Effects of passive smoking on the health of children and adolescents: a systematic review
Keywords:Long Term Adverse Effects; Systematic Review; Tobacco Smoke Pollution.
Despite growing global efforts to control tobacco use, it remains a common addiction. Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke from tobacco derivatives by non-smokers, breathing in the same toxic substances that the smoker inhales. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the possible effects of passive smoking on the health of children and adolescents. The PICO tool was used to prepare the research question. The protocol of this study was submitted to PROSPERO and the PRISMA guidelines were followed. The following databases were used: LILACS, MEDLINE and EMBASE. As a result, 493 articles were identified from the last 5 years, 8 articles were removed for being duplicates, 439 articles were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria, 8 articles were excluded for poor methodological quality and 38 were included in the study. It was concluded, as evidence, that passive smoking has negative effects on the health of children and adolescents and was associated with respiratory, infectious, psychoneurocognitive, metabolic, cardiovascular, otorhinolaryngological, allergic disorders and increased mortality.
Adetifa, I. M. O., Kendall, L., Donkor, S., Lugos, M. D., Hammond, A. S., Owiafe, P. K., Hill, P. C. (2017, Aug). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Close Childhood Contacts of Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis is Increased by Secondhand Exposure to Tobacco. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 97(2).
Bahl, V., Iii, P. J., Havel, C., Schick, S. F., & Talbot, P. (2014, Oct). Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation. PLOS ONE, 9(10).
Bang, I., Jeong, Y., Park, Y., Moon, N., Lee, J., & Jeon, T. (2017, Aug). Secondhand Smoking Is Associated with Poor Mental Health in Korean Adolescents. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 242(4), 317 –326.
Bastos, J. L. D., & Duquia, R. P. (2007, Dec). Um dos delineamentos mais empregados em epidemiologia: estudo transversal. Scientia Medica, 17(4), 229 – 232.
Bhandary, S., Rao, S., Shetty, S., & D’Cruz, A. M. (2016, Apr). Estimation of salivary biomarkers in passive smoking children - a comparative study. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, 15(2), 160 – 165.
Boldo, E., Medina, S., Öberg, M., Puklová, V., Mekel, O., Patja, K., Posada, M. (2010, May). Health Impact Assessment of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in European Children: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Asthma Episodes. Public Health Reports, 125(3), 478 – 487.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2018). Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. From https://www.cdc.gov
Chen, J. J., Ho, S. Y., Au, W. M., Wang, M. P., & Lam, T. H. (2015, Nov). Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(11), 14557 – 14570.
Chen, Z., Liu, G., Chen, J., Li, S., Jiang, T., Xu, B., & Ye, X. (2018, Apr). Frequency-risk relationships between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in South China. BMJ Open, 8(4).
Downs, S. H., & Black, N. (1998, Jun). The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52(6), 377 – 384.
Durante, A. S., Massa, B., Pucci, B., Gudayol, N., Gameiro, M., & Lopes, C. (2017, Jun). Effect of passive smoking on auditory temporal resolution in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 97, 18 – 23.
Ebrahimi, M., Aghdam, M. H., Qorbani, M., Kaboodan, F. A., Shafiee, G., Khatami, F., Heshmat, R. (2019, Aug). Passive smoking and cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN-V study. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, 18(2), 401 – 408.
Farias, F., Milaneis, F., Lopes, F., Campos, N., Soares, T., Staniszewski, T., & Chong-Silva, D. C. (2015). Approach of passive smoking by Brazilian pediatricians. European Respiratory Journal, 46(suppl 59).
Fedele, D. A., Tooley, E., Busch, A., McQuaid, E. L., Hammond, S. K., & Borrelli, B. (2016, Feb). Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure in minority and nonminority children with asthma. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 35(2), 115 –122.
Figueiró, L. R., Ziulkoski, A. L., Dantas, D. C. M., Figueiró, L. R., Ziulkoski, A. L., & Dantas, D. C. M. (2016, Nov). Thirdhand smoke: when the danger is more than you can see or smell. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 32(11).
Fujita, T., Babazono, A., Harano, Y., & Jiang, P. (2019, Jun). Secondhand Smoke and Streptococcal Infection in Young Children Under Japan’s Voluntary Tobacco-Free Policy. Population Health Management, 22(3), 272 – 277.
Groner, J. A., Huang, H., Eastman, N., Lewis, L., Joshi, M. S., Schanbacher, B. L., Bauer, J. A. (2016, Jul). Oxidative Stress in Youth and Adolescents With Elevated Body Mass Index Exposed to Secondhand Smoke. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 18(7), 1622 – 1627.
Groner, J. A., Huang, H., Joshi, M. S., Eastman, N., Nicholson, L., & Bauer, J. A. (2017, Oct). Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Risk in Toddlers. Journal of Pediatrics, 189, 155 – 161.
Hamed, N. A. A., Hammad, E. E. M., Salama, R. H., Yassa, H. A., & Awaga, M. M. (2020). Secondhand smoke as a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Inhalation Toxicology, 31(11-12), 420 – 427.
Hassanzad, M., Khalilzadeh, S., Nobari, S. E., Bloursaz, M., Sharifi, H., Mohajerani, S. A., Velayati, A. A. (2015, Feb). Cotinine level is associated with asthma severity in passive smoker children. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 14(1), 67 – 73.
Huang, J., Xu, B., Guo, D., Jiang, T., Huang, W., Liu, G., & Ye, X. (2018, May). Relationships between SecondHand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(5).
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística [IBGE] (2013). Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. From ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/PNS/20
Instituto Nacional de Câncer [INCA] (2018). Tabagismo Passivo. From https://www.inca.gov.br/tabagismo/tabagismo-passivo
Instituto Nacional de Câncer [INCA] (2019). Dados e Números da Prevalência do Tabagismo. From https://www.inca.gov
Jing, W., Wang, W., & Liu, Q. (2019, Mar). Passive smoking induces pediatric asthma by affecting the balance of Treg/Th17 cells. Pediatric Research, 85(4), 469 – 476.
Kahraman, F. U., Torun, E., Osmanoglu, N. K., Oruçlu, S., & Ozer, O. F. (2017, Jan). Serum oxidative stress parameters and paraoxonase-1 in children and adolescents exposed to passive smoking. Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society, 59(1), 68 – 73.
Kim, J., Lee, E., Lee, K., & Kim, K. (2019, Mar). Relationships Between Secondhand Smoke Incursion and Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Eczema Symptoms in Children Living in Homes Without Smokers in Multi-Unit Housing. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 21(4), 424 – 429.
Kim, N. H., Park, J. H., Choi, D. P., Lee, J. Y., & Kim, H. C. (2016, Dec). Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study. PloS One, 11(12).
Leung, L. T., Ho, S. Y., Wang, M. P., & Lam, T. H. (2018, Jan). Secondhand Smoke From Multiple Sources, Thirdhand Smoke and Respiratory Symptoms in Hong Kong Adolescents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 20(2), 192 – 198.
Loffredo, L., Zicari, A. M., Occasi, F., Perri, L., Carnevale, R., Angelico, F., Violi, F. (2018, Oct). Role of NADPH oxidase-2 and oxidative stress in children exposed to passive smoking. Thorax, 73(10), 986 – 988.
Loffredo, L., Zicari, A. M., Occasi, F., Perri, L., Carnevale, R., Battaglia, S., Violi, F. (2018, Nov). Passive Smoking Exacer
bates Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Isoform 2-Induced Oxidative Stress and Arterial Dysfunction in Children with Persistent Allergic Rhinitis. Journal of Pediatrics, 202, 252 – 257.
Luk, T. T., Wang, M. P., Suen, Y. N., Koh, D. S., Lam, T. H., & Chan, S. S. (2018, Oct). Early childhood exposure to second
hand smoke and behavioural problems in preschoolers. Scientific Reports, 8(1).
Mahabee-Gittens, E. M., Merianos, A. L., Fulkerson, P. C., Stone, L., & Matt, G. E. (2019, Nov). The Association of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Inflammatory Markers in Hospitalized Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23).
Matt, G. E., Quintana, P. J. E., Destaillats, H., Gundel, L. A., Sleiman, M., Singer, B. C., Hovell, M. F. (2011, Sep). Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(9), 1218 – 1226.
Merianos, A. L., Jandarov, R. A., & Mahabee-Gittens, E. M. (2019, Apr). Association of secondhand smoke exposure with asthma symptoms, medication use, and healthcare utilization among asthmatic adolescents. Journal of Asthma : Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma, 56(4), 369 – 379.
Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., Whitlock, E. (2015, Jan). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews, 4(1).
Öberg, M., Jaakkola, M. S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A., & Prüss-Ustün, A. (2011, Jan). Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet, 377(9760), 139 – 146.
Owili, P. O., Muga, M. A., Pan, W., & Kuo, H. (2017, May). Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in 23 sub-Saharan Africa countries: A population based study and meta-analysis. PloS One, 12(5).
Padrón, A., Galán, I., García-Esquinas, E., Esteve Fernández, Ballbè, M., & Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2016, May). Exposure to secondhand smoke in the home and mental health in children: a population-based study. Tobacco Control, 25(3), 307 – 312.
Pagani, L. S., & Fitzpatrick, C. (2016, Oct). Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10. Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 43(5), 584 – 591.
Pagani, L. S., Lévesque-Seck, F., Archambault, I., & Janosz, M. (2017, May). Prospective longitudinal associations between household smoke exposure in early childhood and antisocial behavior at age 12. Indoor Air, 27(3), 622 – 630.
Pyle, R. C., Divekar, R., May, S. M., Narla, N., Pianosi, P. T., Hartz, M. F., Joshi, A. Y. (2015, Sep). Asthma-associated comorbidities in children with and without secondhand smoke exposure. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology : Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 115(3), 205 – 210.
Ribeiro, F. A., de Moraes, M. K. R., de Morais Caixeta, J. C., da Silva, J. N., Lima, A. S., Parreira, S. L. S., & Fernandes, V. L. S. (2015, Dec). Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 33(4), 394 – 399.
Sigaud, C. H., de Couto Castanheira, A. B., & Costa, P. (2020). Association between secondhand smoking in the home and respiratory morbidity in preschool children. Revista Da Escola De Enfermagem Da USP, 50(4), 562 – 568.
Suzuki, S., Sato, K., Watanabe, H., Nezu, Y., & Nishimuta, T. (2015, Nov). Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students. J. Med. Virol., 87(11), 1853 –1859.
Tahir, E., Kavaz, E., & Ya¸sar, O. C. (2020, Mar). The Effect of Parental Smoking on Voice-Related Quality of Life in the Pediatric Population. Journal of Voice : Official Journal of the Voice Foundation, S0892-1997(20), 30060 – 30066.
Torun, E., Kahraman, F. U., Goksu, A. Z., Vahapoglu, A., & Cakin, Z. E. (2019, May). Serum catalase, thiol and myeloperoxidase levels in children passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 45(1).
Wada, K., Ueyama, J., Konishi, K., Goto, Y., Koda, S., Mizuta, F., Nagata, C. (2020, May). Associations between Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Japanese Children. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2020.
Wang, H., Li, F., Zhang, Y., Jiang, F., & Zhang, J. (2019, Jul). The association between exposure to secondhand smoke and psychological symptoms among Chinese children. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 923 –.
Wellman, R. J., Wilson, K. M., O’Loughlin, E. K., Dugas, E. N., Montreuil, A., & O’Loughlin, J. (2020, Jan). Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 22(1), 32 – 39.
Yilmaz, O., Turkeli, A., Onur, E., Bilge, S., & Yuksel, H. (2018, May). Secondhand tobacco smoke and severity in wheezing children: Nasal oxidant stress and inflammation. Journal of Asthma : Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma, 55(5), 477 – 482.
Zhang, Z., Ma, J., Wang, Z., Dong, Y., Yang, Z., Dong, B., & Ma, Y. (2019, Apr). Parental smoking and blood pressure in children and adolescents: a national cross-sectional study in China. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ana Carolina Vieira Azevedo; Giulia Vittoria Ambrogi Pereira ; Mariana Xavier e Silva; Kristian Sbolli; Elaine Rossi Ribeiro
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.