Pre-eclampsia screening in the first trimester

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v12i1.39242

Keywords:

Pre eclampsia; First trimester of pregnancy; High risk pregnancy.

Abstract

The present study aimed to discuss pre-eclampsia screening in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is considered one of the main causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Because of this, it is important to identify pregnant women at risk of developing preeclampsia during the first trimester of pregnancy, thus allowing for timely therapeutic intervention. Professional organizations such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have proposed screening for preeclampsia based on maternal risk factors. However, few laboratory tests have high specificity and sensitivity to identify such pathology early. It is noteworthy that the Fetal Medicine Foundation's first trimester prediction model, which consists of a combination of maternal factors and measurements of mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, and serum placental growth factor, has undergone both internal and external validation as well. If successful, this screening test is superior to the traditional method (only for maternal risk factors). When identified, pregnant women at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia should use low-dose aspirin started before 16 weeks of gestation, as well as the use of calcium in pregnant women with low intake, aiming to reduce the rate of pre-eclampsia preterm. With that in mind, aiming at optimal screening performance, standardized protocols for measuring biomarkers and regularly assessing the quality of biomarkers should be established.

References

Abalos, E., Cuesta, C., Grosso, A. L., Chou, D., & Say, L. (2013). Global and regional estimates of preeclampsia and eclampsia: a systematic review. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 170(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2013.05.005

Ackerman, C. M., Platner, M. H., Spatz, E. S., Illuzzi, J. L., Xu, X., Campbell, K. H., Smith, G. N., Paidas, M. J., & Lipkind, H. S. (2019). Severe cardiovascular morbidity in women with hypertensive diseases during delivery hospitalization. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 220(6), 582.e1–582.e11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.02.010

Allen, R. E., Zamora, J., Arroyo-Manzano, D., Velauthar, L., Allotey, J., Thangaratinam, S., & Aquilina, J. (2017). External validation of preexisting first trimester preeclampsia prediction models. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 217, 119–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.08.031

Allotey, J., Snell, K. I., Smuk, M., Hooper, R., Chan, C. L., Ahmed, A., Chappell, L. C., von Dadelszen, P., Dodds, J., Green, M., Kenny, L., Khalil, A., Khan, K. S., Mol, B. W., Myers, J., Poston, L., Thilaganathan, B., Staff, A. C., Smith, G. C., Ganzevoort, W., … Thangaratinam, S. (2020). Validation and development of models using clinical, biochemical and ultrasound markers for predicting pre-eclampsia: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England), 24(72), 1–252. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta24720

Baker, P. N., & Johnson, I. R. (1994). The use of the hand-grip test for predicting pregnancy-induced hypertension. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 56(3), 169–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-2243(94)90165-1

Bartsch, E., Medcalf, K. E., Park, A. L., Ray, J. G., & High Risk of Pre-eclampsia Identification Group (2016). Clinical risk factors for pre-eclampsia determined in early pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large cohort studies. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 353, i1753. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i1753

Berks, D., Steegers, E. A. P., Molas, M., & Visser, W. (2009). Resolution of hypertension and proteinuria after preeclampsia. Obstetrics and gynecology, 114(6), 1307–1314. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c14e3e

Braun, T., Brauer, M., Fuchs, I., Czernik, C., Dudenhausen, J. W., Henrich, W., & Sarioglu, N. (2010). Mirror syndrome: a systematic review of fetal associated conditions, maternal presentation and perinatal outcome. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 27(4), 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1159/000305096

Briceño-Pérez, C., Briceño-Sanabria, L., & Vigil-De Gracia, P. (2009). Prediction and prevention of preeclampsia. Hypertension in pregnancy, 28(2), 138–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641950802022384

Brunelli, V. B., & Prefumo, F. (2015). Quality of first trimester risk prediction models for pre-eclampsia: a systematic review. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 122(7), 904–914. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.13334

Conde-Agudelo, A., Villar, J., & Lindheimer, M. (2004). World Health Organization systematic review of screening tests for preeclampsia. Obstetrics and gynecology, 104(6), 1367–1391. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000147599.47713.5d

Cunningham, F. G., & Lindheimer, M. D. (1992). Hypertension in pregnancy. The New England journal of medicine, 326(14), 927–932. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199204023261405

Cunningham G.C., Roberts J.M. & Lindheimer M.D. (2009). The clinical spectrum of preeclampsia. Elsevier. San Diego, CA.

Duckitt, K., & Harrington, D. (2005). Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 330(7491), 565. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38380.674340.E0

Duley L. (2009). The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Seminars in perinatology, 33(3), 130–137. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2009.02.010

Chaemsaithong, P., Pooh, R. K., Zheng, M., Ma, R., Chaiyasit, N., Tokunaka, M., Shaw, S. W., Seshadri, S., Choolani, M., Wataganara, T., Yeo, G. S. H., Wright, A., Leung, W. C., Sekizawa, A., Hu, Y., Naruse, K., Saito, S., Sahota, D., Leung, T. Y., & Poon, L. C. (2019). Prospective evaluation of screening performance of first-trimester prediction models for preterm preeclampsia in an Asian population. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 221(6), 650.e1–650.e16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.041

Chaemsaithong, P., Sahota, D. S., & Poon, L. C. (2022). First trimester preeclampsia screening and prediction. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 226(2S), S1071–S1097.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.07.020

Chaiworapongsa, T., Romero, R., Kim, Y. M., Kim, G. J., Kim, M. R., Espinoza, J., Bujold, E., Gonçalves, L., Gomez, R., Edwin, S., & Mazor, M. (2005). Plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 concentration is elevated prior to the clinical diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, 17(1), 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767050400028816

Chaiworapongsa, T., Romero, R., Tarca, A. L., Kusanovic, J. P., Gotsch, F., Mittal, P., Kim, S. K., Vaisbuch, E., Mazaki-Tovi, S., Erez, O., Dong, Z., Kim, C. J., Yeo, L., & Hassan, S. S. (2010). A decrease in maternal plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-2 precedes the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 202(6), 550.e1–550.e5510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2010.04.002

Chaiworapongsa, T., Chaemsaithong, P., Yeo, L., & Romero, R. (2014). Pre-eclampsia part 1: current understanding of its pathophysiology. Nature reviews. Nephrology, 10(8), 466–480. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2014.102

Farina, A., Rapacchia, G., Freni Sterrantino, A., Pula, G., Morano, D., & Rizzo, N. (2011). Prospective evaluation of ultrasound and biochemical-based multivariable models for the prediction of late pre-eclampsia. Prenatal diagnosis, 31(12), 1147–1152. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.2849

Gant, N. F., Daley, G. L., Chand, S., Whalley, P. J., & MacDonald, P. C. (1973). A study of angiotensin II pressor response throughout primigravid pregnancy. The Journal of clinical investigation, 52(11), 2682–2689. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI107462

Gant, N. F., Chand, S., Worley, R. J., Whalley, P. J., Crosby, U. D., & MacDonald, P. C. (1974). A clinical test useful for predicting the development of acute hypertension in pregnancy. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 120(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(74)90170-7

Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 222. (2020). Obstetrics and gynecology, 135(6), e237–e260. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003891

Giguère, Y., Charland, M., Bujold, E., Bernard, N., Grenier, S., Rousseau, F., Lafond, J., Légaré, F., & Forest, J. C. (2010). Combining biochemical and ultrasonographic markers in predicting preeclampsia: a systematic review. Clinical chemistry, 56(3), 361–375. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2009.134080

Haugen, M., Brantsæter, A. L., Winkvist, A., Lissner, L., Alexander, J., Oftedal, B., Magnus, P., & Meltzer, H. M. (2014). Associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcome and postpartum weight retention: a prospective observational cohort study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 14, 201. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-14-201

Henderson, J. T., Thompson, J. H., Burda, B. U., & Cantor, A. (2017). Preeclampsia Screening: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA, 317(16), 1668–1683. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.18315

Heyborne, K. D., & Chism, D. M. (2000). Reversal of Ballantyne syndrome by selective second-trimester fetal termination. A case report. The Journal of reproductive medicine, 45(4), 360–362.

