Cardiovascular and nitric oxide response after maximal voluntary isometric contraction in adolescents with and without Down Syndrome




Down syndrome; Isometric exercise; Blood pressure; Nitric oxide; Adolescents.


Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as respostas cardiovasculares e de óxido nítrico (NO) à contração isométrica voluntária máxima (CIVM) com diferentes grupos musculares (leg press [LEP] e preensão manual isométrica [IHG]) de adolescentes com e sem síndrome de Down (SD). Alem de comparar a força IHG absoluta e relativa entre os grupos. Onze adolescentes com SD (14,1 ± 1,0 anos) e dez sem SD (13,7 ± 1,25 anos) realizaram duas sessões experimentais de exercícios LEP e IHG: 1) sessão de familiarização e 2) 3 tentativas x 5 segundos de contração na CIVM com 3- intervalo mínimo de descanso. A pressão arterial (PA), a frequência cardíaca (FC) e o NO foram coletados em repouso, imediatamente após a sessão de exercício e 10 minutos após o exercício. A dosagem de NO na saliva foi realizada pelo método colorimétrico de Griess. Não houve diferenças para respostas cardiovasculares e NO entre os grupos para CIVM. No entanto, o SD teve uma resposta cardiovascular menor, mas não significativamente, em repouso e após os testes de CIVM do que aqueles sem SD. O grupo SD apresentou maior concentração de NO em repouso, recuperação e após IHG quando comparado ao grupo não SD (P <0,05). Além disso, adolescentes com SD apresentaram menor nível de força de IHG absoluta e relativa quando comparados àqueles sem SD (P = 0,001). Indivíduos com SD apresentam menor resposta cardiovascular em repouso e após testes de CIVM e maior resposta de NO após o exercício quando comparados ao grupo sem SD.


Badrov, M. B., Bartol, C. L., DiBartolomeo, M. A., Millar, P. J., McNevin, N. H., & McGowan, C. L. (2013). Effects of isometric handgrip training dose on resting blood pressure and resistance vessel endothelial function in normotensive women. European journal of applied physiology, 113(8), 2091-2100.

Battagin, A. M., Dal Corso, S., Soares, C. L., Ferreira, S., Leticia, A., Souza, C., & Malaguti, C. (2010). Pressure response after resistance exercise for different body segments in hypertensive people. Arq Bras Cardiol, 95(3), 405-411. doi: 10.1590/s0066-782x2010005000117

Baynard, T., Pitetti, K. H., Guerra, M., & Fernhall, B. (2004). Heart rate variability at rest and during exercise in persons with Down syndrome. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 85(8), 1285-1290.

Bertapelli, F., Pitetti, K., Agiovlasitis, S., & Guerra-Junior, G. (2016). Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome—prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: a literature review. Research in developmental disabilities, 57, 181-192.

Boulton, D., Green, S., Macefield, V. G., & Taylor, C. E. (2019). A comparison of muscle sympathetic nerve activity to non-contracting muscle during isometric exercise in the upper and lower limbs. Frontiers in neuroscience, 13, 341.

Bunsawat, K., & Baynard, T. (2016). Cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip and submaximal cycling exercise in individuals with down syndrome. Clinical Autonomic Research, 26(4), 253-260.

Bunsawat, K., Goulopoulou, S., Collier, S., Figueroa, A., Pitetti, K., & Baynard, T. (2015). Normal HR with tilt, yet autonomic dysfunction in persons with Down syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(2), 250-256.

Cappelli-Bigazzi, M., Santoro, G., Battaglia, C., Palladino, M. T., Carrozza, M., Russo, M. G., . . . Calabrò, R. (2004). Endothelial cell function in patients with Down's syndrome. The American journal of cardiology, 94(3), 392-395.

Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences: Routledge.

Diaz, M. M., Bocanegra, O. L., Teixeira, R. R., Soares, S. S., & Espindola, F. S. (2013). Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load. Int J Sports Med, 34(1), 8-13. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1316318

Dvir, Z. (2015). Difference, significant difference and clinically meaningful difference: The meaning of change in rehabilitation. J Exerc Rehabil, 11(2), 67-73. doi: 10.12965/jer.150199

Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Zheng, N., Lander, J. E., Barrentine, S. W., Andrews, J. R., . . . Moorman, C. T., 3rd. (2001). Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(9), 1552-1566.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. J. B. r. m. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. 39(2), 175-191.

Fernhall, B., Mendonca, G. V., & Baynard, T. (2013). Reduced work capacity in individuals with Down syndrome: a consequence of autonomic dysfunction? Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 41(3), 138-147.

Fernhall, B., & Otterstetter, M. (2003). Attenuated responses to sympathoexcitation in individuals with Down syndrome. Journal of applied physiology, 94(6), 2158-2165.

Figueiredo IM, S. R., Mancini MC, Silva FCM, Souza MAP. (2007). Test of grip strength using the Jamar dynamometer. . Acta Fisiátrica, , 14(2).

Fisher, J. P., Ogoh, S., Dawson, E. A., Fadel, P. J., Secher, N. H., Raven, P. B., & White, M. J. (2006). Cardiac and vasomotor components of the carotid baroreflex control of arterial blood pressure during isometric exercise in humans. The Journal of physiology, 572(3), 869-880.

Fisher, J. P., Young, C. N., & Fadel, P. J. (2011). Autonomic adjustments to exercise in humans. Comprehensive Physiology, 5(2), 475-512.

Foley, C., & Killeen, O. G. (2019). Musculoskeletal anomalies in children with Down syndrome: an observational study. Archives of disease in childhood, 104(5), 482-487.

Gaffney, F., Sjøgaard, G., & Saltin, B. (1990). Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to static contraction in man. Acta physiologica scandinavica, 138(3), 249-258.

Ginis, K. A. M., van der Ploeg, H. P., Foster, C., Lai, B., McBride, C. B., Ng, K., . . . Vásquez, P. M. (2021). Participation of people living with disabilities in physical activity: a global perspective. The Lancet.

Heffernan, K. S., Baynard, T., Goulopoulou, S., Giannopoulou, I., Collier, S. R., Figueroa, A., & Fernhall, B. (2005). Baroreflex sensitivity during static exercise in individuals with Down syndrome. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2026.

Heffernan, K. S., Sosnoff, J. J., Ofori, E., Jae, S. Y., Baynard, T., Collier, S. R., . . . Pitetti, K. H. (2009). Complexity of force output during static exercise in individuals with Down syndrome. Journal of applied physiology, 106(4), 1227-1233.

Hu, M., Yan, H., Ranadive, S. M., Agiovlasitis, S., Fahs, C. A., Atiq, M., . . . Fernhall, B. (2013). Arterial stiffness response to exercise in persons with and without Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3139-3147.

Leti, T., Guinot, M., Favre-Juvin, A., & Bricout, V.-A. (2015). Difference of catecholamine responses to exercise in men with trisomy 21, with or without chronotropic incompetence. Physiology & behavior, 142, 97-103.

McLEAN, J. E., & Ernest, J. M. J. R. i. t. S. (1998). The role of statistical significance testing in educational research. 5(2).

Morrison, R. A., McGrath, A., Davidson, G., Brown, J. J., Murray, G. D., & Lever, A. F. (1996). Low blood pressure in Down's syndrome: a link with Alzheimer's disease? Hypertension, 28(4), 569-575.

Nascimento, E. F., Souza, M. K., Rosa, T. S., Melo, R., Leite, G., Sores, A., . . . Vanerson, R. (2016). Predictive Equation for Fat Percentage Based on Body Mass Index for Adolescents with Down Syndrome. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 19(4).

Olher, R. R., Rosa, T. S., Souza, L. H. R., Oliveira, J. F., Soares, B. R. A., Ribeiro, T. B. A., . . . Moraes, M. R. (2020). Isometric Exercise with Large Muscle Mass Improves Redox Balance and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 52(5), 1187-1195. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002223

Ortega, F. B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. BMJ, 345, e7279. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7279

Pickering, T. G., Hall, J. E., Appel, L. J., Falkner, B. E., Graves, J., Hill, M. N., . . . Roccella, E. J. (2005). Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension, 45(1), 142-161.

Pitetti, K. H., Climstein, M., Mays, M. J., & Barrett, P. J. (1992). Isokinetic arm and leg strength of adults with Down syndrome: a comparative study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 73(9), 847-850.

Portney, L. G., & Watkins, M. P. (2009). Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice (Vol. 892): Pearson/Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Presson, A. P., Partyka, G., Jensen, K. M., Devine, O. J., Rasmussen, S. A., McCabe, L. L., & McCabe, E. R. (2013). Current estimate of Down syndrome population prevalence in the United States. The Journal of pediatrics, 163(4), 1163-1168.

Roizen, N. J., & Patterson, D. (2003). Down's syndrome. The Lancet, 361(9365), 1281-1289.

Romitelli, F., Santini, S. A., Chierici, E., Pitocco, D., Tavazzi, B., Amorini, A. M., . . . Di Stasio, E. (2007). Comparison of nitrite/nitrate concentration in human plasma and serum samples measured by the enzymatic batch Griess assay, ion-pairing HPLC and ion-trap GC-MS: the importance of a correct removal of proteins in the Griess assay. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 851(1-2), 257-267. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.02.003

Santana, H. A., Moreira, S. R., Asano, R. Y., Sales, M. M., Córdova, C., Campbell, C. S., . . . Simoes, H. G. (2013). Exercise intensity modulates nitric oxide and blood pressure responses in hypertensive older women. Aging clinical and experimental research, 25(1), 43-48.

Sherman, S. R., Schroeder, E. C., Baynard, T., Fernhall, B., & Hilgenkamp, T. I. (2021). Hemodynamic Response to Isometric Handgrip Exercise in Adults with Intellectual Disability. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 53(3), 606.

Shields, N., Downs, J., de Haan, J. B., Taylor, N. F., Torr, J., Fernhall, B., . . . Leonard, H. (2018). What effect does regular exercise have on oxidative stress in people with Down syndrome? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 21(6), 596-603.

Shiohama, T., Levman, J., Baumer, N., & Takahashi, E. (2019). Structural magnetic resonance imaging-based brain morphology study in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome: the effect of comorbidities. Pediatric neurology, 100, 67-73.

Siri, W. E. (1993). Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. 1961. Nutrition, 9(5), 480-491; discussion 480, 492.

Subramaniam, P., Girish Babu, K., & Mohan Das, L. (2014). Assessment of salivary total antioxidant levels and oral health status in children with Down syndrome. Special Care in Dentistry, 34(4), 193-200.

Swinton, P. A., Hemingway, B. S., Saunders, B., Gualano, B., & Dolan, E. (2018). A Statistical Framework to Interpret Individual Response to Intervention: Paving the Way for Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Prescription. Front Nutr, 5, 41. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00041.

Zambrano, J. C., Marquina, R., Sulbarán, N., Rodríguez-Malaver, A. J., & Reyes, R. A. (2009). Aerobic exercise reduced oxidative stress in saliva of persons with Down syndrome. Research in Sports Medicine, 17(3), 195-203.




How to Cite

MELO, G. L. R. .; MORAES, M. R. .; ABREU, W. F. .; OLHER, R. R.; DEUS, L. A.; NEVES , R. V. P. .; ROSA, T. dos S. .; BOATO , E. M.; HODGE , S. R.; STONE , W.; NASCIMENTO , D. C. . Cardiovascular and nitric oxide response after maximal voluntary isometric contraction in adolescents with and without Down Syndrome . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 1, p. e50011125342, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i1.25342. Disponível em: Acesso em: 2 mar. 2024.



Health Sciences