Registry of saprolegniose in fish cultivated in the world: a compilation of data




Pathology; Fish; Fish farming; Saprolegnia sp.; Saprolegniosis.


Saprolegniosis is a mycological disease that causes significant economic losses in fish culture and can be considered an obstacle to the development of world fish farming. Thus, we aimed to identify which species of fish cultivated in the world have been associated with fungi of the genus Saprolegnia. The research deals with a bibliographical survey that contemplates articles published between 2007 and July of 2017. We found a relationship of saprolegniose with fish species: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Labeo rohita, Pterophyllum scalare, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Sander lucioperca, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Oreochromis niloticus, Odonthestes bonariensis, Odonthestes humensi e Catla catla. The oomycetes found were: Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegnia australis, Saprolegnia diclina, Saprolegnia delica, Saprolegnia glomerata, Saprolegnia terrestres, Saprolegnia uliginosa, Saprolegnia unispora, Saprolegnia hypogyna and Saprolegnia longicaulis. The species S. ferax and S. parasitica were the fungi that presented the highest infection register, mainly in salmonids. O. mykiss, S. salar and S. trout were the fish with more studies related to saprolegniose, because they are species that have great market importance in the world fish farming scenario. Despite the great importance of the species O. niloticus in the world fish culture, we observed the specie in only one article in this research, which may be related to the high resistance of the species to diseases and to the lack of research funding to identify this type of infection. It was not possible to compare the host - etiological agent among the fish, since many of the studies considered in the research did not have the purpose of identifying the pathogen.

Author Biography

Ingrid Tayane Vieira da Silva do Nascimento, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão

Graduated in Biological Sciences (Licenciatura and Bacharelado) by the State University of Maranhão (UEMA), Master in Aquatic Resources and Fisheries - UEMA. He has experience in Microbiology, Environmental Education, Mycology, Public Health and Histopathology. Taught discipline in the Food Technology course offered by the State University of Maranhão, Education Technology Center - UemaNet. He developed a dissertation in the area of ​​biopathology of aquatic organisms with an emphasis on pathology of fish caused by fungi. She is currently a technician responsible for the Microbiology laboratory of the Biological Sciences course at UEMA and acts as a tutor teacher in the Science is 10 specialization course offered by the Open University of Brazil (UAB) offered by the Center for Education Technologies UEMANET / Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, UEMA.


Peixe, B. R. (2019). Anuário Peixe BR da piscicultura 2018. Associação Brasileira de Piscicultura, São Paulo.

Ben Khemis, I., Besbes Aridh, N., Hamza, N., M’Hetli, M., & Sadok, S. (2016). Antifungal efficacy of the cactaceae Opuntia stricta (Haworth) prickly pear ethanolic extract in controlling pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus) egg saprolegniasis. J. Fish Dis., 39, 377-383.

Burr, A. W., & Beakes, G. W. (1994). Characterization of zoospore and cyst surface structure in saprophytic and fish pathogenic Saprolegnia species (oomycete fungal protists). In The Protistan Cell Surface (pp. 142-163). Springer, Vienna.

Cao, H., Ou, R., Li, G., Yang, X., Zheng, W., & Lu, L. (2014). S aprolegnia australis RF Elliott 1968 infection in Prussian carp C arassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) eggs and its control with herb extracts. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30 (1), 145-150.

Cao, H., Zheng, W., Xu, J., Ou, R., He, S., & Yang, X. (2012). Identification of an isolate of Saprolegnia ferax as the causal agent of saprolegniosis of Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) eggs. Veterinary research communications, 36 (4), 239-244..

Corrêa, B. F., Stohl, F. E., Robaldo, R. B., & Pereira, D. I. B. (2013). Efeito in vitro de químicos no crescimento micelial de Saprolegnia spp. Ciência Rural, 43(6), 1021-1024.

Silva, R. D. D., Rocha, L. O., Fortes, B. D. A., Vieira, D., & Fioravanti, M. C. S. (2012). Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) sob estresse por exposição ao ar. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 32, 99-107.

de Bruijn, I., Belmonte, R., Anderson, V. L., Saraiva, M., Wang, T., van West, P., & Secombes, C. J. (2012). Immune gene expression in trout cell lines infected with the fish pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 38 (1), 44-54.

Eissa, A. E., Abdelsalam, M., Tharwat, N., & Zaki, M. (2013). Detection of Saprolegnia parasitica in eggs of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cuvier–Valenciennes) with a history of decreased hatchability. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 1 (1), 7-14.

FAO, (2018). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.

Fregeneda-Grandes, J. M., Rodríguez-Cadenas, F., Carbajal-González, M. T., & Aller-Gancedo, J. M. (2007). Detection of ‘long-haired’Saprolegnia (S. parasitica) isolates using monoclonal antibodies. Mycological research, 111 (6), 726-733.

Fuangsawat, W., Abking, N., & Lawhavinit, O. A. (2011). Sensitivity comparison of pathogenic aquatic fungal hyphae to sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and povidone iodine. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 45 (1), 84-89.

Heikkinen, J., Tiirola, M., Mustonen, S. M., Eskelinen, P., Navia‐Paldanius, D., & von Wright, A. (2016). Suppression of S aprolegnia infections in rainbow trout (O ncorhynchus mykiss) eggs using protective bacteria and ultraviolet irradiation of the hatchery water. Aquaculture Research, 47 (3), 925-939.

Hussein, M. M., & Hatai, K. (2002). Pathogenicity of Saprolegnia species associated with outbreaks of salmonid saprolegniosis in Japan. Fisheries science, 68 (5), 1067-1072.

IBGE, 2014. Produção da pecuária municipal. Inst. Bras. Geogr. e Estatística. 0101-4234

Johari, S. A., Kalbassi, M. R., Soltani, M., & Yu, I. J. (2016). Application of nanosilver-coated zeolite as water filter media for fungal disinfection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. Aquaculture international, 24 (1), 23-38.

Kauark, F. D. S., Manhães, F. C., & Medeiros, C. H. (2010). Metodologia da pesquisa: um guia prático.

Khodabandeh, S., & Abtahi, B. (2006). Effects of sodium chloride, formalin and iodine on the hatching success of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22 (1), 54-56.

Hatai, K., & Hoshiai, G. I. (1992). Saprolengniasis in Cultured Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Fish Pathology, 27 (4), 233-234.

Korzelecka‐Orkisz, A., Formicki, K., Szulc, J., Tański, A., Mazurkiewicz‐Zapałowicz, K., Twarużek, M., ... & Kurzydłowski, K. J. (2016). Modulating effect of a magnetic field on Saprolegnia parasitica, Coker, 1923 infecting trout (Salmo trutta, L.) eggs. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 32 (5), 913-922.

Martins, M. L., Onaka, E. M., Moraes, F. R., Bozzo, F. R., Paiva, A. M. F. C., & Gonçalves, A. (2002). Recent studies on parasitic infections of freshwater cultivated fish in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum, 24 (4), 981-985.

Mastan, S. A. (2015). Fungal infection in freshwater fishes of Andhra Pradesh, India. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14 (6), 530-534.

Meyer, F. P. (1991). Aquaculture disease and health management. Journal of animal science, 69 (10), 4201-4208.

Minor, K. L., Anderson, V. L., Davis, K. S., Van Den Berg, A. H., Christie, J. S., Löbach, L., ... & Van West, P. (2014). A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fungal biology, 118 (7), 630-639.

Pacheco-Marino, S. G., & Salibian, A. (2010). Acute toxicity of three antifungal chemicals on silverside Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes 1835) eggs. International Journal of Environment and Health, 4 (4), 333-341.

Paiva, M.J.T.R. de, (1997). Fungos parasitos de peixes. Panor. da Aquicultura, 41 (1)

Pavanelli, G. C., Eiras, J. D. C., & Takemoto, R. M. (2002). Doenças de peixes: profilaxia, diagnóstico e tratamento. In Doenças de peixes: profilaxia, diagnóstico e tratamento (pp. 305-305).

Pereira-Torres, D., Gonçalves, A. T., Ulloa, V., Martínez, R., Carrasco, H., Olea, A. F., ... & Astuya, A. (2016). In vitro modulation of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on Salmo salar immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica. Fish & shellfish immunology, 59, 103-108.

Phillips, A. J., Anderson, V. L., Robertson, E. J., Secombes, C. J., & Van West, P. (2008). New insights into animal pathogenic oomycetes. Trends in microbiology, 16 (1), 13-19.

Pinheiro, C. A. M., Pinheiro, R. S., dos Santos, W. H. L., de Souza Serra, I. M. R., & Santos, D. M. S. (2015). Qualidade da água e incidência de fungos em peixes oriundos de pisciculturas do município de São Luís–Maranhão. Pesquisa em Foco, 20 (1).

Pottinger, T. A., & Day, J. G. (1999). A Saprolegnia parasitica challenge system for rainbow trout: assessment of Pyceze as an anti-fungal agent for both fish and ova. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 36 (2), 129-141.

Rasowo, J., Okoth, O. E., & Ngugi, C. C. (2007). Effects of formaldehyde, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide on hatch rate of African catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs. Aquaculture, 269 (1-4), 271-277.

Rezinciuc, S., Sandoval-Sierra, J. V., & Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. (2014). Molecular identification of a bronopol tolerant strain of Saprolegnia australis causing egg and fry mortality in farmed brown trout, Salmo trutta. Fungal biology, 118 (7), 591-600.

Roberge, C., Páez, D. J., Rossignol, O., Guderley, H., Dodson, J., & Bernatchez, L. (2007). Genome-wide survey of the gene expression response to saprolegniasis in Atlantic salmon. Molecular immunology, 44 (6), 1374-1383.

Saha, H., Pal, A. K., Sahu, N. P., & Saha, R. K. (2016). Feeding pyridoxine prevents Saprolegnia parasitica infection in fish Labeo rohita. Fish & shellfish immunology, 59, 382-388.

Sandoval-Sierra, J. V., Latif-Eugenin, F., Martín, M. P., Zaror, L., & Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. (2014). Saprolegnia species affecting the salmonid aquaculture in Chile and their associations with fish developmental stage. Aquaculture, 434, 462-469.

Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas. (2015). Aquicultura no Brasil: série de estudos mercadológicos.

Songe, M. M., Willems, A., Sarowar, M. N., Rajan, K., Evensen, Ø., Drynan, K., ... & Van West, P. (2016). A thicker chorion gives ova of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) the upper hand against Saprolegnia infections. Journal of Fish Diseases, 39 (7), 879-888.

Soon, J. M., & Baines, R. N. (2012). Aquaculture farm food safety and diseases risk assessment (AquaFRAM): development of a spreadsheet tool for salmon farms. Aquacultural Engineering, 49, 35-45.

Stammati, A., Nebbia, C., De Angelis, I., Albo, A. G., Carletti, M., Rebecchi, C., ... & Dacasto, M. (2005). Effects of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG), in two human cell lines. Toxicology in vitro, 19 (7), 853-858.

Stueland, S., Hatai, K., & Skaar, I. (2005). Morphological and physiological characteristics of Saprolegnia spp. strains pathogenic to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 28 (8), 445-453.

Tampieri, M.P., Galuppi, R., Carelle, M.S., Macchioni, F., Cioni, P.L., & Morelli, I. (2003). Effect of selected essential oils and pure compounds on Saprolegnia parasitica. Pharm. Biol., 41 (8) 584-591.

Tampieri, M. P., Galuppi, R., Carelle, M. S., Macchioni, F. A. B. I. O., Cioni, P. L., & Morelli, I. V. A. N. O. (2003). Effect of selected essential oils and pure compounds on Saprolegnia parasitica. Pharmaceutical biology, 41 (8), 584-591.

Valenzuela, A., Campos, V., Yañez, F., Alveal, K., Gutiérrez, P., Rivas, M., ... & Oyarzun, C. (2012). Application of artificial photoperiod in fish: a factor that increases susceptibility to infectious diseases?. Fish physiology and biochemistry, 38 (4), 943-950.

Van Den Berg, A. H., McLaggan, D., Diéguez-Uribeondo, J., & Van West, P. (2013). The impact of the water moulds Saprolegnia diclina and Saprolegnia parasitica on natural ecosystems and the aquaculture industry. Fungal Biology Reviews, 27 (2), 33-42.

Van West, P. (2006). Saprolegnia parasitica, an oomycete pathogen with a fishy appetite: new challenges for an old problem. Mycologist, 20 (3), 99-104.

Vega-Ramírez, M. T., Moreno-Lafont, M. C., Valenzuela, R., Cervantes-Olivares, R., Aller-Gancedo, J. M., Fregeneda-Grandes, J. M., ... & López-Santiago, R. (2013). New records of Saprolegniaceae isolated from rainbow trout, from their eggs, and water in a fish farm from the State of México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84 (2), 637-649.

Yao, J. Y., Lin, L. Y., Yuan, X. M., Ying, W. L., Xu, Y., Pan, X. Y., ... & Ge, P. H. (2017). Antifungal Activity of Rhein and Aloe‐Emodin from Rheum palmatum on Fish Pathogenic Saprolegnia sp. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 48 (1), 137-144.

Zahran, E., & Risha, E. (2013). Protective role of adjuvant and potassium permanganate on oxidative stress response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Saprolegnia ferax. SpringerPlus, 2 (1), 94. [doi]n223 [pii]

Zaror, L., Collado, L., Bohle, H., Landskron, E., Montaña, J., & Avendaño, F. (2004). Saprolegnia parasitica en salmones y truchas del sur de Chile. Archivos de medicina veterinaria, 36 (1), 71-78.




How to Cite

Vieira da Silva do Nascimento, I. T., Silva, J. dos S., Melo, T. A. de ., Santos, D. M. S. ., & Serra, I. M. R. de S. . (2020). Registry of saprolegniose in fish cultivated in the world: a compilation of data. Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e959119556.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences