Strategies to reduce occupational stress in health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a literature review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.9707

Keywords:

COVID-19; Health workers; Occupational stress.

Abstract

The pandemic caused by the disease COVID-19, considered a public health emergency in several countries, has had disastrous consequences for the health of the population. Among health professionals and services, this fact caused disorders in several aspects, including situations that promote occupational stress. Objective: To analyze strategies for reducing occupational stress in health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: The study was based on a qualitative literature review, from August to September 2020. National and international databases were used, including PubMED, Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Google Scholar. Results: It was possible to return 460 articles, and after analyzing and applying the eligibility criteria, 26 studies were able to follow the research. There was a diversity of potential factors that cause stressful situations, such as the fear of transmitting infection to the family, acquiring the disease and the fact that there is no specific treatment, as well as the existence of alternatives to protect the health of health professionals. Final considerations: Strategies were found such as training and preparation to deal with worrying situations similar to the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic, the creation of supportive environments and counseling services among health professionals, the imposition of community sanctions, the provision of tools digital media for meditation and relaxation, breathing work, mindfulness training and behavioral therapy are worth mentioning in this critical scenario.

References

Adams, J., & Walls, R. (2020). Supporting the health care workforce during the COVID-19. Global epidemic., Jama, 323, 1439-1440.

Aldwin, C. (2009). Stress, coping and development: An integrative perspective. New York, The Guilford Press. (2a ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2020). The App Evaluation Model. Washington. Recuperado de https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/mental-health-apps/app-evaluation-model.

Bessan, et al. (2020). Palestine health care workers`stress and stressors during COVID-19. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health; Palestine. 11, 1–7.

Brooks, et al. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395, 912-920.

Compas, et al. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 87–127.

Elbay, et al. (2020). Depressão, ansiedade, níveis de estresse dos médicos e fatores associados em pandemias de Covid-19. Psychiatry Res., 290, 113-130.

Estauri, N., & Sheridan, A. (2020). Burnout and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: intersection, impact, and interventions. Journal Of The American College Of Radiology, 17(7), 921-926.

Hampton, T. (2005). Experts aborda o risco de suicídio médico. JAMA, 294, 1189–1191.

Kane, L. (2020). Medscape, médico nacional, relatório de esgotamento e suicídio de 2020: a divisão geracional. Recuperado de https://www.medscape.com/slideshow/2020-lifestyle-burnout-6012460.

Kang, et al. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiat; 7, e14.

Kannampallil, et al. (2020). Exposure to COVID-19 patients increases physician trainee stress and burnout. Plos One, 15(8), 1-7, 6.

Koche, J. C. (2011). Fundamentos de metodologia científica. Petrópolis: Vozes. Recuperado de http://www.brunovivas.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/10/2018/07/K%C3%B6che-Jos%C3 %A9-Carlos0D0AFundamentos-de-metodologia-cient%C3%ADfica-_-teoria-da0D0Aci%C3 %AAncia-e-inicia%C3%A7%C3%A3o-%C3%A0-pesquisa.pdf.

Krystal, J., & Mcneil, R. (2020). Respondendo à pandemia oculta para profissionais de saúde: estresse. Nat Med., 26, 639.

Kuo, et al. (2020). Survey on perceived work stress and its influencing factors among hospital staff during the COVID ‐19 pandemic in Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal Of Medical Sciences, 1-9.

Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Li, et al. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2032(17), 1-9.

Ludke, M., & Andre, M. E. (2013). Pesquisas em educação: uma abordagem qualitativa. São Paulo: E.P.U. E.

Luigi, R., & Senhoras, E. (2020). O novo coronavírus e a importância das Organizações Internacionais. Nexo Jornal. Recuperado de https://www.nexojornal.com.br/.

Marona, et al. (2020). Stress-induced cardiac arrest with mitral annulus disjunction in a physician amid the COVID-19 pandemic fight. European Heart Journal, 41(30), 2921-2921.

Mcalonan, et al. (2007). Immediate and sustained psychological impact of an emerging infectious disease outbreak on health care workers. Can J Psychiatry. 52, 241-247.

Mo, et al. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. J Nurs Manag., 1–8.

News18 Índia. (2020). A Índia atrasou a transmissão à comunidade, o bloqueio nos ajudará se as regras forem seguidas: Cientista do ICMR. Recuperado de https://www.news18.c om/news/india/india-has-delayed-community-transmission-lockdown-will-help-us-if-rules-are-followed-icmr-scientist-2554139.html.

Pereira, et al. (2020). A pandemia de COVID-19, o isolamento social, conseqüências na saúde mental e estratégias de enfrentamento: uma revisão integrativa. Aracajú, Research, Society and Development; 9(7), e6529745428.

Pereira, A. S., et al. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. Santa Maria: UAB/NTE/UFSM. Recuperado de https://www.ufsm.br/app/uploads/sites/358/2 019/02/Metodologia-da-Pesquisa-Cientifica_final.pdf.

Pospos, et al. (2018). Ferramentas baseadas na Web e aplicativos móveis para mitigar o esgotamento, depressão e suicídio entre estudantes e profissionais de saúde: uma revisão sistemática. Acad Psychiatry., 421; 109-120.

Qiu, et al. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33.

Santiago, M. (2020). Qualidade de vida no trabalho: enfermeiros e seus principais dilemas no ambiente laboral. Ensaios e Ciência, 24(1).

Schernhammer, E. (2005). Tirando suas próprias vidas - a alta taxa de suicídio médico. N Engl J Med., 352, 2473–2476.

Silva, F., et al. (2020). Flaviane Cristine Troglio da; NETO, Modesto Leite. Psychiatric symptomatology associated with depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia in health professionals working in patients affected by COVID19: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Progress In NeuroPsychopharmacology And Biological Psychiatry, 104, 110057- 110064.

Silva, M., et al. (2016). Relação entre saúde mental e trabalho: a concepção de sindicalistas e possíveis formas de enfrentamento. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Ocupacional, 41.

Sousa, et al. (2020). Patogênese e perspectivas de tratamento da COVID-10: Uma Revisão. Piauí, Research, Society and Development; 9(7), e05973730.

Suñer-Soler, et al. (2014). The consequences of burnout syndrome among healthcare professionals in Spain and Spanish speaking Latin American countries. Burn Res., 1, 82-89.

Swapnil et al. (2016). Prevalência de baixa saúde mental entre enfermeiros em unidades de terapia intensiva médica. Int J Contemp. Med. Res., 3 (8), 2444 – 2447.

Published

08/11/2020

How to Cite

Santos, G. B. dos, Lira, A. V. de A. A. ., Mattos, M. S. B., & Pachú, C. O. (2020). Strategies to reduce occupational stress in health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a literature review. Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e1639119707. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.9707

Issue

Section

Health Sciences