Green synthesis of chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans UCP 1306 using sustainable substrates mediated morphological changes

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i7.29387

Keywords:

Agroindustrial waste; Biopolymers; Fungal Chitosan; Cunninghamella elegans.

Abstract

Currently, the commercial production of chitosan takes place through the thermochemical deacetylation of crustacean shells, which process requires the use of chemical substances, such as strong alkaline solutions, which are important sources of environment pollution. We present a method for the production of chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans UCP 1306 using a green metabolic conversion of agro-industrial residues, based on a 22 Factorial Design and describe the main morphological changes observed in the specie. The highest yield of biomass (6.375 g/L) and chitosan (101.7 mg/g) were observed in the assay 2 (Corn steep liquor -CSL 4%, Cassava wastewater-CWW 4%), where the specie presented loose and branched hyphae with the presence of septations, pellets of 0.4 to 0.5 mm and clumps of up to 0.1 mm. Statistical analysis showed that higher concentration of CSL contributed significantly to the growth of the species. The bands determined in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the degree of deacetylation of 84.61% of the chitosan obtained. This research showed that the use of CSL and CWW in association was very promising, being able to be used as sustainable sources of nitrogen and carbon in the production of fungal chitosan with a high degree of deacetylation and can be applied to the industrial process.

Author Biographies

Ákylla Fernanda Souza Silva, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Nucleous of Research in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

Adriana Ferreira de Souza, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Nucleous of Research in Environmental Sciences

Irapuan Oliveira Pinheiro, Universidade de Pernambuco

Biological Sciences Course

Galba Maria de Campos-Takaki, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Nucleus of Research in Environmental Sciences

References

Abdel-Gawad, K. M., Hiney, A. F., Fawzy, M. A., & Gomaa M. (2017). Technology optimization of chitosan production from Aspergillus niger biomass and its functional activities. Food Hydrocoll, 63: 593-601.

Akila, R. M. (2014). Fermentative production of fungal Chitosan, a versatile biopolymer (perspectives and its applications). Adv Appl Sci Res, 5: 157–170.

Amorim, R. V. S., Souza, W., Fukushima, K. & Campos-Takaki, G. M. (2001). Faster chitosan production by mucoralean strains in submerged culture. Braz J Microbiol, 32: 20–3.

Amorim, R. V. S., Melo, E. S., Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G., Ledingham, W. M., & Campos-Takaki, G. M. (2003). Chitosan from Syncephalastrum racemosum used as a film support for lipase immobilization. Bioresour technol, 89: 35–9.

Batista, A. C. L, Melo, T. B. L., Paiva, W. S., Souza, F. S., & Campos-Takaki, G. M. (2020). Economic microbiological conversion of agroindustrial wastes to fungi chitosan. An Acad Bras Cienc, 92: e20180885.

Baxter, A., Dillon, M., Taylor, K. A., & Roberts, G. A. (1992). Improved method for ir determination of the degree of N-acetylation of chitosan. Int J Biol Macromol, 14: 166–9.

Berger, L., Stamford, T., Stamford-Arnaud, T., de Oliveira Franco, L., do Nascimento, A., Cavalcante, H., et al. (2014a). Effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) on chitin and chitosan production by Cunninghamella elegans and their physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity. Molecules, 19: 2771–2792.

Berger, L., Stamford, T., Stamford-Arnaud, T., de Alcântara, S., da Silva A., da Silva, A., et al. (2014b). Green conversion of agroindustrial wastes into chitin and chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans strains. Int J Mol Sci, 15: 9082–9102.

Berger, L. R. R., Montenegro Stamford, T. C., de Oliveira, K. Á. R., de Miranda A. P. P., de Lima, M. A. B., Estevez Pintado, M. M., et al. (2008). Chitosan produced from Mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit Colletotrichum species. Int J Biol Macromol, 108: 635–641.

Berger, L. R. R., de Araújo, M. B., da Costa, D. P., de Lima, M. A. B., de Almeida, J. W. L., de Medeiros, E. V. (2020). Agroindustrial waste as ecofriendly and low-cost alternative to production of chitosan from Mucorales fungi and antagonist effect against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacco and Scytalidium lignicola Pesante. Int J Biol Macromol, 161: 101–108.

Campana-Filho, S. P., de Britto, D., Curti, E., Abreu, F. R., Cardoso, M. B., Battisti, M. V., et al. (2007). Extração, estruturas e propriedades de alpha- e beta-quitina. Química Nova, 30: 644.

De Souza, A. F., Galindo, H. M., de Lima, M. A. B., Ribeaux, D. R., Rodríguez, D. M., da Silva Andrade, R. F., et al. (2020). Biotechnological Strategies for Chitosan Production by Mucoralean Strains and Dimorphism Using Renewable Substrates. Int J Mol Sci, 21: 4286.

Ghormade, V., Pathan, E. K., & Deshpande, M. V. (2017). Can fungi compete with marine sources for chitosan production? Int J Biol Macromol, 104: 1415–1421.

Hamed, I., Özogul, F., & Regenstein, J. M. (2016). Industrial applications of crustacean by-products (chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides): A review. Trends Food Sci Technol, 48: 40–50.

Hu, K-J., Yeung, K-W., Ho, K-P., & Hu, J-L. (1999). Rapid extraction of high-quality chitosan from mycelia of Absidia glauca. J Food Biochem 23: 187–196.

Karimi, K., & Zamani, A. (2013). Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review. Biotechnol adv, 31: 466–481.

Liao, W., Liu, Y., Frear, C., & Chen, S. (2007). A new approach of pellet formation of a filamentous fungus – Rhizopus oryzae. Bioresour Technol, 98: 3415–3423.

Sebastian, J., Rouissi, T., & Brar, S. K. (2020). Chapter 14 - Fungal chitosan: prospects and challenges. In: Gopi, S., Thomas, S., Pius, A. (Eds.). Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan. [s.l.] Elsevier, p. 419–452.

Souza, C. P., Almeida, B. C., Colwell, R. R., Rivera, I. N. (2011). The importance of chitin in the marine environment. Marine biotechnol, 13: 823.

Stamford, T. C. M., Stamford, T. L. M., Stamford, N. P., Barros Neto, B. DE., Campos-Takaki, G. M. (2007). Growth of Cunninghamella elegans UCP 542 and production of chitin and chitosan using yam bean medium. Electron J Biotechnol, 10: 61–68.

Tan, S. (1996). The chitosan yield of zygomycetes at their optimum harvesting time. Carbohydr Polym, 30: 239–242.

Veiter, L., Rajamanickam, V., & Herwig, C. (2018). The filamentous fungal pellet—relationship between morphology and productivity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 102: 2997–3006.

Zvezdova, D. (2010). Synthesis and characterization of chitosan from marine sources in Black Sea. Научни Трудове На Русенския Университет 49: 65–69.

Downloads

Published

28/05/2022

How to Cite

SILVA, Ákylla F. S.; SOUZA, A. F. de; PINHEIRO, I. O. .; CAMPOS-TAKAKI, G. M. . de . Green synthesis of chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans UCP 1306 using sustainable substrates mediated morphological changes. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 7, p. e38211729387, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i7.29387. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/29387. Acesso em: 2 mar. 2024.

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences