Difficulties of submental intubation in patients with facial trauma: A Scoping Review





Intubation; Anesthesiology; Traumatology


Submental intubation consists of an airway maintenance technique that has its surgical access located in the medial / paramedial submental region, parallel to the base of the mandible. Its main objective is to replace nasotracheal intubation when it is impossible, appearing as an option to tracheostomy, which would be the next step in these cases. This article is a scoping review in order to describe the evidence in order to elucidate the difficulties encountered in submental intubation in facial trauma. The search strategy took place in the databases SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, CINAHL and Academic Search Premier (via EBSCO platform), Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations USP, USP Integrated Search and bank of CAPES theses, considering eligible primary studies, reviews, meta-analyzes and / or meta-syntheses, books and guidelines, theses and dissertations, published in indexed sources or in gray literature and in Portuguese, English and Spanish. In the reviewed literature, 23 different groups of difficulties related to the procedure were found. Among them, damage to the endotracheal tube and difficulty in passing the tube through the submental incision stand out as the most described. Therefore, the studies analyzed demonstrated a wide variety of difficulties related to several aspects intrinsically related to the performance of the submentonian intubation procedure.


Agrawal, M., & Kang, L. (2010). Midline submental orotracheal intubation in maxillofacial injuries: A substitute to tracheostomy where postoperative mechanical ventilation is not required.(Research Paper). Journal of Anaesthesiology ClinicalPharmacology, 26(4), 498.

Alcalde, L. F. A., Ferreira, P. H. S. G., Reis, E. N. R. d. C., Capelari, M. M., Toledo Filho, J.L., & Toledo, G. L. (2015). Intubação submento-orotraqueal - Estudo retrospectivo de02 anos. [Orotraqueal submental intubation - Two years retrospective study]. Rev. cir.traumatol.bucomaxilofac,15(4),2530.Retrievedfromhttp://revodonto.bvsalud.org/scielo.phpscript=sci_arttext&pid=S180852102015000400004.

Alejandri-Gamboa, V., Téllez-Rodríguez, P. J., López-Fernández, M. C. R., Sanjuan-Martínez, A., & Sarmiento, L. (2020). Submental intubation in pediatric maxillofacial surgery: report of 2 cases. Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología, 48, 91-95. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-33472020000200091&nrm=iso.

Ali, S., Athar, M., Ahmed, S. M., Siddiqi, O. A., & Badar, A. (2017). A Randomized Control Trial of Awake Oral to Submental Conversion versus Asleep Technique in Maxillofacial Trauma. Ann Maxillofac Surg, 7(2), 202-206. doi:10.4103/ams.ams_10_17

Altemir, F. H. (1986). The submental route for endotracheal intubation: a new technique. Journal of maxillofacial surgery, 14, 64-65.

Amin, M., Dill-Russell, P., Manisali, M., Lee, R., & Sinton, I. (2002). Facial fractures and submental tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia, 57(12), 1195-1199. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02624_1.x

Anwer, H. M. F., Zeitoun, I. M., & Shehata, E. A. A. (2007). Submandibular approach for tracheal intubation in patients with panfacial fractures. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(6), 835-840. Retrieved from ://WOS:000247208300021. doi:10.1093/bja/aem094

Arya, V. K., Kumar, A., Makkar, S. S., & Sharma, R. K. (2005). Retrogade submental intubation by pharyngeal loop technique in a patient with faciomaxillary trauma and restricted mouth opening. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(2), 534-537. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.urieid=2s2.012844252466&doi=10.1213%2f01.ANE.0000142126.86492.7D&partnerID=40&md5=72672cc5fc507468174911e0dcdd92c2. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000142126.86492.7D

Badjate, S. J., Shenoi, S. R., Budhraja, N. J., & Ingole, P. (2012). Transmylohyoid orotracheal intubation: case series and review. J Clin Anesth, 24(6), 460-464. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2011.12.007

Banerjee, P. K., Jain, A., & Behera, B. (2016). Submandibular intubation as an alternative for intra-operative airway management in maxillofacial fractures - our institutional experience. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 60(8), 573-577. Retrieved from ://WOS:000383247200008. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.187789

Beard, C., (2013). Submental Intubation in Oral Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery. The International Student Journal of Nurse Anesthesia, 44-47.

Beeram, R. K., Seelam, S., & Prasad, L. K. (2016). Stoll's submandibular intubation: A safety alternative to Altemir's submental technique and traditional tracheostomy. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, 28(3), 215-221. Retrieved fromhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2s284951830120&doi=10.1016%2fj.ajoms.2015.08.010&partnerID=40&md5=199739dcd927489f3e07d96707fda703. doi:10.1016/j.ajoms.2015.08.010

Bradford, B. D., Inman, J. C., & Ardeshirpour, F. (2016). Submental orotracheal intubation-a technique for airway management in severe facial trauma. JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery, 18(3), 228-229. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84969626646&doi=10.1001%2fjamafacial.2015.2198&partnerID=40&md5=f96e71b31d6ab6fa2ce3ccf22ca3f4aa. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2015.2198

Brinhole, M. C. P., Teixeira, R., Tosta, M., Giovani, É. M., Costa, C., Melo, J. A. J. d., &Tortamano, N. (2005). Intubação submental: evitando a traqueostomia em cirurgiabucomaxilofacial. [Submental intubation: avoiding tracheostomy in oral and maxillofacial surgery]. J. Health Sci. Inst, 23(2), 169-172. Retrieved fromhttp://www.unip.br/comunicacao/publicacoes/ics/edicoes/2005/02_abr_jun/V23_N2_2005_p169-172.pdf.

Caron, G., Paquin, R., Lessard, M. R., Trépanier, C. A., & Landry, P. E. (2000). Submental endotracheal intubation: an alternative to tracheotomy in patients with midfacial and panfacial fractures. J Trauma, 48(2), 235-240. doi:10.1097/00005373-200002000-00007

Carrasco, L., Toledo, G. L., de Menezes, J. D. D. S., Capelari, M. M., Toledo Filho, J. L., & Marzola, C. (2012). Prevalência e consideracões sobre a intubacão submentual no tratamento das fraturas faciais. Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirurgia Maxilofacial, 53(4), 233-239.

Chandra, P. M., Ali, F. M., Singhai, A., Mudhol, A., & Ustad, F. (2013). Submental orotracheal intubation: A better alternative to tracheostomy in panfacial fractures. In Anesth Essays Res (Vol. 7, pp. 415-417).

Cheong, Y., Kang, S. S., Kim, M., Son, H. J., Park, J., & Kim, J.-M. (2016). Submental Intubation in Patients with Complex Maxillofacial Injuries. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 6(2), 68-71. doi:10.15280/jlm.2016.6.2.6

Das, S., Das, T. P., & Ghosh, P. S. (2012). Submental intubation: A journey over the last 25 years. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol, 28(3), 291-303. doi:10.4103/0970-9185.98320

dos Reis Fernandes, B., Marchiori, D. L., Neto, O. B., de Bella, P. P., dos Santos, G. M., Tonial, M. T., ... & Gheller, G. R. (2020). Intubação submentoniana na cirurgia bucomaxilofacial: relato de casos clínicos. ARCHIVES OF HEALTH INVESTIGATION, 8(9).

Emara, T. A., El-Anwar, M. W., Omara, T. A., Anany, A., Elawa, I. A., & Rabea, M. M. (2019). Submental intubation versus tracheostomy in maxillofacial fractures. Oral Maxillofac Surg, 23(3), 337-341. doi:10.1007/s10006-019-00771-4

Gadre, K. S., & Waknis, P. P. (2010). Transmylohyoid/submental intubation: Review, analysis, and refinements. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 21(2), 516-519.

Eisemann, B., Eisemann, M., Rizvi, M., Urata, M. M., & Lypka, M. A. (2014). Defining the role for submental intubation. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 26(3), 238-242.Retrievedfromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=96222298&lang=pt-br&site=ehost live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2013.09.009https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.urieid=2s2.077952876976&doi=10.1097%2fSCS.0b013e3181d023d3&partnerID=40&md5=28be08d8f59e5c1e062c45612804bdc5. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181d023d3

Gandhi, M., & Ved, B. K. (2014). Submental intubation: a new approach in panfacial trauma. J Indian Med Assoc, 112(1), 54-55.

Green, J. D., & Moore, U. J. (1996). A modification of sub-mental intubation. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 77(6), 789-791. Retrieved from ://WOS:A1996WA82400019.

Gupta, B., Prasad, A., Ramchandani, S., Singhal, M., & Mathur, P. (2015). Facing the airway challenges in maxillofacial trauma: A retrospective review of 288 cases at a level i trauma center. Anesthesia: Essays & Researches, 9(1), 44-50. Retrievedfrom http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=101083778&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid. doi:10.4103/0259-1162.150142

Hegde, V. H., Annigeri, M. V., & Pai, V. V., (2012). Submental intubation: another anesthetic option for maxillofacial trauma. Pediatric Anesthesia, 22, 490–507. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03749.x

Hernández, N. R. (2010). Manejo del trauma facial: una guía práctica. Revista Médica Clínica Las Condes, 21(1), 31-39.

Hernández-Martínez, F., Vejar-Alba, I., Velázquez-Vázquez, R., & Osorio-Ramírez, G. A.(2015). Derivación submental en el manejo de la vía aérea de pacientes con traumamaxilofacial o cirugía ortognática. Submental bypass in the management of the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma and orthognathic surgery., 69(1), 64-69.Retrievedfromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=102130883&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid.

Jaisani, M. R., Pradhan, L., Bhattarai, B., & Sagtani, A. (2015). Intubation techniques: preferences of maxillofacial trauma surgeons. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 14(2), 501-505. doi:10.1007/s12663-014-0679-8

Jin, H., & Patil, P. M. (2015). Midline submental intubation might be the preferred alternative to oral and nasal intubation in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgery when indicated. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 73(1), 39-46. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2014.08.018

Jindal, S., Kothari, K., & Kumar Singh, A. (2013). Submental intubation. Dental ResearchJournal, 10(3), 401-403. Retrieved fromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=91821126&lang=pt -br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid.

Junior, J. M., Kluppel, L. E., Pereira Stabile, C. L., & Vitti Stabile, G. A. (2012). Submental endotracheal intubation as an alternative to tracheostomy in selected cases of facial fracture: literature review and technique report. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg, 18(6), 545-548. doi:10.5505/tjtes.2012.43403

Kaiser, A., Semanoff, A., Christensen, L., Sadoff, R., & DiGiacomo, J. C. (2018). Submental Intubation: an Underutilized Technique for Airway Management in Patients With Panfacial Trauma. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 29(5), 1349-1351. Retrieved from ://WOS:000446576600086. doi:10.1097/scs.0000000000004496

Kapoor, D., Gupta, A., Thapa, D., & Singh, J. (2012). Two point fixation of endotracheal tube in submentotracheal intubation during craniomaxillofacial surgeries-ourexperience! Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care, 16(3), 273-275. Retrieved fromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=91706222&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid.

Kar, C., & Mukherjee, S. (2010). Submental intubation: an alternative and cost-effective technique for complex maxillofacial surgeries. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 9(3), 266-269. doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0084-x

Khan, I., Sybil, D., Singh, A., Aggarwal, T., & Khan, R. (2014). Airway management using transmylohyoid oroendotracheal (submental) intubation in maxillofacial trauma. Natl J Maxillofac Surg, 5(2), 138-141. doi:10.4103/0975-5950.154815

Kim, K. J., Lee, J. S., Kim, H. J., Ha, J. Y., Park, H., & Han, D. W. (2005). Submental intubation with reinforced tube for intubating laryngeal mask airway. Yonsei Med J, 46(4), 571-574. doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.4.571

Kita, R., Kikuta, T., Takahashi, M., Ootani, T., Takaoka, M., Matsuda, M., . . . Yoshioka, I.(2016). Efficacy and complications of submental tracheal intubation compared withtracheostomy in maxillofacial trauma patients. J Oral Sci, 58(1), 23-28.doi:10.2334/josnusd.58.23

Koirala, M., Shrestha A.,(2017) Submental endotracheal intubation: an alternative to short-term tracheostomy .Journal of Institute of Medicine, 39(1),130-132

Kumar, K. A., Kumar, B. P., Mohan, A. P., Masram, A. K., Tyro, D., & Gandla, D. (2015). Assessment of the Efficacy of Submental Intubation in the Management of Midfacial and Panfacial Trauma Patients. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 14(3), 674-681. doi:10.1007/s12663-014-0684-y

Lazaridis, N., Zouloumis, L., Tilaveridis, I., Lazaridou, M., Antoniades, K., &Dimitrakopoulos, I. (2012). Retrotuberosity versus submentosubmandibular and median submental intubation: patients with maxillofacial surgery. Oral surgery, oralmedicine, oral pathology and oral radiology, 114(5), S209. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2011.10.026

Lim, D., Ma, B. C., Parumo, R., & Shanmuhasuntharam, P. (2018). Thirty years of submental intubation: a review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 47(9), 1161-1165. doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2018.04.015

Lim, H. K., Kim, I. K., Han, J. U., Kim, T. J., Lee, C. S., Song, J. H., . . . Jung, J. K. (2003). Modified submental orotracheal intubation using the blue cap on the end of the thoracic catheter. Yonsei Med J, 44(5), 919-922. doi:10.3349/ymj.2003.44.5.919

Lima, S. M., Jr., Asprino, L., Moreira, R. W., & de Moraes, M. (2011). A retrospective analysis of submental intubation in maxillofacial trauma patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 69(7), 2001-2005. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2010.10.017

Lobo Leandro, L. F., García Guevara, H. A., Marinho, K., Sanchez Rivero, C., & Lagunes Lopez, M. A. (2015). Intubación submental: experiencia con 30 casos. Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial, 37, 132-137. Retrieved from http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S113005582015000300002&nrm=iso.

MacInnis, E., & Baig, M. (1999). A modified submental approach for oral endotracheal intubation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 28(5), 344-346.

Meyer, C., Valfrey, J., Kjartansdottir, T., Wilk, A., & Barrière, P. (2003). Indication for and technical refinements of submental intubation in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg, 31(6), 383-388. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2003.07.005

Mohiuddin, A., Shabir, A., Khan. A. R., & Durrani, Z. (2011). Submental intubation in extensive maxillofacial trauma. Anaesth, Pain & Intensive care, 15(3), 182-184.

Navaneetham, A., Vinod Thangaswamy, S., & Rao, N. (2010). Submental intubation: our experience. J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 9(1), 64-67. doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0018-7

Neha, S., & Karthick, K. S. Inadvertent strangulation of inflation line of the pilot balloon during submental endotracheal intubation: a rare complication. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing. Retrieved from ://WOS:000524630100001. doi:10.1007/s10877-020-00508-9

Neto, P., Allais, M., Maurette, P. E., Oliveira e Silva, E. D. d., & Laureano Filho, J. R. (2008). Uso de la intubación submentoniana en cirugía buco-maxilofacial. [Use of submental intubation in oral and maxillofacial surgery]. Acta odontol. venez, 46(1), 77-80. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.phpscript=sci_arttext&pid=S00063652008000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es.

Nunes, R. R., Cavalcante, S. L., Pessoa, S. G. d. P., & Pamplona, L. d. C. (1998). Intubaçäo por via submentoniana em pacientes com fraturas múltiplas da face. [The submental route in patients with multiple facial fractures]. Rev. bras. anestesiol, 48(1), 37-42. Retrieved from https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/portal/resource/pt/lil-247204.

Nyanchoka, L., Tudur-Smith, C., Iversen, V., Tricco, A. C., & Porcher, R. (2019). A scoping review describes methods used to identify, prioritize and display gaps in health research. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 109, 99-110.

O’connell, J. E., & Kearns, G. J. (2012). Submental intubation: a retrospective review of 45 cases. Irish journal of medical science, 182(3), 309-313.

Oliver, M. (2019). Anesthetic Considerations for Submental Intubation in MaxillofacialSurgery. International Student Journal of Nurse Anesthesia, 18(2), 12-14. Retrievedfromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=c8h&AN=141665073&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid

Oshima, N., Shiraishi, T., Kawauchi, T., Oba, J., Sato, D., Fujiki, M., . . . Harii, K. (2018). A Simple and Reliable Submental Intubation Technique for Maxillofacial Fractures. J Craniofac Surg, 29(7), 1952-1955. doi:10.1097/scs.0000000000004628

Pandey, A., Mhashal, S., Yadav, R. R., ShrutiBansal, Kerkar, P., & Mittal, R. (2016).Comparative study of submental intubation cuff in vs cuff out: a case series.(Report).Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 5(50), 3177.doi:10.14260/jemds/2016/736

Peters, M., Godfrey, C., & McInerney, P. (2017). Chapter 11: Scoping Reviews, Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer Manual [Internet]. Adelaide (AU): The Joanna Briggs Institute.

Rocha, N. S., Morais, H. H. A., Fernandes, A. V., Caubi, A. F., & Vasconcelos, B. C. d. E. (2006). Intubação submentoniana para o manejo das vias aéreas em paciente politraumatizado de face: relato de caso e revisão de literatura. [Submental intubation for airway management in a major facial traumapatient: a case report and literature review]. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac, 6(3), 47-52. Retrieved from http://www.revistacirurgiabmf.com/2006/v6n3/6.pdf.

Rodrigues, W. C., de Melo, W. M., de Almeida, R. S., Pardo-Kaba, S. C., Sonoda, C. K., & Shinohara, E. H. (2017). Submental Intubation in Cases of Panfacial Fractures: A Retrospective Study. Anesthesia Progress, 64(3), 153-161. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=124908043&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid. doi:10.2344/anpr-64-04-07

Sakae, T. M., & Machado, C. A. (2019). Intubação submentoniana para o manejo das vias aéreas em paciente politraumatizado de face: Relato de Caso. Antonio Carlos Weston, 63(3), 317-321.

Samieirad, S., Khalife, H., Noroozi, M., Tohidi, E., & Hashemipour, M. A. (2017). How to Overcome the Challenges of Non-Detachable Connector Tubes in Submental Intubation for Panfacial Fractures. Arch Iran Med, 20(8), 481-486.

Santos, L. C. C. d., Fialho, P. V., Brito, T. A. P., Dultra, F. K. A. A., & Dultra, J. d. A. (2019).Abordagem de fratura panfacial em emergência: relato de caso. [Emergency panfacialfracture approach: case report]. Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.), 40(3), 45-48.Retrieved from https://www.apcdaracatuba.com.br/revista/2019/10/trabalho8.pdf.

Savitha, K., Kujur, A., Vikram, M., & Joseph, S. (2016). A modified submentalorotracheal intubation. Anesthesia: Essays and Researches, 10(1), 132-135.doi:10.4103/0259-1162.165518

Scafati, C. T., Maio, G., Aliberti, F., Scafati, S. T., & Grimaldi, P. L. (2006). Submento-submandibular intubation: Is the subperiosteal passage essential? Experience in 107 consecutive cases. British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 44(1), 12-14. Retrieved from ://WOS:000235040900005. doi:10.1016/j.bjoms.2005.07.011

Schütz, P., & Hamed, H. H. (2008). Submental intubation versus tracheostomy in maxillofacial trauma patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 66(7), 1404-1409. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2007.12.027

Sharma, R. K., Tuli, P., Cyriac, C., Parashar, A., & Makkar, S. (2008). Submental tracheal intubation in oromaxillofacial surgery. Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India, 41(1), 15–19. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0358.41105

Shenoi, R., Badjate, S., & Budhraja, N. (2011). Submental orotracheal intubation: Our experience and review. Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery, 1(1), 37-41. doi:10.4103/2231-0746.83154

Shetty, P. M., Yadav, S. K., & Upadya, M. (2011). Submental intubation in patients with panfacial fractures: A prospective study. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 55(3),299-304.Retrievedfromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=63535534&lang=ptbr&site=ehostlive&authtype=ip,cookie,uid.doi:10.4103/0019-5049.82685

Szantyr, A., Szuta, M., & Zapała, J. (2016). Airway management using submental intubation in head and neck surgery. Folia medica Cracoviensia, 56(3), 79-85. Retrieved fromhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.urieid=2s2.85021859338&partnerID=40&md5=b97e883a4fceaf7c654d210679a98316.

Tekelioğlu, Ü. Y., Karabekmez, F. E., Demirhan, A., Akkaya, A., Bayır, H., & Koçoğlu, H.(2013). Maksillofasiyal Kırık Cerrahisinde Submental Orotrakeal Entübasyon: İki Olgu.Submental Orotracheal Intubation in Maxillofacial Fracture Surgery: Report of Two Cases., 41(6), 232-234. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=110710128&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live&authtype=ip,cookie,uid. doi:10.5152/TJAR.2013.5

Tidke, A. S., Borle, R. M., Madan, R. S., Bhola, N. D., Jadhav, A. A., & Bhoyar, A. G. (2013). Transmylohoid/Submental Endotracheal Intubation in Pan-facial Trauma: A Paradigm Shift in Airway Management with Prospective Study of 35 Cases. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 65(3), 255-259. doi:10.1007/s12070-012-0505-x

Ujam, A., & Perry, M. (2017). Minimally traumatic submental intubation: a novel dilational technique. European Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery, 43(3), 359362.Retrievedfromhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c8h&AN=123385598&lang=ptbr&site=ehostlive&authtype=ip,cookie,uid. doi:10.1007/s00068-016-0675-4

Vale, D. S., Santos, M. B. P., Canellas, J. V. d. S., Araujo, M. M., & Cavalieri, I. (2012). Intubación submentoniana en cirugía buco-maxilofacial. [Submental intubation in oral and maxillofacial surgery]. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac, 12(2), 13-18. Retrieved from http://revodonto.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1808-52102012000200003.

Valsa, A., Kumar, L., Sumir, G., Williams, A., Singh, M., & Victor, J. (2012). Submentalintubation for airway management of patients with complex caniomaxillofacialinjuries: Our experience. Anesthesia: Essays and Researches, 6(2), 161-166. doi:10.4103/0259-1162.108301

Vashishta, A., Sharma, S., Chugh, A., Jain, D., Gupta, N., & Bihani, U. (2010). Submental intubation: A useful adjunct in panfacial trauma. In Natl J Maxillofac Surg (Vol. 1, pp. 74-77).

Velasco, I., & Vahdani, S. (2017). Retrograde Submental Intubation Assisted with Direct Video Laryngoscopy in Maxillofacial Trauma: Technical Note and Case Report. International journal of odontostomatology, 11, 67-70. Retrieved from https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718381X2017000100010&nrm=iso.

Vivek, K., Saha, S. S., Khazanchi, R. K., & Sood, J. (2004). Avoiding tracheostomy:submental intubation in faciomaxillary trauma surgery. Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 113(1), 451. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000102906.57314.C9

Yoon, K. B., Choi, B. H., Chang, H. S., & Lim, H. K. (2004). Management of detachment of pilot balloon during Intraoral repositioning of the submental endotracheal tube. Yonsei Medical Journal, 45(4), 748-750. Retrieved from ://WOS:000223855300026. doi:10.3349/ymj.2004.45.4.748



How to Cite

Cruz , I. D. da ., Monteiro, D. S. D., Silva, M. de A., & Morais, H. H. A. de . (2020). Difficulties of submental intubation in patients with facial trauma: A Scoping Review. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e974998171. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i9.8171



Health Sciences