Analysis of the Sense of Coherence, anxiety and depression in graduate students: Follow-up study

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16473

Keywords:

Anxiety; Depression; Resilience psychological.

Abstract

Interest in research that measures anxiety, depression and resilience among graduate students in the health area during the course has increased in the last years. This follow-up analytical study evaluated the presence of anxiety, depression and a sense of coherence (resilience) in graduate students at UPE and UFPB in Dentistry and other courses (Nursing, Physical Education, Hebiatry, Forensic Skills). A socio-economic questionnaire was used, followed by the Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC) that measures the individual's ability to be adaptive to daily events. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) measured state-anxiety (about an event) and trait-anxiety (personal characteristic). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was the fourth instrument in this research. The first data collection was performed in the inaugural classes of the 2019/2020 master classes, the second data collection was performed at the time of the students' qualification. Research participants showed an increase in the sense of coherence, an increase in anxiety-state levels from 14.6% to 36.7% (p <0.001) and trait-anxiety continued with high levels. In the second moment, 2 students presented severe depression and 72.5% minimal depression. It was concluded that there was an increase in the sense of coherence, the emergence of severe depression, trace-anxiety at a moderate level and an increase in state-anxiety (p <0.001) among the graduate students surveyed.

References

Almalik, M., Alnowaiser, A., El Meligy, O., Sallam, J., & Balkheyour, Y. (2018). Clinical Anxiety among Saudi Postgraduate Pediatric Dentistry Students in Jeddah City. International journal of dentistry, 2018, 5863869. 10.1155/2018/5863869

American Psychiatric Association – APA. (2014). Manual diagnóstico e estatístico de transtornos mentais: DSM-5 (5a ed.), Artmed.

Antonovsky A. (1993). The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Social science & medicine (1982), 36(6), 725–733. 10.1016/0277-9536(93)90033-z.

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of general psychiatry, 4, 561–571. 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004

Costa, E. G., & Nebel, L. (2018) O quanto vale a dor? Estudo sobre a saúde mental de estudantes de pós-graduação no Brasil. Polis, 50, 207-227 http://journals.openedition.org/polis/15816

Costa G. (set, 2019). Capes anuncia corte de 5613 bolsas de pós-graduação para este ano. Agencia Brasil, Brasília, DF. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/educacao/noticia/2019-09/capes-anuncia-corte-de-5613-bolsas-de-pos-graduacao-para-este-ano.shtml

Cirani, C. B., Silva, Campanario, M. A. & Silva, H. H. M. (2015). A evolução do ensino da pós-graduação senso estrito no Brasil: análise exploratória e proposições para pesquisa. Avaliação: Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas), 20(1), 163-187. 10.590/S1414-40772015000500011

Garcia da Costa, E., & Nebel, L. (2018). O quanto vale a dor? Estudo sobre a saúde mental de estudantes de pós-graduação no Brasil. Polis (Santiago), 17(50), 207-227. 10.4067/S0718-65682018000200207

Evans, T. M., Bira, L., Gastelum, J. B., Weiss, L. T., & Vanderford, N. L. (2018). Evidence for a mental health crisis in graduate education. Nature biotechnology, 36(3), 282–284. 10.1038/nbt.4089

Faro, A. (2013). Estresse e estressores na pós-graduação: estudo com mestrandos e doutorandos no Brasil. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 29(1), 51-60. 10.1590/S0102-37722013000100007

Freire, M. C., Sheiham, A., & Hardy, R. (2001). Adolescents' sense of coherence, oral health status, and oral health-related behaviours. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 29(3), 204–212. 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2001.290306.x

Garista, P., Pocetta, G., & Lindström, B. (2019). Picturing academic learning: salutogenic and health promoting perspectives on drawings. Health promotion international, 34(4), 859–868. 10.1093/heapro/day027

Greimel, E., Kato, Y., Müller-Gartner, M., Salchinger, B., Roth, R., & Freidl, W. (2016). Internal and External Resources as Determinants of Health and Quality of Life. PloS one, 11(5), e0153232. 10.1371/journal.pone.0153232

Hoying, J., Melnyk, B. M., Hutson, E., & Tan, A. (2020). Prevalence and Correlates of Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Healthy Beliefs, and Lifestyle Behaviors in First-Year Graduate Health Sciences Students. Worldviews on evidence-based nursing, 17(1), 49–59. 10.1111/wvn.12415

Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein, & Trad, Leny Alves Bomfim. (2020). Perfil da produção bibliográfica em Ciências Sociais e Humanas em Saúde e a percepção de pesquisadores: avanços, limites e desafios. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 36(5), e00085019. 10.1590/0102-311x00085019

Ito, M., Seo, E., Maeno, T., Ogawa, R., & Maeno, T. (2018). Relationship Between Depression and Stress Coping Ability Among Residents in Japan: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study. Journal of clinical medicine research, 10(9), 715–721. 10.14740/jocmr3512w

Jeong, Y. J., & Koh, C. K. (2021). Female nursing graduate students' stress and health: the mediating effects of sense of coherence and social support. BMC nursing, 20(1), 40. 10.1186/s12912-021-00562-x

Kamat, C. A., Todakar, M., Rangalakshmi, S., & Pawan (2015). Awareness about scope of anaesthesiology, attitudes towards the speciality and stress levels amongst postgraduate students in anaesthesiology: A cross-sectional study. Indian journal of anaesthesia, 59(2), 110–117. 10.4103/0019-5049.151375

Klawonn, A., Kernan, D., & Lynskey, J. (2019). A 5-Week Seminar on the Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Self-Care Improves Anxiety, Self-Compassion, Mindfulness, Depression, and Stress in Graduate Healthcare Students. International journal of yoga therapy, 29(1), 81–89. 10.17761/D-18-2019-00026

Komarov, O., Ko, L. W., & Jung, T. P. (2020). Associations Among Emotional State, Sleep Quality, and Resting-State EEG Spectra: A Longitudinal Study in Graduate Students. IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 28(4), 795–804. 10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2972812

Levecque, K., Anssel, F., De Beuckelaer, A., Van der Heyden, J., Gisle, L. (2017). Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students. Res Policy,46, 868-879. 10.1016/j.respol.2017.02.008

Lindmark, U., Ahlstrand, I., Ekman, A., Berg, L., Hedén, L., Källstrand, J., Larsson, M., Nunstedt, H., Oxelmark, L., Pennbrant, S., Sundler, A., Larsson, I., & Impact within the Swedish framework for “Health Research in Collaboration” (2020). Health-promoting factors in higher education for a sustainable working life - protocol for a multicenter longitudinal study. BMC public health, 20(1), 233. 10.1186/s12889-020-8181-3

Lindström, B., & Eriksson, M. (2011). From health education to healthy learning: implementing salutogenesis in educational science. Scandinavian journal of public health, 39(6 Suppl), 85–92. 10.1177/1403494810393560

Liu, C., Wang, L., Qi, R., Wang, W., Jia, S., Shang, D., Shao, Y., Yu, M., Zhu, X., Yan, S., Chang, Q., & Zhao, Y. (2019). Prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety among doctoral students: the mediating effect of mentoring relationships on the association between research self-efficacy and depression/anxiety. Psychology research and behavior management, 12, 195–208. 10.2147/PRBM.S195131

Mazurek Melnyk, B., Slevin, C., Militello, L., Hoying, J., Teall, A., & McGovern, C. (2016). Physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health of entering graduate health professional students: Evidence to support screening and early intervention. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 28(4), 204–211. 10.1002/2327-6924.12350

Macauley K, Plummer L, Bemis C, Brock G, Larson C, Spangler J. (2018). Prevalence and predictors of anxiety in health care professions students. Health Professions Education, 4, 176-185. 10.1016/j.hpe.2018.01.001

Mirza, W., Mirza, A. M., Saleem, M. S., Chacko, P. P., Ali, M., Tarar, M. N., Babar, A., Freiwald, J., & Talitskiy, K. (2018). Well-being Assessment of Medical Professionals in Progressive Levels of Training: Derived from the WHO-5 Well-being Index. Cureus, 10(12), e3790. 10.7759/cureus.3790

Monrouxe, L. V., Bullock, A., Tseng, H. M., & Wells, S. E. (2017). Association of professional identity, gender, team understanding, anxiety and workplace learning alignment with burnout in junior doctors: a longitudinal cohort study. BMJ open, 7(12), e017942. 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017942

Nagy, G. A., Fang, C. M., Hish, A. J., Kelly, L., Nicchitta, C. V., Dzirasa, K., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2019). Burnout and Mental Health Problems in Biomedical Doctoral Students. CBE life sciences education, 18(2), ar27. 10.1187/cbe.18-09-0198

Oliveira, H. A. L., Conceição, M. I. G. (2018). Sofrimento mental de pós-graduandos na UNB: Levantamento e propostas de solução. Anais do 6º Congresso Brasileiro de saúde mental: Agir e transformar: pessoas, afetos e conexões, Brasília - DF Anais (on-line). Brasília: http://www.congresso2018.abrasme.org.br/site/anaiscomplementares2?AREA=6#php2go_top

Puthran, R., Zhang, M. W., Tam, W. W., & Ho, R. C. (2016). Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Medical education, 50(4), 456–468. 10.1111/medu.12962

Racic, M., Todorovic, R., Ivkovic, N., Masic, S., Joksimovic, B., & Kulic, M. (2017). Self- Perceived Stress in Relation to Anxiety, Depression and Health-related Quality of Life among Health Professions Students: A Cross-sectional Study from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Zdravstveno varstvo, 56(4), 251–259. 10.1515/sjph-2017-0034

Smith, E., & Brooks, Z. (University of Arizona.). (2015). Graduate student mental health 2015. National Association of graduate-professional student and the graduate professional student council (GPSC). http://nagps.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/NAGPS_Institute_mental_hea lth_survey_report_2015.pdf

Spielberger, C. D., Gorssuch, R. L., Lushene, P. R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235361542_Manual_for_the_State-Trait_Anxiety_Inventory_Form_Y1_-_Y2

UPE/Pós-graduação, Pesquisa e Inovação (2021). http://www.upe.br/pos-graduacao-e-pesquisa.html

UFPB/PRPG/Pró-reitoria de pós-graduaçao (2021). http://www.prpg.ufpb.br/prpg/contents/paginas/programas-de-pos-graduacao/lista-de-cursos-de-pos-graduacao

Wahab, S., Mordiffi, S. Z., Ang, E., & Lopez, V. (2017). Light at the end of the tunnel: New graduate nurses' accounts of resilience: A qualitative study using Photovoice. Nurse education today, 52, 43–49. 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.02.007

Wanderley, M. B. (2017). Dilemmas and challenges posed to Graduate Studies in Brazil. Revista Katálysis, 20(2), 142-144. 10.1590/1982-02592017v20n2p142

Woolston C. (2019). PhDs: the tortuous truth. Nature, 575(7782), 403–406. 10.1038/d41586-019-03459-7

World Health Organization. (‎2017)‎. Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates. World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO 2017 24 p. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/254610

Zhang, Y., Liu, R., Li, G., Mao, S., & Yuan, Y. (2015). The reliability and validity of a Chinese-version Short Health Anxiety Inventory: an investigation of university students. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 11, 1739–1747. 10.2147/NDT.S83501

World Health Organization. (2020a). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak Geneva: Author. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf

Published

21/06/2021

How to Cite

SILVA, P. F.; CALDAS JÚNIOR, A. de F.; ALBUQUERQUE, D. S. Analysis of the Sense of Coherence, anxiety and depression in graduate students: Follow-up study. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 7, p. e28610716473, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16473. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/16473. Acesso em: 24 apr. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences