 through interviews with 164 individuals and the analysis of drinking water quality. The highest prevalence was intestinal parasitic diseases (57%), primarily Schistosoma mansoni (20%). The interviews revealed that 27% of individuals used drinking water from the general distribution network and 26% from a well/spring outside the residence. Of these, 39% did not undergo any treatment before ingestion. Of the 10 water samples collected for microbiological analysis, there was growth of heterotrophic bacteria (53%), faecal coliforms (50%) and thermotolerant bacteria (7%). Study participants were subject to environmental characteristics that made them vulnerable to health issues. The promotion of health actions and the implementation of measures related to the treatment and storage of drinking water are tools that can combat the occurrence of diseases.


Aleixo, B., Pena, J. L., Heller, L. & Rezende, S. (2019) Infrastructure is a necessary but insufficient condition to eliminate inequalities in access to water: Research of a rural community intervention in Northeast Brazil. Science of The Total Environment 652, 1445. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.202.

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (1998) (20th ed.), American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA.

Bain, R., Cronk, R., Wright, J., Yang, H., Slaymaker, T. & Bartram, J0 (2014) Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 11 (5), 100–1644. 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001644.

Betancourt, W. Q., & Rose, J. B. (2004) Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Veterinary Parasitology 126, 219–234. 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.002.

Bezerra, V. M., Andrade, A. C. S., Cesar, C. C., & Caiaffa, W. T. (2015) Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study. Cad. Saúde Pública 31 (06), 1213–1224. 10.1590/0102-311X00056414.

Brazil. 2013a Secretaria de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial. Secretaria de Políticas Para Comunidades Tradicionais. Guia de Políticas Públicas para Comunidades Quilombolas: Brasília: Secretaria de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial.; 62p.

Brazil. 2018b Síntese de indicadores sociais: uma análise das condições de vida da população brasileira: 2018 / IBGE. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Coordenação de População e Indicadores Sociais.

Cavalcante, R. B. L. (2014) Ocorrência de Escherichia coli em fontes de água e pontos de consumo em uma comunidade rural. Rev. Ambient. Água 9 (03), 550–558. 10.4136/ambi-agua.1301.

Cunha, E. M. G. P. (2012) Ethnic-racial approach: paths taken and new challenges. In: Health of the black population, L.E. Batista, J. Werneck, J., F. Lopes (org.), Petropolis-RJ: Editora D&P Alii, Brasília, pp. 37–48.

Cutter, S. L. (1995) Race, class and environmental justice. Progress in Human Geography 19 (1), 111–122.

Filho, F. J. C. M., & Paulo, P. L. (2017) Water supply, sanitation and health aspects in Quilombola communities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Interações (Campo Grande) 18 (02), 103–116.

Freitas Júnior, R. A. D. O., Santos, C. A. D., Lisboa, L. L., Freitas, A. K. M. S. D., Garcia, V. L., & Azevedo, G. D. D. (2018) Incorporating Cultural Competence for Maternal Healthcare in the Quilombola Population into Health Profession Training. Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica 42 (2), 100–109.

Heaney, C., Wilson, S., Wilson, O., Cooper, J., Bumpass, N., & Snipes, M. (2011) Use of community-owned and-managed research to assess the vulnerability of water and sewer services in marginalized and underserved environmental justice communities. Journal of Environmental Health 74 (1), 8–17.

Hennessy, T. W., Ritter, T. L., Holman, R. C., Bruden, D. Christensen, K. L. Y., Bullkow, L. R., Cheek, J. E., Singleton, R., & Smith, J. (2008) The Relationship Between In-Home Water Service and the Risk of Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Gastrointestinal Tract Infections Among Rural Alaska Natives. American Journal of Public Health 98 (11), 2072–2078. 10.2105/AJPH.2007.115618.

Synthesis of social indicators: an analysis of the living conditions of the Brazilian population 2018 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Irwin, A., Valentine, N., Brown, C., Loewenson, R., Solar, O., Brown, H., Koller, T., & Vega, J. (2006) The Commission on Social Determinants of Health: Tackling the Social Roots of Health Inequities. PLoS Med 3 (6), e106. 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030106.

Jesus, V. D. (2020). Racializing the (sociological) view on environmental health in the sanitation of the black population: A colonial continuum called environmental racism. Saúde e Sociedade, 29(2).

Karanis, P., Kourenti, C., & Smith, H. (2007) Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. Journal of Water and Health 5 (1), 1–38.

Kayembe, J. M., Thevenon, F., Laffite, A., Sivalingam, P., Ngelinkoto, P., Mulaji, C. K., & Poté, J. (2018) High levels of faecal contamination in drinking groundwater and recreational water due to poor sanitation, in the sub-rural neighbourhoods of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 221 (3), 400–408.

Magalhães Filho, F. J. C., & Paulo, P. L. (2017) Water supply, sanitation and health aspects in Quilombola communities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Interações (Campo Grande). 18 (2), 103–116.

Nalbantcilar, M. T., & Pinarkara, S. Y. (2016) Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey. Journal of Water and Health 14 (4), 650–661. 10.2166/wh.2016.290.

Naman, J. M., & Gibson J. M. (2015) Disparities in Water and Sewer Services in North Carolina: An Analysis of the Decision-Making Process. American Journal of Public Health 105 (10), 20–26. 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302731.

Nounou, H. A., Ali, S. M., Shalaby, M. A., & Asala, R. G. (2013) The threats of microbial contamination and total dissolved solids in drinking water of Riyadh’s rural areas, Saudi Arabia. Asian Biomedicine 7 (4), 491–498. 10.5372/1905-7415.0704.203.

Null, C., Stewart, P., Pickering, A. J., Dentz, H. N., Arnold, B. F., Arnold, C. D., Benjamin-Chung, J., Clasen, T., Dewey, K. G., Fernald, L. C. H., Hubbard, A. E., Kariger, P., Lin, A., Luby, S. P., Mertens, A., Njenga, S. M., Nyambane, G., Ram, P. K., & Colford, J. M. Jr. (2018) Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on diarrhoea and child growth in rural Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Glob Health 6 (3), e316–e329. 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30005-6.

Passos, T. S., Hora, A. B., Paixão, A. L. S. S., Santos, J., Almeida-Santos, M. A., & Oliveira, C. C. C. (2017) Health education for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in quilombola communities. Journal of Nursing UFPE online 11 (10), 3965–3970.

Rouquayrol, M. Z, & Filho, N. The Epidemiology & Health. Guanabara Koogan; 2003, 736p.

Rocha, C. M. B. M. D., Rodrigues, L. D. S., Costa, C. C., Oliveira, P. R. D., Silva, I. J. D., Jesus, É. F. M. D., & Rolim, R. G. (2006) Avaliação da qualidade da água e percepção higiênico-sanitária na área rural de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1999-2000. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 22, 1967–1978.

Silva, E. K. P. D., Medeiros, D. S. D., Martins, P. C., Sousa, L. D. A, Lima, G. P., Rêgo M. A. S., Silva, T. O. D, Freire, A. S., & Silva, F. M. (2017) Food insecurity in rural communities in Northeast Brazil: does belonging to a slave-descendent community make a difference? Cadernos de Saúde Pública 33 (4), 1–14. 10.1590/0102-311X00005716.

Sorensen, J. P. R., Lapworth, D. J., Marchant, B. P., Nkhuwa, D. C. W., Pedley, S., Stuart, M. E., Bell, R. A., Chirwa, M., Kabika, J., Liemisa, M., & Chibesa, M. (2015) In-situ tryptophan-like fluorescence: a real-time indicator of faecal contamination in drinking water supplies. Water Research 81, 38–46.

Sousa, R. S. D., Menezes, L. G. C. D., Felizzola, J. F., Figueiredo, R. D. O., Sá, T. D. D. A., & Guerra, G. A. D. (2016) Água e saúde no município de Igarapé-Açu, Pará. Saúde e Sociedade 25, 1095–1107.

Souza, G. F., & Calabró, L. (2017) Evaluation of the degree of implementation of the Program Research for SUS: shared management in health. Saúde em Debate 41, 180–191.

Stillo, F., & MacDonald, G. J. (2017) Exposure to Contaminated Drinking Water and Health Disparities in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health 107 (1), 180–185. 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303482.q11

Torales, A. P. B. (2013) Quality of life and self-esteem of Quilombola communities in the state of Sergipe. [Masters dissertation]. Aracaju. Tiradentes University, p.121.

United Nations General Assembly. (2010) The Human Right to Water and Sanitation. Plenary Resolution, A/RES/64/292, Agenda Item 48, A/64/PV.108, GA/10967, 122-0-41, 1249.

World Health Organization. (2019) Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017. Special focus on inequalities. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization.

VanDerslice, J. (2011) Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations. American Journal of Public Health 101 (s1), 109–114.

Werneck, J. (2016) Institutional racism and health of the black population. Saúde e Sociedade. 25 (3), 535–549. 10.1590/S0104-129020162610.




How to Cite

HORA, A. B. .; LIMA, Álvaro S. .; MELO, C. M. de .; CAVALCANTI, E. B. .; OLIVEIRA, C. C. da C. .; MARQUES, M. N. . Aspectos socioambientais e doenças relacionadas à água contaminada em comunidades vulneráveis no Nordeste do Brasil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 10, p. e458101019044, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i10.19044. Disponível em: Acesso em: 1 mar. 2024.



Health Sciences