Hitti, J., Sienas, L., Walker, S., Benedetti, T. J., & Easterling, T. (2018). Contribution of hypertension to severe maternal morbidity. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 219(4), 405.e1–405.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.07.002

Kuklina, E. V., Ayala, C., & Callaghan, W. M. (2009). Hypertensive disorders and severe obstetric morbidity in the United States. Obstetrics and gynecology, 113(6), 1299–1306. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a45b25

Lam, C., Lim, K. H., & Karumanchi, S. A. (2005). Circulating angiogenic factors in the pathogenesis and prediction of preeclampsia. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 46(5), 1077–1085. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000187899.34379.b0

Leslie, K., Thilaganathan, B., & Papageorghiou, A. (2011). Early prediction and prevention of pre-eclampsia. Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 25(3), 343–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2011.01.002

Levine, R. J., Hauth, J. C., Curet, L. B., Sibai, B. M., Catalano, P. M., Morris, C. D., DerSimonian, R., Esterlitz, J. R., Raymond, E. G., Bild, D. E., Clemens, J. D., & Cutler, J. A. (1997). Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. The New England journal of medicine, 337(2), 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199707103370201

Levine, R. J., Thadhani, R., Qian, C., Lam, C., Lim, K. H., Yu, K. F., Blink, A. L., Sachs, B. P., Epstein, F. H., Sibai, B. M., Sukhatme, V. P., & Karumanchi, S. A. (2005). Urinary placental growth factor and risk of preeclampsia. JAMA, 293(1), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.1.77

Levine, R. J., Lam, C., Qian, C., Yu, K. F., Maynard, S. E., Sachs, B. P., Sibai, B. M., Epstein, F. H., Romero, R., Thadhani, R., Karumanchi, S. A., & CPEP Study Group (2006). Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia. The New England journal of medicine, 355(10), 992–1005. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa055352

Lim, S., Li, W., Kemper, J., Nguyen, A., Mol, B. W., & Reddy, M. (2021). Biomarkers and the Prediction of Adverse Outcomes in Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obstetrics and gynecology, 137(1), 72–81. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004149

Lobo, G. A. R., Nowak, P. M., Panigassi, A. P., Lima, A. I. F., Araujo Júnior, E., Nardozza, L. M. M., & Pares, D. B. S. (2019). Validation of Fetal Medicine Foundation algorithm for prediction of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester in an unselected Brazilian population. The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, 32(2), 286–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1378332

Madala, D., Maktabi, M. A., Sabbagh, R., Erfani, H., Moon, A., & Van den Veyver, I. B. (2022). Lower fetal fraction in clinical cell-free DNA screening results is associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Prenatal diagnosis, 42(10), 1253–1261. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.6221

Meertens, L. J. E., Scheepers, H. C. J., van Kuijk, S. M. J., Aardenburg, R., van Dooren, I. M. A., Langenveld, J., van Wijck, A. M., Zwaan, I., Spaanderman, M. E. A., & Smits, L. J. M. (2019). External Validation and Clinical Usefulness of First Trimester Prediction Models for the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Prospective Cohort Study. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 45(6), 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1159/000490385

Myatt, L., Clifton, R. G., Roberts, J. M., Spong, C. Y., Hauth, J. C., Varner, M. W., Wapner, R. J., Thorp, J. M., Jr, Mercer, B. M., Grobman, W. A., Ramin, S. M., Carpenter, M. W., Samuels, P., Sciscione, A., Harper, M., Tolosa, J. E., Saade, G., Sorokin, Y., Anderson, G. D., & Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network (MFMU) (2012). The utility of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in prediction of preeclampsia in a low-risk population. Obstetrics and gynecology, 120(4), 815–822. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826af7fb

Milne, F., Redman, C., Walker, J., Baker, P., Bradley, J., Cooper, C., de Swiet, M., Fletcher, G., Jokinen, M., Murphy, D., Nelson-Piercy, C., Osgood, V., Robson, S., Shennan, A., Tuffnell, A., Twaddle, S., & Waugh, J. (2005). The pre-eclampsia community guideline (PRECOG): how to screen for and detect onset of pre-eclampsia in the community. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 330(7491), 576–580. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7491.576

Mosimann, B., Pfiffner, C., Amylidi-Mohr, S., Risch, L., Surbek, D., & Raio, L. (2017). First trimester combined screening for preeclampsia and small for gestational age - a single centre experience and validation of the FMF screening algorithm. Swiss medical weekly, 147, w14498. https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2017.14498

Mosimann, B., Amylidi-Mohr, S. K., Surbek, D., & Raio, L. (2020). FIRST TRIMESTER SCREENING FOR PREECLAMPSIA - A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Hypertension in pregnancy, 39(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641955.2019.1682009

Moufarrej, M. N., Vorperian, S. K., Wong, R. J., Campos, A. A., Quaintance, C. C., Sit, R. V., Tan, M., Detweiler, A. M., Mekonen, H., Neff, N. F., Baruch-Gravett, C., Litch, J. A., Druzin, M. L., Winn, V. D., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., & Quake, S. R. (2022). Early prediction of preeclampsia in pregnancy with cell-free RNA. Nature, 602(7898), 689–694. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04410-z

Myatt, L., Clifton, R. G., Roberts, J. M., Spong, C. Y., Hauth, J. C., Varner, M. W., Wapner, R. J., Thorp, J. M., Jr, Mercer, B. M., Grobman, W. A., Ramin, S. M., Carpenter, M. W., Samuels, P., Sciscione, A., Harper, M., Tolosa, J. E., Saade, G., Sorokin, Y., Anderson, G. D., & Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network (MFMU) (2012). The utility of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in prediction of preeclampsia in a low-risk population. Obstetrics and gynecology, 120(4), 815–822. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826af7fb

Oliveira, N., Magder, L. S., Blitzer, M. G., & Baschat, A. A. (2014). First-trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia: external validity of algorithms in a prospectively enrolled cohort. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 44(3), 279–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.13435

O'Gorman, N., Wright, D., Poon, L. C., Rolnik, D. L., Syngelaki, A., Wright, A., Akolekar, R., Cicero, S., Janga, D., Jani, J., Molina, F. S., de Paco Matallana, C., Papantoniou, N., Persico, N., Plasencia, W., Singh, M., & Nicolaides, K. H. (2017). Accuracy of competing-risks model in screening for pre-eclampsia by maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 49(6), 751–755. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.17399

Park, F. J., Leung, C. H., Poon, L. C., Williams, P. F., Rothwell, S. J., & Hyett, J. A. (2013). Clinical evaluation of a first trimester algorithm predicting the risk of hypertensive disease of pregnancy. The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology, 53(6), 532–539. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.12126

Peraçoli, J. C., Borges, V. T. M., Ramos, J. G. L., Cavalli, R. C., Costa, S. H. A. M., Oliveira, L. G., Souza, F. L. P., Korkes, H. A., Brum, I. R., Costa, M. L., Corrêa Junior, M. D., Sass, N., Diniz, A. L. D., Prado, C. A. C., & Cunha Filho, E. V. D. (2019). Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia. Pré-eclâmpsia/Eclâmpsia. Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetricia : revista da Federacao Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetricia, 41(5), e1–e2. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702167

Phipps, E. A., Thadhani, R., Benzing, T., & Karumanchi, S. A. (2019). Pre-eclampsia: pathogenesis, novel diagnostics and therapies. Nature reviews. Nephrology, 15(5), 275–289. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0119-6

Podymow, T., & August, P. (2010). Postpartum course of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Hypertension in pregnancy, 29(3), 294–300. https://doi.org/10.3109/10641950902777747

Poon, L. C., Shennan, A., Hyett, J. A., Kapur, A., Hadar, E., Divakar, H., McAuliffe, F., da Silva Costa, F., von Dadelszen, P., McIntyre, H. D., Kihara, A. B., Di Renzo, G. C., Romero, R., D'Alton, M., Berghella, V., Nicolaides, K. H., & Hod, M. (2019). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) initiative on pre-eclampsia: A pragmatic guide for first-trimester screening and prevention. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 145 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12802

Qin, S., Sun, N., Xu, L., Xu, Y., Tang, Q., Tan, L., Chen, A., Zhang, L., & Liu, S. (2022). The Value of Circulating microRNAs for Diagnosis and Prediction of Preeclampsia: a Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 29(11), 3078–3090. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00799-6

Roberts, J. M., & Gammill, H. S. (2005). Preeclampsia: recent insights. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 46(6), 1243–1249. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000188408.49896.c5

Robinson, C. J., & Johnson, D. D. (2007). Soluble endoglin as a second-trimester marker for preeclampsia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 197(2), 174.e1–174.e1745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.03.058

Sibai B. M. (1988). Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 159(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(88)90482-6

Skjaerven, R., Wilcox, A. J., & Lie, R. T. (2002). The interval between pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia. The New England journal of medicine, 346(1), 33–38. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa011379

Tan, M. Y., Syngelaki, A., Poon, L. C., Rolnik, D. L., O'Gorman, N., Delgado, J. L., Akolekar, R., Konstantinidou, L., Tsavdaridou, M., Galeva, S., Ajdacka, U., Molina, F. S., Persico, N., Jani, J. C., Plasencia, W., Greco, E., Papaioannou, G., Wright, A., Wright, D., & Nicolaides, K. H. (2018). Screening for pre-eclampsia by maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52(2), 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.19112

Thangaratinam, S., Ismail, K. M., Sharp, S., Coomarasamy, A., Khan, K. S., & Tests in Prediction of Pre-eclampsia Severity review group (2006). Accuracy of serum uric acid in predicting complications of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 113(4), 369–378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00908.x

Tranquilli, A. L., Brown, M. A., Zeeman, G. G., Dekker, G., & Sibai, B. M. (2013). The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). Pregnancy hypertension, 3(1), 44–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2012.11.001

Urato, A. C., Bond, B., Craigo, S. D., Norwitz, E. R., Paulus, J. K., & Strohsnitter, W. C. (2012). Admission uric acid levels and length of expectant management in preterm preeclampsia. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association, 32(10), 757–762. https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2011.187

US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo, K., Grossman, D. C., Curry, S. J., Barry, M. J., Davidson, K. W., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Jr, Kemper, A. R., Krist, A. H., Kurth, A. E., Landefeld, C. S., Mangione, C. M., Phillips, W. R., Phipps, M. G., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., & Tseng, C. W. (2017). Screening for Preeclampsia: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 317(16), 1661–1667. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.3439

Wallis, A. B., Saftlas, A. F., Hsia, J., & Atrash, H. K. (2008). Secular trends in the rates of preeclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational hypertension, United States, 1987-2004. American journal of hypertension, 21(5), 521–526. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2008.20

Velauthar, L., Plana, M. N., Kalidindi, M., Zamora, J., Thilaganathan, B., Illanes, S. E., Khan, K. S., Aquilina, J., & Thangaratinam, S. (2014). First-trimester uterine artery Doppler and adverse pregnancy outcome: a meta-analysis involving 55,974 women. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 43(5), 500–507. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.13275

Verlohren, S., Brennecke, S. P., Galindo, A., Karumanchi, S. A., Mirkovic, L. B., Schlembach, D., Stepan, H., Vatish, M., Zeisler, H., & Rana, S. (2022). Clinical interpretation and implementation of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the prediction, diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. Pregnancy hypertension, 27, 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2021.12.003

von Dadelszen, P., Payne, B., Li, J., Ansermino, J. M., Broughton Pipkin, F., Côté, A. M., Douglas, M. J., Gruslin, A., Hutcheon, J. A., Joseph, K. S., Kyle, P. M., Lee, T., Loughna, P., Menzies, J. M., Merialdi, M., Millman, A. L., Moore, M. P., Moutquin, J. M., Ouellet, A. B., Smith, G. N., … PIERS Study Group (2011). Prediction of adverse maternal outcomes in pre-eclampsia: development and validation of the fullPIERS model. Lancet (London, England), 377(9761), 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61351-7

Yancey, L. M., Withers, E., Bakes, K., & Abbott, J. (2011). Postpartum preeclampsia: emergency department presentation and management. The Journal of emergency medicine, 40(4), 380–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.02.056

Published

07/01/2023

How to Cite

BOSCO, R. B. .; SCARPIN, D. C. B. . Pre-eclampsia screening in the first trimester . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 12, n. 1, p. e17912139242, 2023. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v12i1.39242. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/39242. Acesso em: 27 jan. 2023.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences