Apparent digestibility in marine mutton snapper juveniles and digestive activity of enzymes




Captive feeding; Carnivorous species; Digestibility test; Enzymes activity; Lutjanus analis; Protein sources; Nutritive value.


The marine species of snapper, Lutjanus analis, has carnivorous eating habits and with potential for cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficient (CDA) of mutton snapper, and to evaluate its enzymatic profile after feeding with vegetable and animal protein sources. CDA was the indirect method of fecal collection, using chromic oxide as a biological marker. Eight hundred fish, with an average weight of 28.0 ± 2.58 g, were acclimated for 15 days in a net tank (2 m³), ​​and installed in the same collection environment. The acclimatization of 54 fish was carried out in digestibility aquariums (200 L), and the collection of feces started. For mutton snapper, the supply of octopus flour improves (P <0.05) the digestibility of dry matter (CDAMS, 67.17%), crude protein (CDAPB, 90.9%) and crude energy (CDAGE, 78, 8%). Regarding the digestibility of lipids (CDAL), anchovy flour has more (P <0.05) digestible lipids (78.1%), followed by the tested ingredients, fish meal (72.4%) and flour octopus (69.7%). Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy were low (P <0.05) for shrimp meal and soybean meal. Mutton snapper fed with octopus flour has higher digestibility coefficients, suggesting this ingredient for species. All diets caused low amylase activity in juveniles, and lipase and alkaline protease activities were higher with the inclusion of broadband anchovy flour and octopus flour, respectively.


Aguilar-Betancourt, C. M., González-Sansón, G., Flores-Ortega, J. R., Kosonoy-Aceves, D., Lucano-Ramírez, G., Ruiz-Ramírez, C. S., Padilla-Gutierrez, S. C., & Curry, R. A. (2017). Comparative analysis of diet composition and its relation to morphological characteristics in juvenile fish of three Lutjanid species in a Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon. Neotropical Ichthyology, 15(4), 1 -12

AOAC (2012). Official methods of analysis. (3th ed.), Arlington, VA, USA.

Barroso, M. V., Castro, M. J., Aoki, M., & Helmer, J. L. (2002). Nutritive value for some ingredients for snook (Centropomus parallelus). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 31(6), 2157- 2164.

Bernfeld, P. (1955). Amylases α e β: colorimetric assay method. In: Colowich S. P. & Kaplan, N. O. Methods in Enzymology. Eds. Academic Press, NY, USA.

Braga, L. G. T., Borghesi, R., & Cyrino, J. E. C. (2008). Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 43(2), 271-274. http://

Bureau, D. P., Harris, A. M., & Cho, C. Y. (1999). Apparent digestibility of rendered animal protein ingredients for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 180, 345-358. 10.1016/s0044-8486(99)00210-0

Buzzolo, H., Nascimento, T. M. T., Sandre, L. C. G., Neira, L. M., Jomori, R. K., & Carneiro D. J. (2018). Apparent digestibility coefficients of feedstuff used in tambaqui diets. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 44(2), 547-555.

Cahu, C. L., Gisbert, E., Villeneuve, L. A. N., Morais, S., Hamza, N., Wold, P. A., & Infante, J. L. Z. (2009). Influence of dietary phospholipids on early ontogenesis of fish. Aquaculture Research, 40, 989 – 999.

Candiotto, F. B., Freitas-Junior, A. C. V., Neri, R. C. A., Bezerra, R. S., Rodrigues, R. V., Sampaio, L. A. & Tesser, M. B. (2018). Characterization of digestive enzymes from captive Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 78(2), 281 – 288.

Chen, X., Qiang-Qiang, L., Xie, J. J., Zhang, Y. Q., & Niu J. (2016). Nutritional value and apparent digestibility for dry matter, protein, energy and essential amino acid in ten selected feedstuffs for juvenile Penaeus monodon. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, 7-10. 10.4172/2155-9546.1000450

Cipriano, F. S., Lima, K. S., Souza, R. H. B., Tonini, W. C. T., Passinato, E. B., & Braga, L. G. T. 2016. Digestibility of animal and vegetable protein ingredients by pirarucus juveniles, Arapaima gigas. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 45(10), 581-586.

