Enzymatic response of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877) exposed to water from urban and rural rivers in Bahia, Brazil

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i6.15638

Keywords:

Prawn; Glutathione S-transferase; Catalase; Ecotoxicology; Bioindicator.

Abstract

Several biomarker enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) can be used to measure oxidative stress in animals caused by exposure to xenobiotics. The objective of the present study was to characterize different points of the Capivari (CP1 and CP2), Paraguaçu (PG1 and PG2) and Subaé (SB1 and SB2) Rivers, state of Bahia, in relation to the presence of xenobiotics, using CAT and GST as bioindicators in M. jelskii. The water-sampling sites were considered urban or rural and in all of them signs of environmental degradation were observed. Therefore, acute exposure tests (96h) were performed with water samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Results showed that the activity of CAT and GST in prawns exposed to water from CP1 and CP2 were very similar, while those exposed to water from PG1, PG2, SB1 and SB2 formed distinct groups of data. Significant increase in the activity of at least one of the analyzed enzymes in each sampling site was observed, when compared to animals in the control group. This demonstrated a possible oxidative stress in M. jelskii caused by the presence of xenobiotics in the water (e.g., domestic sewage, pesticides, oil, and heavy metals). Enzymatic activities were higher in animals from experiments carried out in the rainy season, except for the CAT activity of animals exposed to water from Subaé River. This study demonstrated the potential of M. jelskii as bioindicator and contributed to the knowledge of aspects of the antioxidant defense system of this species.

References

Adams, S. M. & Greeley, M. S. (2000). Ecotoxicological indicators of water quality: using multi-response indicators to assess the health of aquatic ecosystems. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 123: 103–115.

Afiyanti, M., & Chen, H. J. (2014). Catalase activity is modulated by calcium and calmodulin in detached mature leaves of sweet potato. Journal of Plant Physiology, 171(2): 35-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.10.003

Ahmad, M. K., Islam, S.; Rahman, S.; Haque, M. R. & Islam, M. M. (2010). Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Some Fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research, 4(2): 321-332.

Al-Fanharawia, A. A., Rabeeb, A. M. & Al-Mamooric, A. M. J. (2018). Biochemical and molecular alterations in freshwater mollusks as biomarkers for petroleum product, domestic heating oil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 158: 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.04.006

Anger, K. (2013). Neotropical Macrobrachium (caridea: palaemonidae): on the biology, origin, and radiation of freshwater-invading shrimp. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 33(2): 151-183. doi: 10.1163/1937240X-00002124

APHA. (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environmental Federation, Washington DC, 1496p.

Araujo, C. V. M. & Blasco, J. (2019). Spatial Avoidance as a Response to Contamination by Aquatic Organisms in Nonforced, Multicompartmented Exposure Systems: A Complementary Approach to the Behavioral Response. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 38(2): 312-320. doi: 10.1002/etc.4310

Bauer, R. T. (2004). Remarkable shrimps: Adaptations and natural history of the carideans. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 282p.

Berra, E., Forcella, M., Giacchini1, R., Marziali, L., Rossaro, B. & Parenti, P. (2004). Evaluation of enzyme biomarkers in freshwater invertebrates from Taro and Ticino river, Italy. Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology, 40 (3), 169-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/limn/2004015

Bianchini A. & Monserrat, J. M. (2007). Effects of methyl parathion on Chasmagnathus granulatus hepatopancreas: Protective role of Sesamol. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 67: 100-108. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.03.006

Bolong, N., Ismail, A. F., Salim, M. R. & Matsuura, T. (2009). A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination, 239: 229-246. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2008.03.020

Canesi, L., Fabbri, R., Vallotto, D., Gallo, G., Marcomini, A. & Pojana, G. (2010). Biomarkers in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to suspensions of selected nanoparticles (Nano carbon black, C60 fullerene, Nano-TiO2, Nano-SiO2). Aquatic Toxicology, 100: 168-177. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.04.009

Capparelli, M. V., McNamara, J. C. M. & Grosell, M. G. (2020). Tissue accumulation and the efects of long term dietary copper contamination on osmoregulation in the mudfat fiddler crab Minuca rapax (Crustacea, Ocypodidae). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 104:755-762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02872-3

Carvalho Neta, R. N. F., Andrade, T. S. O. M., Oliveira, S. R. S., Torres Junior, A. R., Cardoso, W. S., Santos, D. M. S., Batista, W. S., Serra, I. M. R. S. & Brito, N. M. (2019). Biochemical and morphological responses in Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Decapoda) as indicators of contamination status in mangroves and port areas from northern Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26: 15884-15893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04849-0

Celino, J. J., Corseuil, H. X., Fernandes, M. & Garcia, K. S. (2010). Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment: a multivariate analysis. REM - International Engineering Journal, 63(2): 211-218.

Centro de Recursos Ambientais - CRA. Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Paraguaçu. Salvador, 2011. Avaliação da Qualidade de Água. Available at http://www.seia.ba.gov.br. Accessed on 10 June 2020.

Cirilo, A. T. O., Santos, M. C. & Nunes, M. L. (2011). Caracterização física e nutricional do camarão “Saburica” (Macrobrachium jelskii, Miers 1877) e de produtos derivados. Scientia plena, 7(7): 1-6.

Clima Tempo (http://www.climatempo.com.br CLIMATEMPO. Previsão do tempo e Climatologia. Available at https://www.climatempo.com.br/climatologia. Accessed on 17 January 2020.

Costa, C. R., Olivi, P., Bota, C. M. R. and Espindola, E. L. G. 2008. A toxicidade em ambientes aquáticos: discussão e métodos de avaliação. Química Nova, 31(7): 1820-1830.

da Silva, G. S., Gloaguen, T. V., Couto, C. F. & Motta, P. N. S. (2017). Persistence and mobility of metals in an estuarine environment 25 years after closure of a lead smelter, Bahia State, Brazil. Environmental Earth Science, 76:548. doi: 10.1007/s12665-017-6886-0

Davanso, M. B., Buruaem, L. M., Pimentel, M. F., Costa-Lotufo, L. V. & Abessa, D. M. S. (2013). Biomarkers in mangrove root crab Goniopsis cruentata for evaluating quality of tropical estuaries. Marine Environmental Research, 91: 80-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.02.006

Dedeke, G. A., Owagboriayeb, F. O., Adebamboc, A. O. & Ademolu, K. O. (2016). Earthworm metallothionein production as biomarker of heavy metal pollution in abattoir soil. Applied Soil Ecology, 104: 42–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.02.013

Duarte, L. F. A., Souza C. A., Pereira, C. D. S. & Pinheiro, M. A. A. (2017). Metal toxicity assessment by sentinel species of mangroves: In situ case study integrating chemical and biomarkers analyses. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 145: 367–376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.051

Gaume, B., Dodet, N., Thomé, Jean-Pierre and Lemoine, S. 2015. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 22: 7991–8002. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3134-y

Harayashiki, C. A. Y., Reichelt-Brushett, A., Butcher, P. & Benkendorff, K. (2018). Ingestion of inorganic mercury by juvenile black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) alters biochemical markers. Ecotoxicology, 27: 1225–1236. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10646-018-1975-8

Hatje, A. V. & Andrade, J. B. (2009). Baía de Todos os Santos: aspectos oceanográficos. Salvador, Ed. EDUFBA, 304p.

Hatje, V. & Barros, F. (2012). Overview of the 20th century impact of trace metal contamination in the estuaries of Todos os Santos Bay: Past, present and future scenarios. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64: 2603–2614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.07.009

Hatje, V., Barros, F., Figueiredo, D. G., Santos, V. L. C. S. & Peso-Aguiar, M. C. (2006). Trace metal contamination and benthic assemblages in Subaé estuarine system, Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52: 969–987. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.04.016

Hatje, V., Bícego, M. C., Carvalho, G. C. & de Andrade, J. B. (2009). Contaminação Química. p. 243-299. In: V. Hatje and J.B. Andrade (eds), Baía de Todos os Santos: Aspectos Oceanográficos. Salvador, Edufba.

Instituto de Gestão das Águas e Clima - INGÁ. Relatório de Monitoramento da Qualidade das Águas – Relatório Anual, Vol. 1, Salvador: INGÁ, 2008. Available at www.inga.ba.gov.br. Accessed on 10 june 2020.

Key, P. B., Wirth, E. F., and Fulton, M. H. (2006). A review of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., as a bioindicator of anthropogenic impacts. Environmental Bioindicators, 1:115–128. doi: 10.1080/15555270600685115

Lafontaine, A., Gismondi, E., Dodet, N., Joaquim-Justo, C., Boulang-Lecomte, C., Caupos, F., Lemoine, S., Lagadic, L., Forget-Leray, J. & Thomé, Jean-Pierre. (2017). Bioaccumulation, distribution and elimination of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Field and laboratory studies. Chemosphere, 185: 888-898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.099

Lavarías, S. & García, C. F. (2015). Acute toxicity of organophosphate fenitrothion on biomarkers in prawn Palaemonetes argentinus (Crustacea: Palaemonidae). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 65. doi 10.1007/s10661-014-4224-5 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4224-5

Lavarías, S., García, C., Crespo, R., Pedrini, N. & Heras, H. (2013). Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 96: 10-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.040

Leme, D. M., Grummt, T., Oliveira, D. P., Sehr, A., Renz, S., Reine, S., Ferraz, E. R. A., Marchi, M. R. R., Machado, M. C., Zocolo, G. J. & Marin-Morales, M. A. (2012). Genocity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow kit (Litron) assay. Chemosphere, 86(5): 512-520. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.10.017

Lima, L. R. P. A. & Bernardez, L. A. (2011). Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189: 692-699. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.02.091

Liu, Y., Han, S. L, Luo, Y., Li, L. Y., Chen, L. Q., Zhang, M. L. & Du, Z. Y. (2020). Impaired peroxisomal fat oxidation induces hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative damage in Nile tilapia. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 46:1229-1242. doi:10.1007/s10695-020-00785-w

Livingstone, D. R. (1998). The fate of organic xenobiotics in aquatic ecosystems: quantitative and qualitative differences in biotransformation by invertebrates and fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 120: 43-49.

Loizzi, R. F. (1971). Interpretation of crayfish hepatopancreatic function based on fine structural analysis of epithelial cell lines and muscle network. Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie, 113: 420-440.

Lushchak, V. I. (2011). Environmentally induced oxidative stress in aquatic animals. Aquatic Toxicology, 101: 13-30. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.10.006

Martínez-Gómez, C., Campillo, J. A., Benedicto, J., Fernández, B., Valdés, J., García, I. & Sánchez, F. (2006). Monitoring biomarkers in fish (Lepidorhombus boscii and Callionymus lyra) from the northern Iberian shelf after the Prestige oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 53: 305-314. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.03.010

Melo, G. A. S. (2003). Famílias Atyidae, Palaemonidae e Sergestidae. p. 289-415. In: G.A.S. Melo (ed), Manual de identificação dos Crustacea Decapoda de água doce do Brasil. São Paulo, Loyola.

Mohammad A. M., Lokman A. M., Islamc, Md. S. & Rahmand, Md. Z. (2016). Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water and sediment of Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 5: 27-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enm.2016.01.002

Mohiuddin, K. M., Otomo, K., Ogawa, Y. & Shikazono, N. (2012). Seasonal and spatial distribution of trace elements in the water and sediments of the Tsurumi River in Japan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184: 265-279. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-1966-1

Montoya, J. V. (2003). Freshwater shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium associated with roots of Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth) in the Orinoco Delta (Venezuela). Caribbean Journal of Science, 39(1): 155-159.

Moreira, S. M. & Guilhermino, L. (2005). The use of Mytilus galloprovincialis acetylcholinesterase and glutathione s-transferases activities as biomarkers of environmental contamination along the northwest Portuguese coast. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 105: 309-325. doi: 10.1007/s10661-005-3854-z

Nudi, A. H., Wagener, A. L. R., Francioni, E., Sette, C. B., Sartori, A. V. & Scofield, A. L. (2010). Biomarkers of PAHs exposure in crabs Ucides cordatus: Laboratory assay and field study. Environmental Research, 110(2): 137-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.014

Obasohan, E. E. & Eguavoen, O. I. (2008). Seasonal variations of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in a freshwater fish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus) from Ogba river, Benin city, Nigeria. Indian Journal Animal Research, 42(3): 171-179.

Orebiyi, E. O., Awomeso, A. J., Martins, O., Idowu, A. O., Oguntoke, O and Taiwo, A. M. 2010. Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 6(1): 50-56.

Paital, B. (2018). Removing small non-enzymatic molecules for biochemical assay of redox regulatory enzymes, An exemplary comments on “Antioxidant responses in gills and digestive gland of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) under lead exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 154: 337-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.01.051

Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J. & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da Pesquisa Científica. [free e-book]. Santa Maria: RS. Ed. UAB/NTE/UFSM.

Ramachandran, S. D., Sweezey, M. J., Hodson, P. V., Boudreau, M., Courtenay, S. C., Lee, K., Thomas, K. & Dixon, J. A. (2006). Influence of salinity and fish species on PAH uptake from dispersed crude oil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52: 1182-1189. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.02.009

Ramsdorf, W. A., Vicari, T., Almeida, M. I. M., Artoni, R. F. & Cestari, M. M. (2012). Handling of Astyanax sp. for biomonitoring in Cangüiri Farm within a fountainhead (Iraí River Environment Preservation Area) through the use of genetic biomarkers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(10): 5841-5849.

Rocha, S. S. & Barbosa, R. J. (2017). Population biology of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from an artificial pond in Bahia, Brazil. Nauplius, 25(8): 1-13. doi: 10.1590/2358-2936e2017023

Rosner, A., Armengaud, J., Ballarin, L., Barnay-Verdier, S., Cima, F., Coelho, A. V., Domart-Coulon, I., Drobne, D., Genevière, A. M., Kokalj, A. J., Kotlarska, E., Lyons, D. M., Mass,T., Paz, G., Pazdro, K., Perić, L., Ramšak, A., Rakers, S., Rinkevich, B., Spagnuolo, A., Sugni, M. & Cambier, S. (2021). Stem cells of aquatic invertebrates as an advanced tool for assessing ecotoxicological impacts. Science of the Total Environment , 771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144565

Sáenz, L. A., Seibert, E. L., Zanette, J., Fiedler, H. D., Curtius, A. J., Ferreira, J. F., Almeida, E. A., Marques, M. R. F. & Bainy, A. C. D. (2010). Biochemical biomarkers and metals in Perna perna mussels from mariculture zones of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(5): 796-804. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.02.015

Schirmer, M., Reinstorf, F., Leschik, S., Musolff, A., Krieg, R., Strauch, G., Molson, J. W., Martienssen, M. & Schirmer, K. (2011). Mass fluxes of xenobiotics below cities: challenges in urban hydrogeology. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(3): 607-617.

Schvezov, N., Lovrich, G. A. & Romero, M. C. (2017). Oxidatide stress during re-immersion of the king crab Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda: Anomura: Lithodidae) after air exposure. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 37(2), 195-203. doi:10.1093/jcbiol/rux004

Sedeño-Díaz, J. E. & López-López, E. (2013). Freshwater fish as sentinel organisms: From the molecular to the population level, a review. Chapter 4. New Advances and Contributions to Fish Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/54825

Silva Júnior, J. B., Abreu, I., M., de Oliveira, D. A. F., Hadlicha, G. M. & Barbosa, A. C. R. A. (2020). Combining geochemical and chemometric tools to assess the environmental impact of potentially toxic elements in surface sediment samples from an urban river. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 155: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111146

Sokal, R. R. & Rohlf, J. F. (1995). Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 3rd ed. New York, W.H Freeman. 887p.

Souza, A. M., Salviano, A. M., Melo, J. F. B., Felix, W. P., Belém, C. S. & Ramos, P. N. (2016). Seasonal study of concentration of heavy metals in waters from lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Braziliam Journal Biology, 76(4): 967-974. doi:org/10.1590/1519-6984.05215

Stien, X., Percic, P. M., Gnassia-Barelli, M., Roméo, M., Lafaurie, M. 1998. Evaluation of biomarkers in caged fishes and mussels to assess the quality of waters in a bay of the NW Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Pollution, 99(3): 339-345.

Sundar, S., Heino, J., Roque F. O., Simaika, J. P., Melo, A. S., Tonkin, J. D., Nogueira, D. G. & Silva, D. P. (2020). Conservation of freshwater macroinvertebrate biodiversity in tropical regions. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 30: 1238-1250. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3326

Tim-Tim, A. L. S., Morgado, F., Moreira, S., Rangel, R., Nogueira, A. J. A., Soares, A. M. V. M. & Guilhermino, L. (2009). Cholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of three mollusc species from the NW Portuguese coast in relation to the ‘Prestige’ oil spill. Chemosphere, 77: 1465-1475. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.014

Tumminello, R. A. & Fuller-Espie, S. L. (2013). Heat stress induces ROS production and histone phosphorylation in celomocytes of Eisenia hortensis. International Surgery Journal, 10: 50-57.

Turja, R., Sanni, S., Stankevičiūtė, M., Butrimavičienė, L., Devier, M. H., Budzinski, H. & Lehtonen, K. K. (2020). Biomarker responses and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mytilus trossulus and Gammarus oceanicus during exposure to crude oil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27:15498-15514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07946-7

Van der Oost, R., Beyer, J. & Vermeulen, N. P. E. (2003). Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13: 57-149.

Varol, M. & Şen, B. (2012). Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey. Catena, 92: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.11.011

Vieira, C. E. D., Almeida, M. S., Galindo, B. A., Pereira L. & Martinez, C. B. R. (2014). Integrated biomarker response index using a Neotropical fish to assess the water quality in agricultural areas. Neotropical Ichthyology, 12(1): 153-164. doi: 10.1590/S1679-62252014000100017

Vlahogianni, T., Dassenakis, M., Scoullos, M. J. & Valavanidis, A. (2007). Integrated use of biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation) in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis for assessing heavy metals’ pollution in coastal areas from the Saronikos Gulf of Greece. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54: 1361-1371. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.05.018

Vogt, G. (2013). Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 88: 81-116. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00241.x

Weis, J. S. (2014). Physiological, developmental and behavioral effects of marine pollution. Berlin, Springer-Dordrecht. 454p. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6949-6

Williams, A. B. (1984). Shrimps, lobsters and crabs of the eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 500p.

Wu, S., Wu, E., Qiu, L., Zhong, W. & Chen, J. (2011). Effects of phenanthrene on the mortality, growth, and anti-oxidant system of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) under laboratory conditions. Chemosphere, 83: 429-434. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.082

Zagatto, P. A. & Bertoletti, E. (2008). Ecotoxicologia Aquática: princípios e aplicações. São Carlos, Ed. Rima. 478p.

Zanette J., Almeida E. A., Silva, A. Z., Guzenski, J., Ferreira, J. F., Di Mascio, P., Marques, M. R. F. and Bainy, A. C. D. 2011. Salinity influences glutathione S-transferase activity and lipid peroxidation responses in the Crassostrea gigas oyster exposed to diesel oil. Science of the Total Environment, 409: 1976-1983. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.048

Zanette, J., Nunes, F. F., Medeiros, I. D., Siebert, M. N., Mattos, J. J., Lüchmann, K. H., Melo, C. M. R. & Bainy, A. C. D. (2008). Comparison of the antioxidant defense system in Crassostrea rhizophorae and Crassostrea gigas exposed to domestic sewage discharges. Marine Environmental Research, 66: 196-198. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.02.057

Downloads

Published

06/06/2021

How to Cite

MOTA, T. A. .; WINKALER, E. U. .; OLIVEIRA, G. de .; ROCHA, S. S. da . Enzymatic response of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877) exposed to water from urban and rural rivers in Bahia, Brazil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 6, p. e46010615638, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i6.15638. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/15638. Acesso em: 15 jun. 2021.

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences