Genetic Divergence in Oenocarpus distichus Mart. from Different provenance in the State of Pará by Morphoagronomic Characters




Multivariate analysis; Genetic difference; Euclidean distance; Bacaba-de-leque; Amazon.


Oenocarpus distichus is a palm tree that is a refreshment called “bacaba”, very appreciated by traditional communities in the state of Pará. It has multiple uses, may be using in landscaping projects, in the production of herbal medicines, among others. However, there is a lack of agronomic information about the referred species, as well as the management strategies. The present research aimed to quantify the genetic divergence in provenances of O. distichus of the Pará based on morphoagronomic characters. Fifteen characters was measured, three relating to the plant, four to the bunch and eight to the fruit, in 62 individuals from four sources: twelve from Marabá, thirty from Belém, twelve from São João do Araguaia and eight from Baião. Data were submitted to uni and multivariate analyses, the latter using the Euclidean distance, the formation of groups using the complete linkage method, and the importance and discarding of characters based on the principal components. The greatest divergence was found between two individuals from Belém, BEL-11 and BEL-8 (dii’= 13.69). There was the formation of seven distinct groups. The characters weight of one hundred fruits and the number of rachiles per bunch were show to have the greatest contribution to the divergence between provenances. The first three main components concentrated 66.16% of the accumulated variance, and the fruit characters were responsible for the variation of individuals, suggesting that two of them were discard: circumference at breast height and length of the central rachis. Individuals of O. distichus from the four provenances of Pará studied show considerable phenotypic variation for the morphoagronomic characters studied, mainly for the fruit characters, with those from Marabá being more divergent among the four provenances.

Author Biographies

Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira, Embrapa Eastern Amazon

Graduated in Agronomic Engineering from the Federal Rural University of the Amazon (1983); degree in Forest Engineering from the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (1987); Master's degree in Botany from the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (1995) and PhD in Agronomy (Genetics and Plant Breeding) from the Federal University of Lavras (2005). He is a researcher at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Unit; since 1987, currently being a researcher. Permanent professor of the Postgraduate Course in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia - UFRA, since August 2012. He has experience in Genetic Resources and Genetic Improvement of native palm trees in the Amazon, working mainly with the species: Euterpe oleracea, Bactris gasipaes, Astrocaryum vulgare, Jessenia bataua and species of the genus Oenocarpus.

Lucieta Guerreiro Martorano, Embrapa Eastern Amazon

Graduation in Meteorology (UFPA/1982) and Agronomy (UFRA-former FCAP/1987). Master's degree in Agrometeorology (ESALQ/USP/1998) and PhD in Phytotechnics/Agrometeorology from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS/2007). She was a researcher at Embrapa Solos / RJ from February 1990 to December 2008, serving in two terms as a Member of the Internal Technical Committee (CTI), as well as in research projects at national and international levels. She collaborated at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) from 2007 to 2008, teaching classes and participating in co-orientations in the master's degree in Geomatics. She participated in the Organizing Committee of the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in 2008. In 2009, she was transferred to Belém to work as a researcher at Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, where she remained until June 2016. From July 2016 she joined the team of researchers of EMBRAPA's Middle Amazon NAPT, in Santarém, Pará. In October 2021, she was designated by ordinance to assume the role of supervisor of the NAPT-MA. Among the commitments assumed in the Amazon, it is worth mentioning the leadership of projects, action plans and activities (ROBIN/BR, PECUS/PC7; MAPCAST, AgroMet ABC, Projeto IrrigaPote, among others), both at national and international levels. She was a permanent professor in the Master's Course in Environmental Sciences at the State University of Pará PPGCA-UEPA. Currently, she is part of the permanent professorship of the Doctoral Course of the BIONORTE Network and PPGSND of UFOPA. She has collaborated as a co-advisor in graduate programs at ESALQ / USP, UFAM / Manaus and UNESP / Jaboticabal. She collaborates as a reviewer in nationally and internationally indexed journals. She is an ad hoc consultant on research projects and on public tender boards. She has participated in boards of masters, doctorate, course conclusion works and scientific initiation salon, as well as as a speaker at different scientific events. In a call from CAPES / CNPq and Sciences without Borders, she approved grants for master's, doctoral and post-doctoral degrees, where she developed projects in partnership in different areas of scientific knowledge. She guides scientific initiation students both from PIBIC / CNPq / Embrapa scholarship holders and students who are interns at Embrapa to fulfill the mandatory intern credits (UFOPA, UNAMA and ULBRA). She is a CNPq productivity fellow. (

Jose Airton Rodrigues Nunes, Federal University of Lavras

He graduated in Agronomy from the Federal University of Ceará (2000) and has a master's degree in Statistics and Agricultural Experimentation from the Federal University of Lavras (2003) and a doctorate in Plant Genetics and Improvement from the Federal University of Lavras (2006). Currently he is Associate Professor of the Department of Biology at the Federal University of Lavras in the area of Genetics and Breeding of Plants and professor of the Post-Graduation Program in Genetics and Breeding of Plants. He is involved in biometric genetics research lines, planning and analysis of experiments, genetic improvement of forages and plants with bioenergetic potential and improvement of wheat.

Taiane Silva Sousa, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia

Forest Engineering formed by the Federal Rural University of the Amazon-UFRA
Master in Biotechnology applied to agriculture (UFRA).
Stockbroker CNPq-DTI-C. in experience in the area of genetic resources where we worked with the species Oenocarpus distichus Mart. and Oenocarpus bacaba Mart. She dedicated two years of research in the area of metabolic biotechnology working with varieties of the species Euterpe oleracea Mart.


Bispo, R. B., Dardengo, J. D. F. E., Bispo, R. B., Bispo, R. B., & Rossi, A. A. B. (2020). Divergência Genética entre Genótipos de Mauritia flexuosa L. F. por meio de Morfometria de Frutos e Sementes. Nativa, 8 (4), 585-590.

Cavalcante, P. B. Frutas Comestíveis da Amazônia. 7. Ed. (2010) Belém, Pa: Cejup: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. 282 P.

Carvalho A. V.; Silveira T. F; Sousa S. H. B.; Moraes, M. R.; Godoy, M. T. (2016); Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Bacaba-de-Leque (Oenocarpus distichus Mart.) Genotypes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 54.

Cruz, C. D.; Regazzi, A. J.; Carneiro, P. C. S. (2004). Modelos Biométricos Aplicados Ao Melhoramento Genético. Viçosa, Mg: UFV. 1, 480 p.

Farias Neto, J.T. de; Clement, C.R.; Resende, M.D.V. De. (2013) Estimativas de Parâmetros Genéticos e Ganho de Seleção para Produção de Frutos em Progênies de Polinização Aberta de Pupunheira no Estado do Pará, Brasil. Bragantia, 72 122-126. Https://Doi.Org/10.1590/S0006-87052013000200002

Ferreira, E., Cavalcanti, P. And Nogueira, D. (2014) Expdes: An R Package For Anova And Experimental Designs. Applied Mathematics, 2952-2958. Doi: 10.4236/Am.2014.519280.

Freitas, A. F., Oliveira, M. do S. P. de, & Oliveira Junior, M. C. M. de (2021). Caracterização Físico-Química da Polpa de Oenocarpus distichus Mart. de Diferentes Localidades do Pará, Brasil. Research, Society And Development, 10, (7) E5131hh0717023-E51310717023.

Homma, A. K. (2014). O Extrativismo Vegetal na Amazônia: História, Ecologia, Economia e Domesticação. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental-Livro Científico (Alice).

IBGE - Censo Agropecuário 2017, In: Sidra- Sidra De Recuperação Automática. Rio De Janeiro, 2010. Disponível em: Https://Sidra.Ibge.Gov.Br/Tabela/6617. Acesso em: 30 Dez 2020.

Kassambara, A., & Mundt, F. (2017). Package ‘Factoextra’. Extract And Visualize The Results Of Multivariate Data Analyses, 76.

Kupski, G. (2021). Caracterização de frutos, biometria dos endocarpos e dissimilaridade de butiazeiros na região das Missões.

Leitman, P.; Soares, K.; Henderson, A.; Noblick, L.; Martins, R.C. 2015 Arecaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Disponível em: <>.

Matos, C. H. A., Nunes, J. A. R., Lopes, Â. C. D. A., & Gomes, R. L. F. (2019). Selection of Common Cashew Tree Genotypes in Commercial Growing Areas in Municipalities of Piauí, Brazil. Crop Breeding And Applied Biotechnology, 19, 245-252. Https://Doi.Org/10.1590/1984-70332019v19n3a35

Mendes, G. G. C.; Gusmão, M. T. A. de; Martins, T. G. V.; Rosado, R. D. S.; Alencar Sobrinho, R. S.; Nunes, A. C. P.; Ribeiro, W. S.; Zanuncio, J. C. (2019) Genetic Divergence of Native Palms Of Oenocarpus distichus Considering Biometric Fruti Variables. Scientific Reports, 9 (4943) 1-9, Doi: Https://Doi.Org/10.1038/S41598-019-41507-4.

Mojena, R. (1977). Hierarchical Grouping Methods and Stopping Rules: An Evaluation. The Computer Journal, 20 (4) 359-363.

Neves, G. F. (2021). Caracterização de populações naturais de Licuri, Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc.(Areacaceae): Pré-melhoramento e conservação da espécie.

Oliveira, M. do S. P.; Ferreira, D. F., & Santos, J. B. D. (2006). Seleção de Descritores para Caracterização de Germoplasma de Açaizeiro para Produção de Frutos. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 41 (7) 1133-1140.

Oliveira, M. do S. P.; Mota, M. D. C., & Andrade, E. B. de (1991). Coleta de Germoplasma em Populações Naturais de Patauá Jessenia bataua (Mart.) Burret e Bacaba Oenocarpus Spp. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental-Séries Anteriores.

Oliveira, M. do S. P., & De Farias Neto, J. T. (2005). Cultivar BRS-Pará: açaizeiro para produção de frutos em terra firme. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental-Comunicado Técnico (INFOTECA-E).

Oliveira, M. do S. P.; Sousa, T., & Brandão, C. (2019). Divergência entre indivíduos de Oenocarpus distichus Mart.(bacaba-de-leque) numa população de Belém, PA, por meio de caracteres morfoagronômicos. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental-Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (INFOTECA-E).

Oliveira, M. do S. P.; Oliveira, N. P. de. Bacaba. In: Lopes, R; Oliveira, M. S. P.; Cavallari, M. M.; Barbieri, R. L.; Conceição, L. D. H. C. S. (2015). Palmeiras nativas do Brasil. Embrapa, Brasília-DF, 1, 432p.

Pesce, C. (2009). Oleaginosas da Amazônia. IICA: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Núcleo de Estudos Agrários e Desenvolvimento Rural.

R DEVELOPMENT CORE TEAM (2018). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Redig, M. D. S. F., Oliveira, M. do. S. P. de, Costa Mota, da M. G., Bronze, A. B. S., De Vasconcelos, O. M., De Souza Gonçalves, M. A., ... & Araújo, W. S. C. (2019). Avaliação De Matrizes De Inajá Pela Analise Descritiva De Coletas Realizadas Em Cinco Municípios Do Nordeste Paraense. Brazilian Journal of Development, 17554-17568.

Regazzi, A. J., & Cruz, C. D. (2020). Análise multivariada aplicada. Editora UFV, Viçosa, 401p.

Reis, E. F. D., Pinto, J. F. N., Costa, A. P. D., Assunção, H. F. D., & Silva, D. F. P. D. (2017a). Diversidade Genética Entre Populações De Guarirobeiras No Estado De Goiás. Revista Ceres, 64, 631-636.

Reis, E. F. D., Pinto, J. F. N., Assunção, H. F. D., & Silva, D. F. P. D. (2017b). Genetic Diversity of Macaúba Fruits from 35 Municipalities of the State Of Goiás, Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 52, 277-282.

Santos, E. D. (2010). Caracterização de Dendezeiros Subespontâneos com base na Produção de Frutos e Cachos. Ilhéus, Ba: Universidade Estadual De Santa Cruz/Departamento De Ciências Agrárias E Ambientais.

Silva, A. J. B., Sevalho, E. S., Miranda, I. P. (2021). Potencial das Palmeiras Nativas da Amazônia Brasileira para A Bioeconomia: Análise Em Rede Da Produção Científica E Tecnológica. Ciência Florestal,.31 (2), 1020-1046.751

Scott, A. J., & Knott, M. (1974). A cluster analysis method for grouping means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics, 507-512.

Vaissié,P., Monge, A., Husson, F., Lê S., Josse, J, (2008). “Factoshiny:

Varella, C. A. A. (2008). Análise de Componentes Principais. Seropédica: Universidade Federal Rural Do Rio De Janeiro.



How to Cite

MACIEL, A. R. N. A. .; OLIVEIRA, M. do S. P. de; MARTORANO, L. G. . .; NUNES, J. A. R. .; SOUSA, T. S. Genetic Divergence in Oenocarpus distichus Mart. from Different provenance in the State of Pará by Morphoagronomic Characters. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 6, p. e17811628872, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i6.28872. Disponível em: Acesso em: 25 jul. 2024.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences