Incorporation of Tubi-bee (Scaptotrigona sp) pollen in biodegradable films of alginate, pectin and starch

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i9.31603

Keywords:

Films; Biopolymers; Pollen; Experimental Design.

Abstract

The demand for packaging made of biopolymers is currently increasing to meet the need for food conservation with lower environmental impact. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize polymer films spiked with bee pollen for use in food packaging. In this work, an experimental design of mixtures with fourteen tests was used, in which the independent variables (alginate, pectin and starch concentrations) were analyzed for the subjective aspects and the characteristics of moisture (ω), thickness (δ), water solubility (S) and water vapor permeability (WVP). Concentrations of 10g of pollen, 3ml of glycerol, and 30ml of 1m calcium chloride were established for all tests. Based on the best results for homogeneity, continuity, transparency, and flexibility, and the lowest values for ω, δ, S, and WVP, five tests were selected (G4, G6, G7, G8, and G10) that were characterized for their mechanical properties and optical microscopy. The results show that the G6 film (1/3g pectin + 2/3g starch) presented the best tensile strength (2.83MPa) but also the lowest elongation at break value (4.05%), showing itself to be more rigid, while the G8 film (2/3g alginate + 1/3g starch) achieved a better elongation (9.60%). Young's modulus of elasticity ranged from 35.05 to 137.06MPa. In optical microscopy, the pollen grains were clearly observed in all optimized formulations. The properties observed in the optimized films are promising for use as edible and biodegradable packaging, but further testing is recommended.

Author Biographies

Ilmar Alves Lopes, Universidade Federal do Maranhão

 

 

Audirene Amorim Santana, Universidade Federal do Maranhão

 

 

 

References

Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Alimentos. Guia. n. 16, versão 1, de 5 de outubro de 2018.

Araruna, F. O. S., Araruna, F. B., Pereira, L. P. L. A., Brito, M. C. A., Gomes, P. D. B., Santos, D. C. P., Firmo, W. da C. A., Rocha, A. A., Rodrigues, K. A. da F., Santana, A. A., Nunes, L. C. C., & Coutinho, D. F. (2021). Development and characterization of curative films based on Attalea speciosa Mart mesocarp. ex Spreng and glycolic extract of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Research, Society and Development, 10(2), 1-15. 10.33448/rsd-v10i2.12520. https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/12520.

Astm International (2016). ASTM E96/E96M-16. In Standard, test methods of water vapor transmission of materials. West Conshohocken.

Astm International ASTM D-882 (2012). Standard test method for tensile properties in thin flms sheeting. In ASTMD882–18. West Conshohocken.

Babapour, H., Jalali, H., Mohammadi Nafchi, A. (2021). The synergistic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and fennel essential oil on physicochemical, mechanical, and antibacterial properties of potato starch films. Food Sci Nutr., 9, 3893-3905. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2371

Basiak, E., Lenart, A. & Debeaufort, F. (2017). Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 98, 348-356. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.01.122

Bierhalz, A. C. K., Da Silva, M. A. & Kieckbusch, T. G. (2012). Natamycin release from alginate/pectin films for food packaging applications. Journal of Food Engineering, 110(1), 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.12.016

Bodini, R. B., Sobral, P. J. A., Favaro-Trindade C. S., Carvalho, R.A. (2013). Properties of gelatin-based films with added ethanol–propolis extract. Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.10.013

Bonamigo, T., Campos, J. F., Alfredo, T. M., Balestieri, B. P., Cardoso, C. A. L., Paredes-Gamero, E. J., de Picoli Souza, K., Dos Santos, E. L. (2017). Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of propolis from two native bees in Brazil: Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1038153

Caetano, K. dos S., Hessel, C.T., Tondo, E. C., Flôres, S. H. Cladera-Olivera, F. (2017). Application of active cassava starch films incorporated with oregano essential oil and pumpkin residue extract on ground beef. Journal of Muscle Foods, 37, e12355. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12355

Chandra Mohan, C., Harini, K., Karthikeyan, S., Sudharsan, K., Sukumar, M. (2018). Effect of film constituents and different processing conditions on the properties of starch based thermoplastic films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 120(Pt B), 2007–2016. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.161

Cherman, K. A., Scapim, M. R. Da S., Silva, J. F., Madrona, G. S. (2022). Characterization Of An Edible Coating Based On Alginate And Essential Oils. Research, Society And Development, 11(2), E52911226145. doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i2.26145

Costa, D. M. A. da, Santos, A. F. dos, Silva, E. D. da, Silva, I. A. da. (2017). Desenvolvimento e caracterização de filmes à base de amido de feijão macáçar (Vigna Unguiculata). HOLOS, 7, 2-16.

Costa, M. J., Marques, A. M., Pastrana, L. M., Texeira, J. A., Sillankorva, S. M. Cerqueira, M. A. (2018). Physicochemical properties of alginate-based films: Effect of ionic crosslinking and mannuronic and guluronic acid ratio. Food Hydrocolloids, 81, 442-448. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.03.014

Da Silva, D. C., Lopes, I. A., Da Silva, L. J. S., Lima, M. F., Barros Filho, A. K. D., Villa-Vélez, H. A., Santana, A. A. (2019). Physical properties of films based on pectin and babassu coconut mesocarp. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 130, 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.151

Dash, K. K., Ali, N. A., Dipannita, D., Mohanta, D. (2019). Thorough evaluation of sweet potato starch and lemon-waste pectin based-edible films with nano-titania inclusions for food packaging applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 139, 449-458. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.193

Do Evangelho, J. A., Dannenberg, G. da S., Biduski, B., El Halal, S. L. M., Kringel, D. H., Gularte, M. A., Fiorentini, A. M. Zavareze, E. da R. (2019). Antibacterial activity, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties of corn starch films containing orange essential oil. Carbohydrate Polymers, 222, 114981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.114981

Fakhouri, F. M., Martelli, S. M., Caon, T., Velasco, J. I., Mei, L. H. I. (2015). Edible films and coatings based on starch/gelatin: Film properties and effect of coatings on quality of refrigerated Red Crimson grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 109, 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.05.015

Gouveia, T. I. A., Biernacki, K., Castro, M. C. R., Gonçalves, M. P., Souza, H. K. S. (2019) A new approach to develop biodegradable films based on thermoplastic pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 97, 105175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.105175

Jeya Jeevahan J., Chandrasekaran M., Venkatesan S.P., Sriram V., Britto Joseph G., Mageshwaran G., Durairaj R.B. (2020). Scaling up difficulties and commercial aspects of edible films for food packaging: A review. Trends Food Science & Technoly, 100, 210–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.04.014

Kurukavak, Ç. K. (2022). Nanomaterials in preparation of bionanocomposites for food packaging applications, In Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering, 43-68. Woodhead Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-88528-7.00010-1

Lewandowska, K., Sionkowska, A. & Grabska, S. (2015). Chitosan blends containing hyaluronic acid and collagen. Compatibility behaviour. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 212, 879-884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2015.10.047

Li, C., Hu, Y. & Li, E. (2021). Effects of amylose and amylopectin chain-length distribution on the kinetics of long-term rice starch retrogradation. Food Hydrocolloids, 111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.106239

Li, S., Ma, Y., Ji, T., Sameen, D. E., Ahmed, S., Qin, W., Dai, J., Li, S., Liu, Y. (2020). Cassava starch/carboxymethylcellulose edible films embedded with lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of banana. Carbohydrate Polymers, 248, 116805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116805

Lopes, I. A., Paixão, L. C., da Silva, L. J. S., Rocha, A. A., Barros Filho, A. K. D., Santana, A. A. (2020). Elaboration and characterization of biopolymer films with alginate and babassu coconut mesocarp. Carbohydrate Polymers, 234, 115747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115747

Lopez, D. F., Osório, O. & Checa, O. E. (2019). Propiedades mecánicas de un material de pectina para revestimiento de fibras naturales utilizadas en aplicaciones agrícolas. Informacões Tecnológicas. La Serena, 30(3), 189-198, jun. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07642019000300189

Luchese, C. L., Frick, J. M., Patzer, V. L., Spada, J. C. Tessaro, I. C. (2015). Synthesis and characterization of biofilms using native and modified pinhão starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 45, 203–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.11.015

Mahuwala, A. A., Hemant, V., Meharwade, S. D., Deb, A., Chakravorty, A., Grace, A. N. Raghavan, V. (2020). Synthesis and characterisation of starch/agar nanocomposite films for food packaging application. IET Nanobiotechnol.,14, 809-814. 10.1049/iet-nbt.2020.0100

Mali S., Grossman, M. V. E. & Yamashita, F. (2010). Starch films: production, properties and potential of utilization. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 31(1), 137-156. ISSN: 1679-0359

Melo, P. T. S., Aouada, F. A. & Moura, M. R. (2017). Fabricação de filmes bionanocompósitos à base de pectina e polpa de cacau com potencial uso como embalagem para alimentos. Química Nova, 40(3), 247-251. Disponível em: http://quimicanova.sbq.org.br/detalhe_artigo.asp?id=6544

Ngo, T. M. P., Nguyen, T. H., Dang, T. M.Q. D., Tran, T.X., Rachtanapun, P. (2020). Characteristics and antimicrobial properties of active edible films based on pectin and nanochitosan. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, 2224. 10.3390/ijms21062224

Nogueira, G. F., Soares, I. H. B. T., Soares, C. T., Fakhouri, F. M., de Oliveira, R. A. (2022). Development and characterization of arrowroot starch films incorporated with grape pomace extract. Polysaccharides, 3(1), 250-263. 10.3390/polysaccharides3010014

Otoni, C.G., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Azeredo, H.M.C., Lorevice, M.V., Moura, M.R., Mattoso, L.H.C., McHugh, T.H. (2017). Recent advances on edible films based on fruits and vegetables: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16 (5), 1151-1169. 10.1111/1541-4337.12281

Paixão, L. C., Lopes, I. A., Barros Filho, A. K. D., Santana, A. A. (2019). Alginate biofilms plasticized with hydrophilic and hydrophobic plasticizers for application in food packaging. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 136(48), 48263. doi:10.1002/app.48263

Raposo, A. K. da S., Paixão, L. C., Rocha, A. A., Lopes, I. A., Santos, G. A. S., Ribeiro, G. A. C., de Menezes, A. S., Barros Filho, A. K. D., Santana, A. A. (2020). Characterization of biodegradable films produced from mixtures of alginate, starch and babassu fibers. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 1-15. 10.1007/s10924-020-01952-z

Rzepecka-Stojko, A., Stojko, J., Kurek-Górecka, A., Górecki, M., Kabała-Dzik, A., Kubina, R., Moździerz, A. Buszman, E. (2015). Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity. Molecules, 20 (12), 21732-21749.

Santana, A. A. & Kieckbusch, T. G. (2013). Physical evaluation of biodegradable films of calcium alginate plasticized with polyols. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 30(4), 835–845. doi:10.1590/S0104-66322013000400015

Santana, J. S., de Carvalho Costa, É. K., Rodrigues, P. R., Correia, P. R. C., Cruz, R. S., Druzian, J. I. (2019). Morphological, barrier, and mechanical properties of cassava starch films reinforced with cellulose and starch nanoparticles. J. Applied Polymer Science, 136, 47001. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.47001

Sayanjali, S., Ghanbarzadeh, B. & Ghiassifar, S. (2011). Evaluation of antimicrobial and physical properties of edible film based on carboxymethyl cellulose containing potassium sorbate on some mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in fresh pistachios. Food Science and Technology, 44 (4), 1133–1138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.12.017

Shankar, S., Wang, L.F. & Rhim, J.W. (2017). Preparation and properties of carbohydrate-based composite films incorporated with CuO nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polymers, 1(169), 264-271.

Sobral, P. J. do A. & Ocuno, D. (2000). Permeabilidade ao vapor de água de biofilmes à base de proteínas miofibrilares de carne. Brazilian Journal food Technology, 3, 11-16.

Song, K., Zuo, G., & Chen, F. (2018). Effect of essential oil and surfactant on the physical and antimicrobial properties of corn and wheat starch films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 107, 1302–1309. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.09.114

Sood, A. & Saini, C. S. (2022). Red pomelo peel pectin based edible composite films: effect of pectin incorporation on mechanical, structural, morphological and thermal properties of composite films. Food Hydrocolloids, 123, 107135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.107135

Suderman, N., Isa, M. I. N. & Sarbon, N. M. (2018). The effect of plasticizers on the functional properties of biodegradable gelatin-based film: a review. Food Bioscience, 24, 111-119. 10.1016/j.fbio.2018.06.006

Wang, X., Zang, Y., Liang, H., Zhou, X., Fang, C., Zhang, C., Lou, Y. (2019). Synthesis and properties of castor oil-based waterborne polyurethane/sodium alginate composites with tunable properties. Carbohyd. Polymers, 208, 391-397. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.090.

Wihodo, M. & Moraru, C.I. (2013). Physical and chemical methods used to enhance the structure and mechanical properties of protein films. Journal of Food Engineering,114, 292–302. 10.5772/48167

Yang, J., Fan, Y., Cui, J., Yang, L., Su, H., Yang, P., Pan, J. (2021). Colorimetric films based on pectin/sodium alginate/xanthan gum incorporated with raspberry pomace extract for monitoring protein-rich food freshnes. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 185, 959-965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.198

Zhang, P., Zhao, Y. & Shi, Q. (2016). Characterization of a novel edible film based on gum ghatti: effect of plasticizer type and concentration. Carbohydrate Polymers, 153, 345-355. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.07.082

Published

04/07/2022

How to Cite

BRASIL, G. V. da S.; RAPOSO, A. K. da S.; RIBEIRO, G. A. C.; SANTOS, D. M.; FIRMO, W. da C. A.; LOPES, I. A.; LUZ, D. A. da; PAIXÃO, L. C.; SANTANA, A. A.; COSTA, M. C. P. Incorporation of Tubi-bee (Scaptotrigona sp) pollen in biodegradable films of alginate, pectin and starch. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 9, p. e11711931603, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i9.31603. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/31603. Acesso em: 19 aug. 2022.

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences