Evaluation of TIG dental welding applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different diameters: Analysis by Ultimate Tensile Strength, Vickers Hardness, and Finite Element Method
Keywords:Dental Soldering; Scanning Electron Microscopy; Finite element analysis.
There is limited information in literature regarding the accomplishment of Ti-6Al-4V TIG joints welded in prefabricated bars applied to dentistry. Evaluate the ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding technique in different diameters. Material and methods: Forty-five specimens were prepared and divided into 5 groups: control group (CG) (n=5), with intact bars in a diameter of 3.0mm, and groups TIG2.5, TIG3, TIG4, TIG5 (n=10) with diameters of 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 mm respectively, welded with TIG in a pulse of 10(ms) and in a depth of 3(A). The specimens were tested by both radiographic inspection and penetrating liquids. After that, they were tested by ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the elongation percentage (EP) was obtained. Images from fractured samples were taken and the welded areas percentage (WAP) was calculated. Random images were also taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Vickers hardness was obtained for base metal (BM), Heat affected zone (HAZ) and Welded zone (WZ). Finite element models were constructed. One-way Anova, Dunnet and Tukey tests (α=.05) were used for statistical analysis of UTS, WAP and EP for different groups and for differences in regions (BM, HAZ and WZ). Finite element models were developed in a workbench environment with boundary conditions simulating a tensile test. The majority of the specimens showed internal voids on radiographic inspection, but porosities or groves were not observed on their surface on penetrant liquid test. Most of the samples fractured in the welded area. The 1-way ANOVA showed significant differences among the groups for UTS, WAP and EP values (P<.001). The Dunnett test showed that TIG3, TIG4 and TIG5 groups had lower UTS values than those of the CG, but TIG2.5 group had no statistical difference in relation to CG. The 1-way ANOVA showed significant differences among the regions (P<.001) for Vickers hardness. Under the experimental conditions described, the diameter of 2.5 seems to be the best option for joining prefabricated rods in this kind of union and in this regulation of the machine.
ASTM. (2008). Designation: E 8M – 04, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) International, West Conshohocken, PA, 24 p. https://www.astm.org/Standards/E8M
ASTM. (2003). Designation: ASTM E92, Standard Test Methods for Vickers Hardness and Knoop Hardness of Metallic Materials, (ASTM) International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://www.astm.org/Standards/E92
Atoui, J. A., Felipucci, D. N. B., Pagnano, V. O., Orsi, I. A., Nóbilo, M. A. A., & Bezzon, O. L. (2013). Tensile and flexural strength of commercially pure titanium submitted to laser and tugsten inert gas welds. Brazilian Dental Journal, 24(6):630-634. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302241
Akman, E., Demir, A., Canel, T., & Sinmazçelik, T. (2009). Laser welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(8):3705-3713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.08.026
Baba N., & Watanabe, I. (2005). Penetration deph into dental casting alloys by Nd:YAG laser. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 72B(1):64-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30117
Barbi, F. C. L., Camarini, E. T., Silva, R. S., Endo, E. H., & Pereira, J. R. (2012). Comparative analysis of different joining techniques to improve the passive fit of cobalt-chromium superstructures. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 108(6):377-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(12)60196-6
Berg, E., Wagner, W. C., Davik, G., & Dootz, E. R. (1995). Mechanical properties of laser-welded cast and wrought titanium. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 74 (3):250-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(05)80131-3
Byrne, G. (2011). Soldering in prosthodontics - an overview, part I. Journal of Prosthodontics, 20(3):233-243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2011.00691.x
Castro, G. C., Araújo, C. A., Mesquita, M. F., Consani, R. L. X., & Nóbilo, M. A. A. (2013).Stress distribution in Co-Cr implant frameworks after laser or TIG welding. Brazilian Dental Journal, 4(2):147-151. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302112
Castro, M. G., Araújo, C. A., Menegaz, G. L., Lyra e Silva, J. P., Nóbilo, M. A. A., & Simamoto-Júnior, P. C. (2015). Laser and Plasma dental soldering techniques applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloy: Ultimate tensile strength and finite elemento analysis.The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 113(5):460-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.10.008
Chai, T., & Chou, C. K. (1998). Mechanical properties of laser-welded cast titanium joints under different conditions. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 79(4):477-483. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(98)70165-9
Kokolis, J., Chakmakchi, M., Theocharopoulos, A., Prombonas, A., & Zinelis, S. (2015). Mechanical and interfacial characterization of laser welded Co-Cr alloy with diferente joint configurations. The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics, 7(1):39-46.https://doi.org/10.4047/jap.2015.7.1.39
Lyra e Silva, J. P., Fernandes Neto, A. J., Raposo, L. H. A., Novais, V. R., Araujo, C. A., Cavalcante, L. A. L., & Simamoto-Júnior, P. C. (2012).Effect of plasma welding parameters on the flexural strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Brazilian Dental Journal, 23(6):686-691. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402012000600010
Nuñez-Pantoja, J. M. C., Takahashi, J. M. F. K., Nóbilo, M. A. A., Consani, R. L. X., & Mesquita, M. F. (2011). Radiographic inspection of porosity in Ti-6Al-4V laser-welded joints. Brazilian Oral Research, 25(2):103-108. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-83242011005000005
Nuñez-Pantoja, J. M. C., Farina, A. P., Vaz, L. G., Consani, R. L. X., Nóbilo, M. A. A., & Mesquita, M. F. (2012). Fatigue strength: effect of welding type and joint design executed in Ti-6Al-4V structures. Gerodontology, 29(2):e1005-e1010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00598.x
Perveen, A., Molardi, C., & Fornaini, C. (2018). Applications of Laser Welding in Dentistry: A State-of-the-Art Review. Micromachines, 9(5): 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050209
Rocha, R., Pinheiro, A. L. B., & Villaverde, A. B. (2006). Flexural strength of pure Ti, Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys submitted to Nd:YAG laser or TIG welding. Brazilian Dental Journal, 17(1):20-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402006000100005
Silveira-Júnior, C. D., Castro, M. G., Davi, L. R., Neves, F. D., Novais, V. R., & Simamoto-Júnior, P. C. (2012). Welding techniques in dentistry. In: Kovacevic R (Ed.), Welding Processes. 17th ed (pp. 415-438). Croatia: In tech.
Simamoto-Júnior, P. C., Novais, V. R., Machado, A. R., Soares, C. J., & Raposo, L. H. A. (2015).Effect of joint design and welding type on the flexural strength and wel penetration of Ti-6Al-4V alloy bars. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 113(5):467-474.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.10.010
Takayama, Y., Nomoto, R., Nakajima, H., & Ohkubo, C. (2012). Effects of argon flow rate on laser-welding. Dental Materials Journal, 31(2):316-326. https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2011-158
Takayama, Y., Nomoto, R., Nakajima, H., & Ohkubo, C. (2013) Comparasion of joint designs for laser welding of cast metal plates and wrought wires. Odontology, 101:34-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10266-011-0049-7
Taylor, J. C., Hondrum, S. O., Prasad A., & Brodersen C. A. (1998). Effects of joint configuration for the arc welding of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy rods in argon.The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 79(3):291-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(98)70240-9
Wang, R. R., & Welsch, G. E. (1995). Joining titanium materials with tungsten inert gas welding, laser welding, and infrared brazing. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 74(5):521-530. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(05)80356-7
Watanabe, I., & Topham, D. S. (2006). Laser welding of cast titanium and dental alloys using argon shielding. Journal of Prosthodontics, 15(2):102-107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2006.00082.x
Welsch, G., Boyer, R., & Collings, E. W. (1993). Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium alloys materials properties handbook. In ASM International (Ed.), 1176 p.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Morgana Guilherme de Castro Silverio; Gabriela Lima Menegaz; Cleudmar Amaral Araújo; Washington Martins da Silva Júnior; Paulo Cézar Simamoto Júnior
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.