Davies, S. J., Gouveia, A., Laporte, J., Woodgate, S. L. & Nates, S. (2009). Nutrient digestibility profile of premium (category III grade) animal protein by-products for temperate marine fish species (European sea bass, gilthead sea bream and turbot). Aquaculture Research, 40(15), 1759-1769.

Duarte, L. O., & García, C. B..(1999). Diet of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Cuvier) from the Gulf of Salamanca, Colombia, Caribbean Sea. Bulletin Marine Science, 65(2), 453 – 465.

Egerton, S., Culloty, S., Whooley, J., Stanton, C., & Ross, P. (2018). The gut microbiota of marine fish. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9(873), 1 – 17. 9/fmicb.2018.00873

Freitas, L. E. L., Nunes, A. J. P., & do Carmo Sá, M. V. (2011). Growth and feeding responses of the mutton snapper, Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828), fed on diets with soy protein concentrate in replacement of Anchovy fish meal. Aquaculture Research, 42, 866-877.

Gawlicka, A., Parent, B., Horn, H. M., Ross, N., Opstad, I., & Torrissen, J. (2000). Activity of digestive enzymes in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): indication of readiness for first feeding. Aquaculture, 184, 303-314.

Gaylord, T. G., & Gatlin III, D. M. (1996). Determination of digestibility coefficients of various feedstuffs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 139, 303–314.

Gioda, C. R., Pretto, A., Freitas, C. S., Leitemperger, J., Loro, V. L., Gonçalves, E. G., & Carneiro, D. J. (2003). Coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína e energia de alguns ingredientes utilizados em dietas para o pintado (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 32(4), 779-786.

Goulart, F. R., Speroni, C. S., Lovatto, N. M., Loureiro, B. B., Corrêia, V., Radünz Neto, J., & Silva, L. P. (2013). Atividade de enzimas digestivas e parâmetros de crescimento de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) alimentados com farelo de linhaça in natura e demucilada. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 34(6), 3069-3080. 10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n6p3069

Hani, Y. M. I., Marchand, A.; Turies, C., Kerambrun, E., Palluel, O., Bado-Nilles, A., Beaudouin, R., Porcher, J.M., Geffard, A. & Dedourge-Geffard, O. (2018). Digestive enzymes and gut morphometric parameters of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): Influence of body size and temperature. Plos One, 13(4), 1 – 21.

Hidalgo, M. C., Urea, E., & Sanz, A. (1999). Comparative study of digestive enzymes in fish with different nutritional habits. Proteolytic and amylase activities. Aquaculture, 170, 267-283. 10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00413-X

Khan, N., Qureshi, N. A., Nasir, M., Vanderberg, G. W., Mughal, M. S., Magbool, A., Jabbar, M. A., & Zikria, N. (2012). Effect of artificial feed on sensory attributes of flesh of Indian major carps (Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala) fed in monoculture and polyculture systems. Pakistan Veterinarian Journal, 32, 349-353.

Kitajima, R. E., & Fracalossi, D. M. (2010). Validation of methodology for measuring nutrient digestibility and evaluation of commercial feed for channel catfish. Scientia Agricola, 67, 611-615.

Laining, A., Rachmansya, H., Ahmada, T., & Williams, K. (2003). Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis). Aquaculture, 218, 529-538.

Lamarre, S., Le François, N., Lemieux, H., Falk-Petersen, I. B., & Blier, P. (2007). The digestive and metabolic enzyme activity profiles of a nonmetamorphic marine fish species: Effects of feed type and feeding level. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64, 849-856. 10.1139/F07-054.

Lazzari, R., Radünz Neto, J., Pedron, F. A., Loro, V. L., Pretto, A., & Gioda, C. R. (2010). Protein sources and digestive enzyme activities in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Scientia Agricola, 67(3), 259-266.

Lin, H., Liu, Y., Tian, L., Wang, J., Zheng, W., Huang, J., & Chen, P. (2004). Apparent digestibility coefficient of various feed ingredients for grouper Epinephelus coioides. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 35, 134-142.

Magalhães Jr., F. O. R., Souza, H. B., Passinato, E. B., Cipriano, F. S., Lima, K. S., Tonini, W. C. T., & Braga, L. G. T. (2016). Apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of conventional ingredients for the silver mojarra, Diapterus rhombeus. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 37(3), 1655-1666. 10.5433/1679-0359.2016v37n3p1655

Maynard, L. A., & Loosli, J. K. (2000). Animal Nutrition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Book Co.

Mcgoogan, B. B., & Reigh, R. C. (1996). Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets. Aquaculture, 141, 233-244.

Médale, F., et al. (1998). Voluntary feed intake, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed increasing dietary levels of soy protein concentrate. Aquatic Living Resources, 11(4), 239-246.

Melo, J. F.B., Lundstedt, Metón, I., Baanante, I. V., & Moraesm G. (2006). Effects of dietary levels of protein on nitrogenous metabolism of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 145, 181 – 187. i:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.06.007

Melo, J. F. B., Lundstedt, L. M., Moraes, G., & Inoue, L. A. K. A. (2012). Effect of different concentrations of protein on the digestive system of juvenile silver catfish. Arquivos Brasileiros de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 64(2), 450-457.

Moghaddam, H. N., Mesgaran, M. D., Najafabadi, H. J., & Najafabadi, R. J. (2007). Determination of chemical composition, mineral contents and protein quality of Iranian Kilka fish meal. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6, 354-361. 10.3923/ijps.2007.354.361

Mohanta, K. N., Subramanian, S., & Korikanthimath, V. S. (2013). Evaluation of different animal protein sources in formulating the diets for blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 4(2), 1-7. 10.4172/2155-9546.1000164

Montoya-Mejía, M., Garcia-Ulloa, M., Hernandez-Llamas, A., Nolasco-Soria, H., & Rodriguez-González, H. (2017). Digestibility, growth, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus fed isocaloric diets containing animal and plant byproducts. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 46(12), 873 – 882.

Moraes, G., & Bidinotto, P. M. (2004). Digestive proteases of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, fed on distinct protein-starch diets. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 15(3-4), 197-207.

Morillo-Velarde, P. S., Valverde, J. C., & Garcia-Garcia, B. (2015). Utilization of diets with fish oil content in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797) and resulting changes in its biochemical composition. Aquaculture Research, 46, 2871-2884.

NRC. 2011. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Oliveira, B. L., Souza, R. M., Silva Filho, J. P., Gomes, L. C., & Fernandes, L. F. L. (2018). Hematological and biochemical characteristics during the transport of dog snapper Lutjanus jocu (Periciformes: Lujanidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 16(1), 1 – 8.

Oliveira Filho, P. R., & Fracalossi, D. M. (2006). Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes para juvenis de jundiá. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 35(4), 1581-1587.

Oujifard, A., Seyfabadi, J., & Rezaei, M. (2012). Growth and apparent digestibility of nutrient, fatty acids and amino acids in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed diets with rice protein concentrate as total and partial replacement of fish meal. Aquaculture, 5257(1), 9030 – 9041. 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.12.038

Park, J. T., & Johnson, M. J. (1949). Submicro determination of glucose. Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 249, 149-151.

Pereira, A. S., et al (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa cientifica. [e-Book]. Santa Maria City. UAB / NTE / UFSM Editors. Recuperado de /1/15824/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1.

Portz, L., & Cyrino, J. E. P. (2004). Digestibility of nutrients and aminoacids of different protein sources in practical diets by largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepéde, 1802). Aquaculture Research, 35, 312-320.

Ribeiro, F. B., Lanna, E. A. T., Bomfim, M. A. D., Donzele, J.L., Quadros, M., & Cunha, P. S. L. (2011). True and apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids of feed in Nile tilapia. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(5), 939 – 946.

Sallum, W. B., Bertechini, A. G., Cantelmo, A. O., Pezzato, L. E., & Logato, P. R. V. (2002). Coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo de ingredientes de ração para o Matrinchã (Brycon cephalus, Günther, 1869) (Teleostei, Characidae). Ciência Agrotecnica, 26(1), 174-181.

Sanches, E. G., Azevedo, V. G., & Costa, M. R. (2007). Criação da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) (Teleostei, Serranidae) alimentada com rejeito de pesca e ração úmida em tanques-rede. Atlântica, 29(1), 121-126.

Shahidi, F., Arachchi, J. K. V., & Jeon, Y. J. (1999). Food application of chitin and chitosans. Trends of Food Science and Technology, 10, 37-51.

Silva, T. S. C., Moro, G. V., Silva, T. B. A., Dairiki, J. K., & Cyrino, J. E. P. 2012. Digestibility of feed ingredients for the striped surubim Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(4), 1-8. 10.1111/anu.12000

Sullivan, J. A., & Reigh, R. C. (1995). Apparent digestibility of selected feedstuffs in diets for hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis femea X Morone chrysops). Aquaculture, 138(1-4), 313-332.

Teixeira, E. A., Silaba, E. O. S., Euler, A. C. C., Faria, P. M. C., Crepaldi, D. V., & Ribeiro, L. P. (2010). Apparent digestibility coefficients of different energetic ingredients for surubim juveniles. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39, 1180 – 1185. 10.1590/S1516-35982010000600003

Thompson, K. R., Rawles, S. D., Metts, L. S., Smith, R., Wimsatt, A., Gannam, A. L., Twibell, R. G., Johnson, R., Brady, Y. J., & Webster, C. D. (2008). Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid and organic matter of two fish meals, two poultry by-products meals, soybean meal, and distiller´s dried grains with soluble in pratical diets for sunshine bass, Morine chrysops x M. saxatilis. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 39, 352 – 363. 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2008.00174.x

Tibbetts, S. M., Milley, J. E., & Lall, S. P. (2006). Apparent protein and energy digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients by Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linneaeus, 1758). Aquaculture, 261, 1314 – 1327. 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.08.052

Valverde, J. C., Martínez-Llorens, S., Tomás-Vidal, A., & Garcia, B. G. (2013). Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods. Aquaculture International, 21(2), 413 – 433.

Walter, H. E. (1984). Proteinases: Methods with hemoglobin, casein and azocoll as substrates. In: Bergmeyer, H.U.(Ed.). Methods of Enzymatic Analysis Verlag Chemie, 5, 270- 277.

Wu, Z. Y., Liu, Y. J., Tian, K. S., Mai, L. X., & Yang, H. J. (2006). Apparent digestibility coefficient of selected feed ingredients for Yellowfin Seabream, Sparus latus. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 37, 237-245.

Zhou, Q. C., Tan, B. P., Mai, K. S., & Liub, Y. J. (2004). Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for juvenile cobia, Rachycention canadum. Aquaculture, 241, 441- 451.

Zhou, P., Wang, M., Xie, F., Deng, D. F., & Zhou, Q. (2016). Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth performance, digestive enzyme and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Aquaculture, 452, 45–51. 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.10.010.




How to Cite

Leal, L. L. ., Ramos, A. P. de S. ., Santos, M. J. M. D. ., Magalhães Júnior, F. O. de ., Melo, J. F. B. ., Schorer, M., & Braga, L. G. T. (2020). Apparent digestibility in marine mutton snapper juveniles and digestive activity of enzymes. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e586997555.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences