Vitamin D in sports: what has been shown?

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i7.4588

Keywords:

Vitamin D; Physical exercise; Sports performance; Athletes.

Abstract

Introduction: vitamin D deficiency is considered a public health problem with high global prevalence. Many studies have found low levels of this vitamin in athletes. And in the midst of this growing prevalence, the scientific area has shown a greater interest in studying the role of vitamin D in addition to bone tissue, specifically muscle tissue, which expresses receptors for this vitamin. Objective: to seek scientific evidence on the possible effects and benefits of vitamin D in exercise. Methodology: this work is an integrative review of the literature. The search for the articles was carried out in the PubMed database, including original articles of the last 10 years carried out only with athletes. This review consists of 33 original articles. Results: it was observed that the results of the studies regarding sports practice varied widely, there were articles that demonstrated positive and statistically significant results and studies that did not verify any association or improvement of the to post-intervention training or observational analysis of vitamin D supplementation. Conclusion: in fact, vitamin D in sports practice has been widely studied in scientific circles, but you can not to affirm in a consensual way the real effects that their supplementation or maintenance of the adequate levels provide to the athletes, being necessary more studies so that in the future a more consistent vision is possible on the role of vitamin D in the sport performance.

Author Biographies

Luciana Pereira dos Santos, Universidade Estadual do Ceará

Nutrição clínica e esportiva.

Carla Laíne Silva Lima, Centro Universitário Maurício de Nassau

Nutrição

Sandra Machado Lira, Faculdade de Quixeramobim

Nutrição

References

Allison, R. J., Farooq, A., Hamilton, B., Close, G. L., & Wilson, M. G. (2015). No association between vitamin d deficiency and markers of bone health in athletes. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 47, (4), 782-788.

Aydin, C. G., Dinçel, Y. M., Arikan, Y., Taş, S. K., & Deniz, S. (2019). The effects of indoor and outdoor sports participation and seasonal changes on vitamin D levels in athletes. SAGE Open Medicine, 7, 1-6.

Barcal, J. N., Thomas, J. T., Hollis, B. W., Austin, K. J., Alexander, B. M., & Larson-meyer, D. E. (2016). Vitamin D andweight cycling: impact on injury, illness, and inflammation in collegiate wrestlers. Nutrients, 8 (12), 1-15.

Barker, T., Martins, T. B., Hill, H. R., Kjeldsberg, C. R., Dixon, B. M., Schneider, E. D., Henriksen, V. T. & Weaver, L. K. (2014). Vitamin D sufficiency associates with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines after intense exercise in humans. Cytokine, 65, 134-137.

Brännström, A., Yu, J., Jonsson, P., Åkerfeldt, T., Stridsberg, M., & Svensson, M. (2017). Vitamin D in relation to bone health and muscle function in young female soccer players. European Journal of Sport Science, 17 (2), 249–256.

Carswell, A. T., Oliver, S. J., Wentz, L. M., Kashi, D. S., Roberts, R., Tang, J. C. Y., Izard, R. M., Jackson, S., Allan, D., Rhodes, L. E., Fraser, W. D., Greeves, J. P. & Walsh, N. P. (2018). Influence of vitamin d supplementation by sunlight or oral D3 on exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 50, (12), 2555-2564.

Cassity, E. P., Redzic, M., Teager, C. R., & Thomas, D. T. (2016). The effect of body composition and BMI on 25(OH)D response in vitamin D supplemented athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 16 (7), 773-779.

Chaves, D. F. S., Lancha Júnior, A. H., & Pereira-Lancha, L. O. (2012). Vitaminas. In Pereira-Lancha, L. O.; Lancha Júnior, A. H. Nutrição e Metabolismo: aplicados à atividade motora (Ed. 2, pp. 155-194). São Paulo: Atheneu.

Close, G. L., Russell, J., Cobley, J. N., Owens, D. J., Wilson, G., Gregson, W., Fraser, W. D. & Morton, J. P. (2013). Assessment of vitamin D concentration in non-supplemented professional athletes and healthy adults during the winter months in the UK: implications for skeletal muscle function. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31 (4), 344–353.

Dhaliwal, R., & Aloia, J. F. (2017). Effect of vitamin d on falls and physical performance. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 46 (4), 919–933.

Dubnov-Raz, G., Livne, N., Raz, R., Rogel, D., Cohen, A. H., & Constantini, N. W. (2014). Vitamin D concentrations and physical performance in competitive adolescent swimmers. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26 (1), 64-70.

Ferrarini, P., & Macedo, R. C. O. (2015). Vitamina D no esporte e saúde. Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva, 9 (50), 150-163.

Fitzgerald, J. S., Orysiak, J., Wilson, P. B., Mazur-Różycka, J., & Obminski, Z. (2018). Association between vitamin D status and testosterone and cortisol in ice hockey players. Biology of Sport, 35 (3), 207-213.

Fitzgerald, J. S., Peterson, B. J., Warpeha, J. M., Johnson, S. C., & Ingraham, S. J. (2015). Association between vitamin D status and maximal-intensity exercise performance in junior and collegiate hockey players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (9), 2513–2521.

Fitzgerald, J. S., Peterson, B. J., Warpeha, J. M., Wilson, P. B., Rhodes, G. S., Ingraham, S. J. (2014). Vitamin D status and Vo2 peak during a skate treadmill graded exercise test in competitive ice hockey players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28 (11), 3200–3205.

García, R. B., & Guisado, F. A. R. (2011). Low levels of vitamin in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 26 (5), 945-951.

Geiker, N. R. W., Larsen, R., Hansen, M., Jørgensen, N. R., Jakobsen, J., Hansen, B. S., Kristensen, M., & Bügel, S. (2017). Vitamin D status and muscle function among adolescent and young swimmers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27 (5), 399-407.

Hamilton, B., Whiteley, R., Farooq, A., & Chalabi, H. (2014). Vitamin D concentration in 342 professional football players andassociation with lower limb isokinetic function. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17 (1), 139-143.

Haslacher, H., Nistler, S., Batmyagmar, D., Ponocny-Seliger, E., Perkmann, T., Scherzer, T. M., Kundi, M., Endler, G., Ratzinger, F., Pilger, A., Wagner, O. F., & Winker, R. (2016). Low vitamin D levels do not predict hyperglycemia in elderly endurance athletes (but in controls). Plos One, 11 (6), 1-11.

He, C. S., Fraser, W. D., & Gleeson, M. (2014). Influence of vitamin D metabolites on plasma cytokine concentrations in endurance sport athletes and on multiantigen stimulated cytokine production by whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. International Scholarly Research Notices Nutrition, 1-10.

He, C-S., Fraser, W. D., Tang, J., Brown, K., Renwick, S., Rudland-Thomas, J., Teah, J., Tanqueray, E., & Gleeson, M. (2015). The effect of 14 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation on antimicrobial peptides and proteins in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34 (1), 67-74.

Heffler, E., Bonini, M., Brussino, L., Solidoro, P., Guida, G., Boita, M., Nicolosi, G., & Bucca, C. (2016). Vitamin D deficiency and exercise-induced laryngospasm in young competitive rowers. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 41 (7), 735–740.

Hildebrand, R. A., Miller, B., Warren, A., Hildebrand, D., & Smith, B. J. (2016). Compromised vitamin D status negatively affects muscular strength and power of collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise, 26 (6), 558-564.

Jastrzębska, M., Kaczmarczyk, M., & Jastrzębski, Z. (2016). The effect of vitamin d supplementation on training adaptation in well trained soccer players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30 (9), 2648-2655.

Jastrzebska, M., Kaczmarczyk, M., Suárez, A. D., Sánchez, G. F. L., Jastrzebska, J., Radziminski, L., & Jastrzebski, Z. (2017). Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 63 (6), 357-364.

Jastrzebski, Z., Kortas, J., Kaczor, K., & Antosiewicz, J. (2016). Vitamin D supplementation causes a decrease in blood cholesterol in professional rowers. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 62 (2), 88-92.

Jung, H. C., Seo, M. W., Lee, S., Jung, S. W., & Song, J. K. (2018). Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves some, but not all aspects of physical performance during winter training in taekwondo athletes. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 28 (6), 635-643.

Ksiazek, A., Dziubek, W., Pietraszewska, J., & Slowinska-Lisowska, M. (2018). Relationship between 25(OH)D levels and athletic performance in elite polish judoists. Biology of Sport, 35 (2), 191-196.

Koundourakis, N. E., Androulakis, N. E., Malliaraki, N., & Margioris, A. N. (2014). Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players. Plos One, 9 (7), 1-6.

Koundourakis, N. E., Avgoustinaki, P. D., Malliaraki, N., & Margioris, A. N. (2016). Muscular effects of vitamin D in young athletes and non-athletes and in the elderly. Hormones, 15 (4), 471-488.

Lanteri, P., Lombardi, G., Colombini, A., & Banfi, G. (2013). Vitamin D in exercise: Physiologic and analytical concerns. Clinica Chimica Acta, 16 (415), 45-53.

Maeda, S. S., Borba, V. Z. C., Camargo, M. B. R., Silva, D. M. W., Borges, J. L. C., Bandeiras, F., & Lazaretti-Castro, M. (2014). Recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (SBEM) para o diagnóstico e tratamento da hipovitaminose D. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 58 (5), 411-433.

Nieman, D. C., Gillitt, N. D., Shanely, R. A., Dew, D., Meaney, M. P., & Luo, B. (2014). Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in nascar pit crew athletes. Nutrients, 6 (1), 63-75.

Orysiak, J., Mazur-Rozycka, J., Fitzgerald, J., Starczewski, M., Malczewska-Lenczowska, J., & Busko, K. (2018). Vitamin D status and its relation to exercise performance and iron status in young ice hockey players. Plos One, 13 (4), 1-12.

Owens, D. J., Allison, R., & Close, G. L. (2018). Vitamin D and the athlete: current perspectives and new challenges. Sports Medicine, 48 (1), 3-16.

Owens, D. J., Fraser, W. D., & Close, G. L. (2014). Vitamin D and the athlete: emerging insights. European Journal of Sport Science, 15 (1), 73-84.

Owens, D. J., Sharples, A. P., Polydorou, I., Alwan, N., Donovan, T., Tang, J., Fraser, W. D., Cooper, R. G., Morton, J. P., Stewart, C., & Close, G. L. (2015). A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 309 (12), 1019–1031.

Owens, D. J., Tang, J. C. Y., Bradley, W. J., Sparks, A. S., Fraser, W. D., Morton, J. P., & Close, G. L. (2017). Efficacy of high-dose vitamin D supplements for elite athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 49 (2), 349-356.

Palacios, C., & Gonzalez, L. (2014). Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 144, 138-145.

Quadros, K. R. S., & Oliveira, R. B. (2016). Reposição de vitamina D nativa: indicação à luz das evidências científicas atuais. Revista da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Sorocaba,18 (2), 79-86.

Shanely, R. A., Nieman, D. C., Knab, A. M., Gillitt, N. D., Meaney, M. P., Jin, F., Sha, W., & Cialdella-Kam, L. (2014). Influence of vitamin D mushroom powder supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage in vitamin D insufficient high school athletes. Journal of sports sciences, 32 (7), 670-679.

Shuler, F. D., Wingate, M. K., Moore, G. H., & Giangarra, C. (2012). Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D. Sports Health, 4 (6), 496-501.

Skalska, M., Nikolaidis, P. T., Knechtle, B., Rosemann, T. J., Radziminski, L., Jastrzebska, J., Kaczmarczyk, M., Mysliwiec, A., Dragos, P., López-Sánchez, G. F., & Jastrzebski, Z. (2019). Vitamin D supplementation and physical activity of young soccer players during high-intensity training. Nutrients, 11 (2), 1-9.

Silk, L. N., Greene, D. A., Baker, M. K., & Jander, C. B. (2016). The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone health of male Jockeys. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 20 (3), 225-229.

Todd, J. J., Mcsorley, E. M., Pourshahidi, L. K., Madigan, S. M., Laird, E., Healy, M., & Magee, P. J. (2016). Vitamin D3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition, 56 (4), 1577-1587.

Umarov, J., Kerimov, F., Toychiev, A., Davis, N., & Osipova, S. (2019). Association the 25(oh) vitamin D status with upper respiratory tract infections morbidity in water sports elite athletes. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59 (12), 2058-2065.

Varsavsky, M., Moreno, P. R., Fernández, A. B., Fernández, I. L., Gómez, J. M. Q., Rubio, V. A., Martín, A. G., Berdonces, M. C., Cortés, S. N., Muñoz, M. R., Garcia, R. R., Gimeno, E. J., & Torres, M. M. (2017). Recomendaciones de vitamina D para la población general. Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición, 64 (1), 1-30.

Vásquez-Awad, D., Cano-Gutiérrez, C. A., Gómez-Ortiz, A., González, M. A., Guzmán-Moreno, R., Martínez-Reyes, J. I., Rosero-Olarte, O., Rueda-Beltz, C., & Acosta-Reyes, J. L. (2017). Vitamina D. Consenso colombiano de expertos. Revista Medicina, 39 (2), 140-157.

Wyon, M. A., Koutedakis, Y., Roger Wolman, R., Nevill, A. M., & Allen, N. (2014). The influence of winter vitamin D supplementation on muscle function and injury occurrence in elite ballet dancers: a controlled study. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 17 (1), 8-12.

Wyon, M. A., Wolman, R., Kolokythas, N., Sheriff, K., Galloway, S., & Mattiussi, A. (2018). The effect of vitamin d supplementation in elite adolescent dancers on muscle function and injury incidence: a randomised double-blind study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 15 (1), 1-15.

Wyon, M. A., Wolman, R., Nevill, A. M., Cloak, R., Metsios, G. S., Gould, D., Ingham, A., & Koutedakis, Y. (2015). Acute effects of vitamin d3 supplementation on muscle strength in judoka athletes: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 26 (4), 279-84.

Zeitler, C., Fritz, R., Smekal, G., & Ekmekcioglu, C. (2018). Association between the 25-hydroxyvitamin d status and physical performance in healthy recreational athletes. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15 (12), 1-14.

Published

30/05/2020

How to Cite

SANTOS, L. P. dos; LIMA, C. L. S.; LIRA, S. M. Vitamin D in sports: what has been shown?. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 7, p. e677974588, 2020. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v9i7.4588. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/4588. Acesso em: 23 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Review Article