Ozonation in a cold room during the partial maturation of parmesan cheese





Parmesan type cheese; Maturation; Ozone; Fungal growth.


Microbial contamination can occur during cheese production, and lack of common hygiene contributes to the contamination. Cheese maturation chambers also stand out in favoring fungal multiplication, due to their temperature and humidity conditions, the growth of fungi in parmesan cheese being harmful to both its composition and its structure and appearance, which can lead to rejection by the consumer, causing economic loss in addition to the waste of raw materials. Thus, ozone was used in the maturation of Parmesan cheese, in order to control fungal growth. Analyzes of water activity, color and microbiological analyzes were carried out for 90 days. The gas had no influence on the water activity of the cheeses, whereas in the color results it was found that there was no significant difference only for the 90-day measurements. For the results of coliforms at 35 and 45°C, staphylococci and Salmonella, values were found that met the specifications. Regarding the results of molds and yeasts, ozone managed to reduce the count in the ripening environment.


APHA, 2001. Frances, P.D., Keith, I. (Eds.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (4th ed), American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Argenti, G., Parrini, S., Staglianò, N., & Bozzi, R. (2021). Evolution of production and forage quality in sown meadows of a mountain area inside parmesan cheese consortium. Agronomy Research, 19(2), 344–356. https://doi.org/10.15159/AR.21.061

Barros, J. J. de C., Azevedo, A. C. de, Faleiros Júnior, L. R., Taboga, S. R., & Penna, A. L. B. (2011). Queijo Parmesão: caracterização físico-química, microbiológica e microestrutura. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 31(2), 285–294. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612011000200002

Canteri, M. G., Althaus, R. A., Virgens Filho, J. S. Giglioti, E. A., & Godoy, C. V. (2001). Sistema para análise e separação de médias em experimentos agrícolas pelos métodos Scoft - Knott, Tukey e Duncan. Revista Brasileira de Agrocomputação, 1(2), 18–24.

Custódio, F. B., Tavares, É., & Glória, M. B. A. (2007). Extraction of bioactive amines from grated Parmesan cheese using acid, alkaline and organic solvents. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3–4), 280–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.06.009

Fernandes, R. V. B., Botrel, D. A., Monteiro, P. S., Borges, S. V., Souza, A. U., & Mendes, L. E. S. (2018). Microencapsulated oregano essential oil in grated Parmesan cheese conservation. International Food Research Journal, 25(2), 661–669.

Franco, B. D. G. M., & Landgraf, M. (2005). Microbiologia dos Alimentos (2nd ed.). Atheneu.

Hillmann, H., & Hofmann, T. (2016). Quantitation of Key Tastants and Re-engineering the Taste of Parmesan Cheese. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(8), 1794–1805. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00112

Horvath, M., Bilitzky, L., & Huttner, J. (1985). Ozone. Elsevier.

Jaster, H., de Campos, A. C. L. P., Auer, L. B., Los, F. G. B., Salem, R. D. S., Esmerino, L. A., Nogueira, A., & Demiate, I. M. (2014). Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: A chemometric approach. Food Science and Technology, 34(1), 181–188. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612014000100026

Kędzierska-Matysek, M., Barłowska, J., Wolanciuk, A., & Litwińczuk, Z. (2018). Physicochemical, mechanical and sensory properties of long-ripened Polish and Italian cheeses and their content of selected minerals. Journal of Elementology, 23(3), 985–998. https://doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2017.22.4.1452

Khadre, M. A., Yousef, A. E., & Kim, J. G. (2001). Microbiological aspects of ozone applications in food: A review. Journal of Food Science, 66(9), 1242–1252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2001.tb15196.x

Kim, J. G., Yousef, A. E., & Dave, S. (1999). Application of ozone for enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of foods: A review. Journal of Food Protection, 62(9), 1071–1087. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.9.1071

Lanita, C. de S., & Silva, S. B. (2008). Uso de ozônio em câmara industrial para controle de bolores e leveduras durante a maturação de queijo tipo parmesão. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 11, 182–189.

Pereira, S. A., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J. & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. UFSM.

Pimentel, E. F., Dias, R. S., Ribeiro-Cunha, M., & Glória, M. B. A. (2002). Avaliação da rotulagem e da qualidade físico-química e microbiológica de queijo ralado. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 22(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612002000300016

Pinto, A. T., Schmidt, V., Raimundo, S. A., & Raihmer, F. (2007). Uso de ozônio no controle de fungos em sala de maturação de queijos. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 35(3), 333. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.16125

Sora, G. T. de S., Franciosi, A. E. S., Bergamasco, R., & Vieira, A. M. S. (2013). Development and the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses of red pepper seasoned with parmesan cheese. Acta Scientiarum. Technology, 35(3). https://doi.org/10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12794

Srey, S., Jahid, I. K., & Ha, S.-D. (2013). Biofilm formation in food industries: A food safety concern. Food Control, 31(2), 572–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.12.001

Starikoff, K. R., Fontanesi, C. D., Maciel, F. M., Ikuta, C. Y., Ferreira, F., Ferreira Neto, J. S., Dias, R. A., Amaku, M., Cortez, A., Heinemann, M. B., Grisi-Filho, J. H. H., Gonçalves, V. S. P., Silva, P. H. F. da, Paula, J. C. J. de, & Telles, E. O. (2016). Decline in Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus populations during the maturation of experimentally contaminated parmesan-type cheese. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 37(5Supl2), 3743. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2016v37n5Supl2p3743

Trombete, F. M., Castro, I. M. de, Teixeira, A. da S., Saldanha, T., & Fraga, M. E. (2013). Aflatoxin M1 contamination in grated parmesan cheese marketed in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 57(2), 269–273. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132013005000015



How to Cite

GARGARO, I. M. .; BALDACIM, M. G. .; MARINS, A. R. de .; CAMPOS, T. A. F. de .; SILVA, N. M. da .; FEIHRMANN, A. C. . Ozonation in a cold room during the partial maturation of parmesan cheese . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 17, p. e91101724298, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i17.24298. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/24298. Acesso em: 6 jun. 2023.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences