Impact of COVID-19 on Food and Nutritional Security: emerging challenges and Strategies

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20894

Keywords:

Food and Nutrition Security; COVID-19; COVID-19 Pandemic.

Abstract

Objectives: To discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food and nutrition security (FNS) of populations, showing the challenges faced and the emerging tactics of countries to prevent the expansion of food insecurity during and after this social and health crisis. Methodology: Narrative review carried out through a bibliographic search of articles in Portuguese and English, available in PubMed, Scielo, Embase and Lilacs databases. Articles published without publication deadline and which were available in full were included. The descriptors used were: “Food and nutrition security”, “Food insecurity”, “Pandemic” and “COVID-19”. Results: Procedures to control COVID-19 outbreaks affected food supply chains. In addition, high levels of unemployment, loss of income and rising food costs also hampered access to food, especially for the most socially vulnerable population. The processes of availability and access to food during the pandemic have had a direct impact on the population's food choice, preparation and consumption. Consequently, government measures should help to promote FNS among populations, through the creation or expansion of social protection programs, distribution and improvement in access to food, protection of jobs and livelihoods, and support for small local producers. Conclusion: The actions promoted by governments must guarantee the FNS of populations, ensuring access to adequate and healthy food and aiming to reduce the negative impacts promoted by SARS-CoV-2 on the condition of food, health and nutrition of the population, especially the most vulnerable.

Author Biographies

Ana Gabriella Costa Lemos da Silva, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Doutoranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva

Tatiana Maria de Oliveira, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Mestranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva

Aylen Evelin Mendoza Cáceres, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Mestranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Nutrição

Karla Danielly da Silva Ribeiro, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Docente do Departamento de Nutrição

Severina Carla Vieira Cunha Lima, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Docente do Departamento de Nutrição 

Clélia de Oliveira Lyra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Docente do Departamento de Nutrição 

References

Ashby, N. J. S. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on unhealthy eating in populations with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring), 28, 1802-1805.

Banco Alimentar (2020). Rede de emergência alimentar: ajudar não pode parar. Portal Eletrônico do Banco alimentar. https://www.bancoalimentar.pt/quem-somos/pagina-noticias/noticias-federacao/rede-de-emergencia-alimentar-ajudar-nao-pode-parar/

Bartley, M. (2017). Health inequality: an introduction to concepts, theories and methods. (2ª. ed.) Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA, USA: Polity Press.

Bastos, L. S. (2020). COVID-19 e hospitalizações por SRAG no Brasil: uma comparação até a 12a semana epidemiológica de 2020. Cad. Saúde Pública, 36 (4).

Brann, D. H., Tsukahara, T., Weinreb, C., Logan, D. W., & Datta, S. R. (2020). Non-neural expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory epithelium suggests mechanisms underlying anosmia in COVID-19 patients. Sci. Adv., 6.

Brasil (2020a). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo 15 - IPCA-15. https://sidra.ibge.gov.br/home/ipca15/brasil.

Brasil (2020b). Lei nº 14.048, de 24 de agosto de 2020. https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/lei-n-14.048-de-24-de-agosto-de-2020-273920579

Brasil (2020c). Lei nº 14.016, de 23 de junho de 2020. http://www.in.gov.br/web/dou/-/lei-n-14.016-de-23-de-junho-de-2020-263187111

Brasil (2020d). Lei nº 13.987, de 07 de abril de 2020. https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/lei-n-13.987-de-7-de-abril-de-2020-251562793

Carroll, N., Sadowski, A., Laila, A., Hruska, V., Nixon, M., Ma, D. W. L., & Haines, J., On Behalf Of The Guelph Family Health Study (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Health Behavior, Stress, Financial and Food Security among Middle to High Income Canadian Families with Young Children. Nutrients, 12 (8).

Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) (2018). Panorama Social de América Latina. https://www.cepal.org/pt-br/publicaciones/44412-panorama-social-america-latina-2018-documento-informativo.

Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) (2020a). Coyuntura Laboral en América Latina y el Caribe. El trabajo en tiempos de pandemia: desafíos frente a la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). Relatório 22.

Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) (2020b). Panorama social de América Latina. https://www.cepal.org/pt-br/comunicados/pandemia-provoca-aumento-niveis-pobreza-sem-precedentes-ultimas-decadas-tem-forte

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2020a). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets. Rome, FAO.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2020b). Urban Food Actions Platform. http://www.fao.org/urban-food-actions/knowledge-products/resources-detail/en/c/1133524/

Galanakis, C. M. (2020). The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Crisis. Foods, 9 (4), 523.

Giacomelli, A., Pezzati, L., Conti, F., et al. (2020). Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in SARS-CoV-2 patients: a cross-sectional study. Clin Infect Dis, 71 (15), 889-890.

Gombart, A. F., Pierre, A., & Maggini, S. (2020). A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System-Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection. Nutrients,12 (1).

House, J., & Williams, D. R. (2000). Understanding and reducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in health. In: Smedley, B.D. & Syme, S.L. (org.). Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research. Washington: National Academy Press, pp. 89-131.

Huffpost (2020). Victoria Assigns Parks Staff To Start Growing Food For Residents. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/victoria-seedlings-coronavirus_ca_5e8819e6c5b6cbaf28296c57?fbclid=IwAR005oUMIWwAthYLfoMh6j_oP6_bLyPGjkejVQrrFDYeHaWxJ4E_-nML8b4&guccounter=2

International Food Information Council (IFIC) (2020). Food & Health Survey. www.foodinsight.org.

International Labour Organization (ILO) (2020). COVID-19 and the world of work: Impact and policy responses. Monitor 1st Edition.

Malta, D. C., Szwarcwald, C. L., Barros, M. B. A., et al. (2020). A pandemia da COVID-19 e as mudanças no estilo de vida dos brasileiros adultos: um estudo transversal, 2020. Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde, 29(4).

Monteiro, C. A., Cannon, G., Levy, R. B., Moubarac, J. C., Louzada, M. L. C., Rauber, F., et al. (2019). Ultra-processed foods: What they are and how to identify them. Public Health Nutr, 22 (5), 936-941.

Pallath, M. M., Ahirwar, A. K., Tripathi, S. C., Asia, P., Sakarde, A., & Gopal, N. (2021). COVID-19 and nutritional deficiency: a review of existing knowledge. Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest., 42 (1), 77–85.

Programa Operacional de Apoio às Pessoas Mais Carenciadas (POAPMC) (2020). Portal Eletrônico do POAPMC. https://poapmc.portugal2020.pt/inicio

Quinzani, M. A. D. (2020). O avanço da pobreza e da desigualdade social como efeitos da crise da covid-19 e o estado de bem-estar social. Boletim de Conjuntura (BOCA) ano II, 2 (6).

Rede brasileira de pesquisa em soberania e segurança alimentar e nutricional (Rede PENSSAN) (2021). VIGISAN – Inquérito nacional sobre insegurança alimentar no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19 no Brasil. 66p.

Reyes-Olavarría, D., Latorre-Román, P. Á., Guzmán-Guzmán, I. P., Jerez-Mayorga, D., Caamaño-Navarrete, F., & Delgado-Floody, P. (2020). Positive and Negative Changes in Food Habits, Physical Activity Patterns, and Weight Status during COVID-19 Confinement: Associated Factors in the Chilean Population. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17 (15), 5431.

Rocher, E. T. (2007). Revisão sistemática x revisão narrativa. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 20 (2).

Ryerson University (2020). Examining emergent school food models during and after COVID-19. Portal Eletrônico da Ryerson University. https://www.ryerson.ca/foodsecurity/projects/activity_examining_emergent_school_food_models_covid19/

RUAF (2020a). City Region Food Systems to cope with COVID-19 and other pandemic emergencies. https://ruaf.org/news/city-region-food-systems-to-cope-with-covid-19-and-other-pandemic-emergencies/

RUAF (2020b). City Region Food System Toolkit. https://ruaf.org/news/city-region-food-system-toolkit/

Sánchez-Sánchez, E., Ramírez-Vargas, G., Avellaneda-López, Y., Orellana-Pecino, J. I., García-Marín, E., & Díaz-Jimenez, J. (2020). Eating Habits and Physical Activity of the Spanish Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period. Nutrients, 12 (9).

Santos, J. A. F. (2020). Covid-19, causas fundamentais, classe social e território. Trabalho, Educação e Saúde, 18 (3).

Shen, W., Long, L. M., Shih, C. H., & Ludy, M. J. (2020). A Humanities-Based Explanation for the Effects of Emotional Eating and Perceived Stress on Food Choice Motives during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients, 12 (9).

Silva Filho, O. J., & Gomes Júnior, N. N. (2020). O amanhã vai à mesa: abastecimento alimentar e COVID-19. Cad. Saúde Pública, 36 (5).

Stephens, E. C., Martin, G., van Wijk, M., Timsina, J., & Snowe, V. (2020). Editorial: Impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural and food systems worldwide and on progress to the sustainable development goals. Agricultural Systems, 183.

Steele, E. M., Rauber, F., Costa, C. D. S., Leite, M. A., Gabe, K. T., Louzada, M. L. D. C., Levy, R. B., & Monteiro, C. A. (2020). Dietary changes in the NutriNet Brasil cohort during the covid-19 pandemic. Rev Saude Publica, 54 (91).

The World Bank (2020). Food Security and COVID-19. Portal Eletrônico do The world bank. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/agriculture/brief/food-security-and-covid-19

TMF Group (2020). Government support schemes for COVID-19. Portal Eletrônico do TMF Group. https://www.tmf-group.com/en/news-insights/coronavirus/government-support-schemes/

United States Department of agriculture (USDA) (2020a). Food Assistance. Portal Eletrônico do USDA. https://www.usda.gov/coronavirus/food-assistance#food-distribution

United States Department of agriculture (USDA) (2020b). German COVID-19 Related Aid Measures for the Farm and Food Sector. Report.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) (2020). https://sigaa.ufrn.br/sigaa/public/departamento/documentos.jsf?lc=pt_BR&id=203.

Welt (2020). Eltern stoßen bei notwendigen Einkäufen auf Aggression. Portal Eletrônico do Welt. https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article206751915/Corona-Was-Familien-leisten-muessenist-ein-gigantisches-Sozialexperiment.htm

World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Nutrition and Food Safety (NFS) and COVID-19. https://www.who.int/teams/nutrition-and-food-safety/covid-19

World Health Organization (WHO) (2021a). Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for COVID-19: Interim guidance. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/critical-preparedness-readiness-and-response-actions-for-covid-19.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2021b). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/.

Published

04/10/2021

How to Cite

SILVA, A. G. C. L. da; OLIVEIRA, T. M. de; CÁCERES, A. E. M.; RIBEIRO, K. D. da S.; LIMA, S. C. V. C.; LYRA, C. de O. Impact of COVID-19 on Food and Nutritional Security: emerging challenges and Strategies . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e74101320894, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20894. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/20894. Acesso em: 2 dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Review Article