Has the soybean oil supplementation effect on milk production, feed efficiency, and grazing behavior of Girolando cows under moderate heat stress in western Amazonia?





Feeding behavior; Consumption; Lipid supplementation.


The effect of soybean oil supplementation in the diet of early lactating Girolando cows under moderate heat stress were studied in a grazing trial. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, feed efficiency, and grazing behavior (during daytime and nighttime) were evaluated in two groups of eight crossbred Girolando (Holstein × Gyr) cows grazing palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha syn. Brachiaria brizantha) with initial means of 53±33 days in lactation and 22.6±3 kg of milk day-1. They were arranged in a 2×2 crossover trial with two supplements (with or without soybean oil), two genetic groups and two periods. During the experimental period, the mean of temperature and humidity index (THI) was 75.11, suggesting moderate heat stress. Total DMI was based on fecal production estimated by LIPE® and the diet in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Grazing behavior was assessed for 48 hours by acoustic data collected with MP3 recorders. Soybean oil supplementation had no significant effects on all variables evaluated in this study. Averages of individual milk yield and total DMI were 19.26 kg day-1 and 15.32 kg DM day-1, respectively. Under moderate heat stress, oil supplementation did not change grazing behavior, dry matter intake, or milk yield in early lactating Girolando cows.


Alvares, C.A., Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., De Moraes, G., Leonardo, J. & Sparovek, G. (2014). Koppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22, 711-728.

Armstrong, D.V. (1994). Heat stress interaction with shade and cooling. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 2044-2050.

Correa-Calderon, A., Avendano-Reyes, L., Lopez-Baca, M. A. & Macias-Cruz, U. (2022). Heat stress in dairy cattle with emphasis on milk production and feed and water intake habits. Review. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 13(2), 488-509.

Cappelle, E.R., Valadares Filho, S.C., Silva, J.S.C. & Cecon, P.R. (2001). Estimativas do valor energético a partir de características químicas e bromatológicas dos alimentos. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 30, 1837-1856.

Dalcin, V.C., Fischer, V., Daltro, D.D.S., Alfonzo, E.P.M., Stumpf, M.T., Kolling, G.J. & McManus, C. (2016). Physiological parameters for thermal stress in dairy cattle. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 35, 211-218.

Detmann, E., Souza, M.A., Valadares Filho, S.C., Queiroz, A.C., Berchielli, T.T., Saliba, E.O.S., Cabral, L.S., Pina, D.S., Ladeira, M. & Azevedo, J.A.G. (2012). Métodos para análise de alimentos. Visconde do Rio Branco-MG: Suprema. 214 p.

Fukumoto, N.M., Damasceno, J.C., Deresz, F., Martins, C.E., Cóser, A.C. & Santos, G.T. (2010). Produção e composição do leite, consumo de matéria seca e taxa de lotação em pastagens de gramíneas tropicais manejadas sob lotação rotacionada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39, 1548-1557.

Girón, J.E.P., Restrepo, M.L.P. & Fornaguera, J.E.C. (2016). Supplementation with corn oil and palm kernel oil to grazing cows: ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and fatty acid profile. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 45, 693-703.

Martínez Marín, A.L., Pérez, M., Pérez, L.M., Carrión, D., Garzón, A.I. & Gómez, G. (2013). Effect of dietary fat on the productive results of dairy ruminants. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 26, 69-78.

NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9825.

Oliveira, P.A., Marques, J.A., Barbosa, L.P., Oliveira, G.J.C., Pedreira, J.C. & Silva, L.L. (2011). Aspectos metodológicos do comportamento ingestivo de vacas lactantes em pastejo de Brachiaria decumbens. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 12, 166-175.

Pérez-Prieto, L., Peyraud, J.L. & Delagarde, R. (2011). Pasture intake, milk production and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at three daily allowances in winter. Livestock Science, 137,151-160.

Phillips, C.J. & Rind, M.I. (2001). The effects of social dominance on the production and behavior of grazing dairy cows offered forage supplements. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 51-59.

Pirondini, M., Colombini, S., Mele, M., Malagutti, L., Rapetti, L., Galassi, G. & Crovetto, G.M. (2015). Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 357-372.

Sammad, A., Wang, Y. J., Umer, S., Lirong, H., Khan, I., Khan, A., & Wang, Y. (2020). Nutritional physiology and biochemistry of dairy cattle under the influence of heat stress: Consequences and opportunities. Animals, 10, 793.

Schmeling, L., Thurner, S., Erhard, M., & Rauch, E. (2022). Physiological and Behavioral Reactions of Simmental Dairy Cows to Increasing Heat Load on Pasture. Ruminants, 2, 157-172.

Sniffen, C. J., O’connor, J. D., Van Soest, P. J., Fox, D. G. & Russell, J. B. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70, 3562-3577.

Soler, L.S., Verburg, P.H. & Alves, D.S. (2014). Evolution of land use in the Brazilian Amazon: From frontier expansion to market chain dynamics. Land, 3, 981-1014.

Sousa, B.M., Saturnino, H.M., Borges, A.L.C, Lopes, F.C., Silva, R.R. & Campos, M.M. (2008). Estimativas de consumo de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro por vacas leiteiras sob pastejo, suplementadas com diferentes quantidades de alimento concentrado. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 60, 890-895.

Souza, E. C., Salman, A. K. D., Cruz, P. G., Veit, H. M., Carvalho, G. A., Silva, F. R. F. & Schmitt, E. Thermal comfort and grazing behavior of Girolando heifers in integrated crop-livestock (ICL) and crop-livestock-forest (ICLF) systems. (2019). Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 41, e46483.

Thom, E.C. 1959. The discomfort index. Weatherwise, 12:57-6.

Wang, J.P., Bu, D.P., Wang, J.Q., Huo, X.K., Guo, T.J., Wei, H.Y., Zhou, L.Y., Rastani, R.R., Baumgard, L.H. & Li, F.D. (2010). Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat stressed mid-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 4121–4127.




How to Cite

SALMAN, A. K. D.; SOUZA, E. C. de; CARVALHO, G. A. de .; SILVA, F. R. F. da .; HALFEN, J.; SANTIAGO, E. A. A. de .; CRUZ, P. G. da .; SCHMITT, E. . Has the soybean oil supplementation effect on milk production, feed efficiency, and grazing behavior of Girolando cows under moderate heat stress in western Amazonia?. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 14, p. e289111435663, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i14.35663. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/35663. Acesso em: 2 mar. 2024.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences