Expectations about the success of treatment for addiction to psychotropic drugs in the view of specialists
Keywords:Keywords: treatment, qualitative study, expectations, treatment success, dependence; Expectations; Dependency; Treatment; Qualitative methodology.
This study aimed to understand how specialists, scholars of psychoactive substance dependence, consider the success of a treatment of this problem, taking into account their experiences and their different approaches to the subject in Brazil. The bases of qualitative methodology were used. The construction of the sample was based on the principle of intentional sampling; an electronic questionnaire on the Monkey Survey platform was used as a tool for this research; the recruitment of PhD academics was done using CNPq's Lattes platform. The process of analyzing the results followed the premises of Content Analysis: thus, the material enabled the construction of a thematic area and from the grouping of this information, categories for analysis were constructed. Thus, 464 emails were sent, and 55 participants were considered, 5 categories were found (Change in consumption pattern; Quality of Life; Social Reinsertion; Emotional Development; Autonomy). The analysis showed that specialists have very audacious expectations, such as: abstinence, independence in conducting their own lives, returning to work and study activities, reactivating relationships with family and friends. These expectations are difficult to reach, since other variables that interfere in their realization are ignored, such as: prejudice and society's rejection of substance users, unfriendly family, vulnerable situations, etc. This situation can hinder the treatment process of individuals affected by the problem of substance dependence.
Amanzio, M., & Benedetti, F. (1999). Neuropharmacological dissection of placebo analgesia: Expectation- activated opioid systems versus conditioning-activated specific subsystems. Journal of Neuroscience, 19(1), 484–494. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.19-01-00484.1999
Bardin, L. (2004). Análise de conteúdo (3rd ed.). Edições 70.
Behere, R. V., Muralidharan, K., & Benegal, V. (2009). Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of substance use disorders-A review of the evidence. In Drug and Alcohol Review (Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 292–300). Drug Alcohol Rev. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00028.x
Bruehl, A. M., Lende, D. H., Schwartz, M., Sterk, C. E., & Elifson, K. (2006). Craving and Control: Methamphetamine Users’ Narratives. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 38, 385–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2006.10400602
Carrillo, E. R. (2004). Psicología para América Latina. In Psicologia para América Latina (Issue 2). Unión Latinoamericana de Entidades de Psicología (ULAPSI). http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1870-350X2004000200003
Cecilia de Minayo, M. S., & Sanches, O. (1993). Quantitativo-Qualitativo: Oposição ou Complementaridade? Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: Opposition or Complementarity? (Vol. 9, Issue 3). http://www.scielo.br/pdf/csp/v9n3/02.pdf
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2010). National Summit on Recovery From Substance Use Disorders: Bringing Together the Head and the Heart of Recovery. In Mental Health Services.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). National Summit on Recovery: Conference Report. Washington, 1–107. www.ncadi.samhsa.gov.
Chaves, T. V., Sanchez, Z. M., Ribeiro, L. A., & Nappo, S. A. (2011). Crack cocaine craving: Behaviors and coping strategies among current and former users. Revista de Saude Publica, 45(6), 1168–1175. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102011005000066
Colloca, L., & Finniss, D. (2012). Nocebo effects, patient-clinician communication, and therapeutic outcomes. In JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 307, Issue 6, pp. 567–568). https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.115
Corrigan, P. W., Larson, J. E., Hautamaki, J., Matthews, A., Kuwabara, S., Rafacz, J., Walton, J., Wassel, A., & O’Shaughnessy, J. (2009). What lessons do coming out as gay men or lesbians have for people stigmatized by mental illness? Community Mental Health Journal, 45(5), 366–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-009-9187-6
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.
de Oliveira, L. G., & Nappo, S. A. (2008). Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: A controlled pattern of use. Revista de Saude Publica, 42(4), 664–671. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102008000400012
El-Guebaly, N. (2012). The meanings of recovery from addiction evolution and promises. In Journal of Addiction Medicine (Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 1–9). J Addict Med. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0b013e31823ae540
Fontanella, B. J. B., Luchesi, B. M., Saidel, M. G. B., Ricas, J., Turato, E. R., & Melo, D. G. (2011). Amostragem em pesquisas qualitativas: Proposta de procedimentos para constatar saturação teórica. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 27(2), 389–394. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2011000200020
Galanter, M. (2007). Spirituality and recovery in 12-step programs: An empirical model. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(3), 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2007.04.016
Gonçalves, J. P. (2016). CICLO VITAL: INÍCIO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E FIM DA VIDA HUMANA POSSÍVEIS CONTRIBUIÇÕES PARA EDUCADORES. Revista Contexto & Educação, 31(98), 79–110. https://doi.org/10.21527/2179-1309.2016.98.79-110
Gonzalez Rey, F. (1997). Epistemologia cualitativa y subjetividad. EDUC. https://www.estantevirtual.com.br/livros/fernando-gonzalez-rey/epistemologia-cualitativa-y-subjetividad/1643878634
Hosseini, S., Moghimbeigi, A., Roshanaei, G., & Momeniarbat, F. (2014). Evaluation of drug abuse relapse event rate over time in frailty model. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 5(2), 92–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.02.003
Inanlou, M., Bahmani, B., Farhoudian, A., & Rafiee, F. (2020). Addiction Recovery: A Systematized Review. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 15(2), 172–181. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32426014
Kassani, A., Niazi, M., Hassanzadeh, J., & Menati, R. (2015). Survival analysis of drug abuse relapse in addiction treatment centers. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction, 4(3), 23402. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.23402
Laudet, A. B. (2007). What does recovery mean to you? Lessons from the recovery experience for research and practice. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(3), 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2007.04.014
Laudet, A. B., & White, W. (2010). What are your priorities right now? Identifying service needs across recovery stages to inform service development. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 38(1), 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2009.06.003
Lopes-Rosa, R., Kessler, F. P., Pianca, T. G., Guimarães, L., Ferronato, P., Pagnussat, E., Moura, H., Pechansky, F., & von Diemen, L. (2017). Predictors of early relapse among adolescent crack users. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 36(2), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2017.1295670
Marchi, N. C., Scherer, J. N., Pachado, M. P., Guimarães, L. S., Siegmund, G., de Castro, M. N., Halpern, S., Benzano, D., Formigoni, M. L., Cruz, M., Pechansky, F., & Kessler, F. H. (2017). Crack-Cocaine users have less family cohesion than alcohol users. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 39(4), 346–351. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2016-2091
Marlatt, G. (1999). Redução de danos: estratégias práticas para lidar com comportamentos de alto risco. Artmed.
Nogueira-Martins, M. C. F., & Bógus, C. M. (2004). Considerações sobre a metodologia qualitativa como recurso para o estudo das ações de humanização em saúde. Saúde e Sociedade, 13(3), 44–57. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-12902004000300006
Panel, B. F. I. C. (2007). What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(3), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2007.06.001
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publications.
Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2000). Qualitative research in health care. Analysing qualitative data. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 320(7227), 114–116. https://doi.org/10.1136/BMJ.320.7227.114
Ribeiro, C. T., & Fernandes, A. H. (2013). Tratamentos para usuários de drogas: possibilidades, desafios e limites da articulação entre as propostas da redução de danos e da psicanálise. Analytica: Revista de Psicanálise, 2(2). http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2316-51972013000100003
Rigotto, S. D., & Gomes, W. B. (2002). Contextos de abstinência e de recaída na recuperação da dependência química. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 18(1), 95–106. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722002000100011
Sadeghieh, S., Azami, A., Amani, F., & Barak, M. (2004). Reviewing the causes of recurred addiction in patients who referred to centers introduced of Tehran welfare. Ardabil Med Univ J, 3(4), 36–40. https://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=en&user=UvNAXRYAAAAJ&cstart=20&pagesize=80&sortby=pubdate&citation_for_view=UvNAXRYAAAAJ:3fE2CSJIrl8C
Sommerhalder, C. (2010). Sentido de vida na fase adulta e velhice. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 23(2), 270–277. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722010000200009
Spagnolo, P. A., Colloca, L., & Heilig, M. (2015). The Role of Expectation in the Therapeutic Outcomes of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatments. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 50(3), 282–285. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agv015
Tomko, R. L., Bountress, K. E., & Gray, K. M. (2016). Personalizing substance use treatment based on pre-treatment impulsivity and sensation seeking: A review. In Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Vol. 167, pp. 1–7). NIH Public Access. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.07.022
UNODC. (2017). Global overview of drug demand and supply. In United Nations publication (pp. 1–66). https://doi.org/10.18356/bdc264f4-en
Victora, C. G., Knauth, D. R., & Hassen, M. de N. A. (2000). Pesquisa qualitativa em saúde: uma introdução ao tema. Tomo Editorial. http://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&src=google&base=LILACS&lang=p&nextAction=lnk&exprSearch=500953&indexSearch=ID
White, W. L. (2007). Addiction recovery: Its definition and conceptual boundaries. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(3), 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2007.04.015
Who - World Health Organization. (1994). Qualitative research for health programmes. Geneva : World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/62315/1/WHO_MNH_PSF_94.3.pdf
Yang, M., Mamy, J., Gao, P., & Xiao, S. (2015). From abstinence to relapse: A preliminary qualitative study of drug users in a compulsory drug rehabilitation center in Changsha, China. PLoS ONE, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130711
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Thiago Rovai da Silva; Joselaine Ida da Cruz; Solange Aparecida Nappo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.