The SARS-CoV-2 and dental practice




COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Odontology; Dental medicine.


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is from the subfamily Betacoronavirus, highly pathogenic and responsible for causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. It can be transmitted by interpersonal contact through the inhalation of contaminated droplets, or by indirect contact with a contaminated surface. The dental office can be a place of potential contamination by the spread of aerosol containing saliva/blood, in addition to very close contact with the professional and equipment. The incubation period of the virus can reach more than six days, and the manifestation of the disease can include fever, cough, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, muscle pain, among other symptoms; laboratory tests demonstrate lymphocytopenia, leukopenia and increased C-reactive protein. Measures to protect against the contamination of the new coronavirus are necessary even in patients who have no symptoms. During the period of social distance proposed as a method to prevent the spread of the virus, the dental surgeon must incorporate extra care in preventing the spread of the disease, using personal protective equipment and cleaning the equipment and the environment in an appropriate manner. study was to carry out a literature review on dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic period. In this way, it is up to everyone to follow the pre-established preventive protocols, aim for diagnostic methods that are more accessible to the general population and wait for an effective immunization system.

Author Biography

Livia Mirelle Barbosa, Pernambuco University

Graduated in Dentistry at The School of Dentistry of The University of Pernambuco (Recife/Brazil) in 2012.Nowadays, I am a first year resident in Oral and Maxillofacial surgery at Hospital Da Restauração ( Recife).


Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y. J., Mao, Y. P., Ye, R. X., & Wang, Q. Z., et al. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious diseases of poverty, 9(1), 29.

Amato, A., Caggiano, M., Amato, M., Moccia, G., Capunzo, M., & De Caro, F. (2020). Infection Control in Dental Practice During the COVID-19. Pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(13), 4769.

Anvisa- Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. (2020) Nota técnica GVIMS/GGTES/ANVISA nº 04/2020 orientações para serviços de saúde: medidas de prevenção e controle que devem ser adotadas durante a assistência aos casos suspeitos ou confirmados de infecção pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2).

Arendse, L. B., Danser, A., Poglitsch, M., Touyz, R. M., Burnett, J. C., & Jr, Llorens-Cortes, C., et al. (2019). Novel Therapeutic Approaches Targeting the Renin-Angiotensin System and Associated Peptides in Hypertension and Heart Failure. Pharmacological reviews, 71(4), 539–570.

Askin, L., Tanrıverdi, O., & Askin, H. S. (2020). The Effect of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on Cardiovascular Diseases. O Efeito da Doença de Coronavírus 2019 nas Doenças Cardiovasculares. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 114(5), 817–822.

Bahramian, H., Gharib, B., & Baghalian, A. (2020). COVID-19 Considerations in Pediatric Dentistry. JDR clinical and translational research, 2380084420941503. Advance online publication.

Barry, M., Al Amri, M., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of epidemiology and global health, 10(1), 1–3.

Bizzoca, M. E., Campisi, G., & Muzio, L. L. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemic: What Changes for Dentists and Oral Medicine Experts? A Narrative Review and Novel Approaches to Infection Containment. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11), 3793.

BRASIL, Ministério da Saúde. (2006). Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Serviços odontológicos; prevenção e controle de riscos. Brasília :Ministério da Saúde.

BRASIL, Ministério da Saúde. Protocolo de Tratamento do Novo Coronavírus (2019-nCoV). Brasília – DF 2020.

Campos, C. A. S., Neto, G. S. C.G., Pereira, R. S., Costa, M. O., Santos, W. B., & Rocha, W. G. et al. (2020) Biosafity in dentry: literature review. Braz. J. Hea. Rev., Curitiba, 3(2):1656-1662. ISSN 2595-6825. doi:https://10.34119/bjhrv3n2-027.

Cao, B., Wang, Y., Wen, D., Liu, W., Wang, J., & Fan, G. et al. (2020) A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med, 382(19):1787-1799. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282.

Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., & Han, Y. et al. (2020) Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet, 15;395(10223):507–513. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-30217.

Cheng, H., Wang, Y., & Wang, G. Q. (2020). Organ-protective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its effect on the prognosis of COVID-19. J Med Virol, 92(7):726-730. doi:10.1002/jmv.25785

Cipitelli, M. C. Efeito das quimiocinas na alteração da permeabilidade de células endoteliais na dengue /Rio de Janeiro, 2014. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Pós-Graduação em Biologia Parasitária,2014.

Colson, P., Rolain, J. M., Lagier, J. C., Brouqui, P., & Raoult, D. (2020). Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19. Hot Topic / International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55:1-3. doi:tw/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105932

Cron, R. Q., & Chatham, W. W. (2020). The Rheumatologist's Role in Covid-19. J Rheumatol ;47(5):639-642. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.200334.

de Andrade, B. A., Padron-Alvarado, N. A., Muñoz-Campos, E. M., Morais, T. L., & Martinez-Pedraza, R. (2017) Hyperpigmentation of hard palate induced by chloroquine therapy. J Clin Exp Dent, 1;9(12):e1487-e1491. doi: 10.4317/jced.54387.

Feijoo, A. M., Maseda E, Bartolomé, R. A., Aguilar, G., González de Castro, R., & Gómez-Herreras, J. I., et al. (2020) Pratical recomendaciones prácticas para el manejo perioperato- rio del paciente con sospecha o infección grave por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim, 67(5):253-260. doi: 10.1016/j.redar.2020.03.003.

Feng, S., Shen, C., Xia, N., Song, W., Fan, M., & Cowling, B. J. (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med, 8(5):434-436. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X.

Folegatti, P. M., Ewer, K. J., Aley, P. K., Angus, B., Becker, S., & Belij-Rammerstorfer, S., et al. (2020). Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 15;396(10249):467-478. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31604-4.

Gautret, P., Lagier, J-C., Parola, P., Hoang, V. T., Meddeb, L., & Mailhe, M., et al. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 56(1):105949. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.

Guan, W., Ni, Z., Hu, Y., Liang, W., Ou, C., & He, J., et al. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med, 30;382(18):1708-1720. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.

Gupta, R., Ghosh, A., Singh, A. K., & Misra, A. (2020) Fast Track Article: Short Review Considerations for Patients with Diabetes in Times of COVID-19 Epidemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 14(3):211-212. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.002.

Horta-Baas, G. (2018). Chloroquine-induced oral mucosal hyperpigmentation and nail dyschromia. Reumatol Clin, 14(3):177-178. doi: 10.1016/j.reuma.2017.06.003.

Joob, B. & Wiwanitkit, V. (2020). COVID-19 can present with a rash and be mistaken for Dengue, J Am Acad Dermatol, 82(5):e177. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.036.

Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S., & Steinmann, E. (2020). Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect, 104(3):246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022.

Ko, W-C., Rolain, J-M., Leea, N-Y., Chen, P-L., Huange, C-T., L& eef, P-I., et al. (2020). Arguments in favour of remdesivir for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 55(4):105933. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105933.

Lai, C. C., Shih, T. P., Ko, W. C., Tang, H. J., & Hsueh, P. R. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 55(3):105924. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924.

Larson, E. L., Early, E., Cloonan, P., Sugrue, S., & Parides, M. (2000) An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections. Behav Med. Spring, 26(1):14-22. doi: 10.1080/08964280009595749.

Leite CC. A transformação no mercado de serviços odontológicos e as disputas pelo monopólio da prática odontológica no século XIX. Hist. cienc. saúde-Manguinhos 2006;13(1): 55-76.

Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., & Wu, H., et al. (2020) Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet, 395(10224):565-574. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8.

Lu, C. W., Liu, X. F., & Jia, Z. F. (2020). 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. The Lancet, (395).

Luan, R. S., Wang, X., Sun, X., Chen, X. S., Zhou, T., & Liu, Q. H., et al. (2020) Epidemiology, Treatment, and Epidemic Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: a Review. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 51(2):131-138. doi: 10.12182/20200360505.

Madjid, M., Safavi-Naeini, P., Solomon, S. D., & Vardeny, O.(2020) Potential Effects of Coronaviruses on the Cardiovascular System. JAMA Cardiology, E1-10. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1286

Meng, L., Hua, F. & Bian, Z.(2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine. J Dent Res, 99(5):481-487. doi: 10.1177/0022034520914246

Meo, S. A., Alhowikan, A. M., Al-Khlaiwi, T., Meo, I. M., Halepoto, D. M., & Iqbal, M., et al. (2020). Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: prevalence, biological and clinical characteristics comparison with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 24(4):2012-2019. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202002_20379.

Morgado, M., Santos, D., & Mendes, S. (2017). Inibidores das Janus Associated Kinases na Terapêutica Farmacológica. Revista Portuguesa De Farmacoterapia, 9(1),21-34.

Oliveira, R. H. G., & Almeida, T. F. (2015) Riscos Biológicos em Odontologia. Revista Bahiana de Odontologia, 6(1):34-46. doi:https:// 10.17267/2238-2720.

Organization WH. Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in suspected human cases: interim guidance, 2 March 2020. World Health Organization, 2020.

Peiris, J. S., Yuen, K. Y., Osterhaus, A. D., & Stohr, K. (2003). The severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med, 349(25):2431-41. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra032498.

Peng, X., Xu, X., Li, Y., Cheng, L., Zhou, X., & Ren, B. (2020). Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci, 12(1):9. doi: 10.1038/s41368-020-0075-9.

Perico, L., Benigni, A., & Remuzzi, G. (2020). Should COVID-19 Concern Nephrologists?Why and to What Extent? The Emerging Impasse of Angiotensin Blockade. Nephron, 144(5):213-221. doi: 10.1159/000507305.

Prem, K., Liu, Y., Russell, T. W., Kucharski, A. J., Eggo, R. M., & Davies, N. (2020). The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China:a modelling study. Lancet Public Health, 5(5):e261-e270. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-30076.

Qozi, M., & Cantrell, F. L. Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine. (2014). Encyclopedia of Toxicology.V1. (Third Edition),913-5.

René, M., & Costa, D. E. (1991) Da medicina do trabalho à saúde do trabalhador. Rev. Saúde Pública, 25(5):341-349.

Rossi, G. P., Sanga, V., & Barton, M. (2020). Potential harmful effects of discontinuing ACE-inhibitors and ARBs in COVID-19 patients Elife, 9:e57278. doi: 10.7554/eLife.57278.

Rothana, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun, 109:102433. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433.

Sahraei, Z., Shabani, M., Shokouhi, S., & Saffaei, A. (2020). Aminoquinolines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Int J Antimicrob Agents. Apr;55(4):105945. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105945. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Sakaguchi, W., Kubota, N., Shimizu, T., Saruta, J., Fuchida, S., & Kawata, A., et al.(2020) Existence of SARS-CoV-2 Entry Molecules in the Oral Cavity. Int. J. Mol. Sci, 21(17), 6000;

Siles-Garcia, A. A., Alzamora-Cepeda, A. G., Atoche-Socola, K. J., Peña-Soto, C., & Arriola-Guillén, L. E. (2020). Biosafety for Dental Patients During Dentistry Care After COVID-19: A Review of the Literature. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 1–6. Advance online publication.

Singh, A. K., Singh, A., Shaikh, A., Singh, R., & Misra, A. (2020). Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(3), 241–246.

Singhal T. (2020). A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian journal of pediatrics, 87(4), 281–286.

Skare, T., Ribeiro, C. F., Souza, F. H., Haendchen, L., & Jordão, J. M. (2011). Antimalarial cutaneous side effects: a study in 209 users. Cutaneous and ocular toxicology, 30(1), 45–49.

To, K., Yip, C., Lai, C., Wong, C., Ho, D.,& Pang, P., et al. (2019). Saliva as a diagnostic specimen for testing respiratory virus by a point-of-care molecular assay: a diagnostic validity study. Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 25(3), 372–378.

Velavan, T. P., & Meyer, C. G. (2020). The COVID-19 epidemic. Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH, 25(3), 278–280.

Wang, J., Peng, Y., Xu, H., Cui, Z., & Williams, R. O., 3rd (2020). The COVID-19 Vaccine Race: Challenges and Opportunities in Vaccine Formulation. AAPS PharmSciTech,21(6), 225.

Wang, W., Tang, J., & Wei, F. (2020). Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of medical virology, 92(4), 441–447.

Wang, W., Xu, Y., Gao, R., Lu, R., Han, K., Wu, G., & Tan, W. (2020). Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens. JAMA, 323(18), 1843–1844. Advance online publication.

Wong, S. H., Lui, R. N., & Sung, J. J. (2020). Covid-19 and the digestive system. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 35(5), 744–748.

Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA, 10.1001/jama.2020.2648.

Advance online publication.

Xi, Jin., Lian, J-S., Hu. J-H., Gao, J., Zheng, L., & Zhang, Y-M., et al. (2020). Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms. Gut, 69(6):1002-1009. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320926.

Xu, H., Zhong, L., Deng, J., Peng, J., Dan, H., & Zeng, X., et al. (2020). High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa. International journal of oral science, 12(1), 8.

Xu, J., Zhao, S., Teng, T., Abdalla, A. E., Zhu, W., & Xie, L., et al. (2020). Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Viruses, 12(2), 244.

Yamey, G., Schäferhoff, M., Hatchett, R., Pate, M., Zhao, F., & McDade, K. K. (2020). Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines. Lancet (London, England), 395(10234), 1405–1406.

Yang, X., Yu, Y., Xu, J., Shu, H., Xia, J., & Liu, H., et al. (2020). Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 8(5), 475–481.

Zhang, C., Wu, Z., Li, J. W., Zhao, H., & Wang, G. Q. (2020). Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19: interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab may be the key to reduce mortality. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 55(5), 105954.

Zhang, C., Huang, S., Zheng, F., & Dai, Y. (2020). Controversial treatments: An updated understanding of the coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25788. Advance online publication.

Zhang, W., & Jiang, X.(2020). Measures and suggestions for the prevention and control of the novel coronavirus in dental institutions. Front Oral Maxillofac Med, 2:4

Zhang, W., Zhao, Y., Zhang, F., Wang, Q., Li, T., & Liu, Z., et al. (2020). The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Perspectives of clinical immunologists from China. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 214, 108393.

Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., & Xiang, J., et al. (2020). Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet (London, England), 395(10229), 1054–1062.

Zhou, P., Yang, X. L., Wang, X. G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., & Zhang, W., et al. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270–273.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., & Song, J., et al. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med, 382(8), 727–733.



How to Cite

Gatis, M. C. de Q. ., Barbosa, L. M., Monteiro, J. L. G. C. ., Sampaio, T. R. de C. ., Cavalcanti Filho, J. B. H. ., & Vasconcelos , B. C. do E. . (2020). The SARS-CoV-2 and dental practice. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e751997884.



Health Sciences